basic christian doctrine i

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*Class Code TH307
*Basic Bible Doctrines
*Syllabus Fall 2013
Instructor: Pastor David Cuff
Generation Bible College
1 N. Calle Cesar Chavez Suite #21 Santa Barbara CA 93103
T 805-730-1400 -F 805-730-1403 http://generationbiblecollege.com/
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Generation Bible College
TH307 – Basic Christian Doctrine
Syllabus Fall 2013
Instructor
Basic Christian Doctrine
Pastor David Cuff
(818) 667-3512 - [email protected]
Time and Location
Required Texts
Basic Theology: by Charles Ryrie
ISBN:0-89693-814-X
Recommended Texts:
Lectures in Systemactic Theology By Henry C. Thiessen
ISBN:0-8028-3529-5
Course Description:
The purpose of this class is to give the student an introduction to and appreciation
for the basic doctrines of the Bible. In sixteen weeks we will not be able to give
all the details nor various views of each doctrine that will be discussed. What we
will do however, is give a general introduction to those beliefs contained in
Biblical Christianity and provide the student the methodology to determine sound
biblical interpretation. It is hoped that you will understand more of the Bible and
Christian teaching by the end of the quarter and that your studies will enrich your
walk with Jesus Christ.
The first quarter of Christian Doctrine will deal with the following topics: The
Bible, God, Man, and Sin. The second quarter will deal with Christ, Salvation,
the Church, and the End Times.
Course Goal:
Some students are taking this class for credit toward an Associate Degree of
Biblical Studies. Others are here for a Certificate of Ministry or personal
enrichment. The lectures will be geared for all students. The difference will be
in the amount of work required of the three groups of students.
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Personal Enrichment students are not required to do any outside assignments,
although it is recommended.
Those students desiring a Grade will be required to (1) have regular attendance,
(2) do the required outside readings, and (3) answer the study questions prepared
from the text. There will be exams. They are designed to test your knowledge of
basic ideas presented in the lecture and lecture notes.
Course Requirements:
Each topic covered in the class has a set of study questions, which follow the
text. Those seeking a Grade are required to answer the questions and turn them
in. Personal Enrichment students are not required to do the study questions but
are encouraged to do so. The questions in the text are simply a tool to review the
material discussed in class. They can be answered easily with little problem.
Readings and assignments are expected to be done the week that they are due. If
you will be unable to meet the due date let me know the week before it is due.
The text for this course is Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to
Understanding Biblical Truth by Charles Ryrie. All required reading will be
from this book which is very readable and will stimulate you to further studies.
There are a number of good theological works that can be used for further study.
A bibliography is supplied at the end of the syllabus. Feel free to consult them as
they can only enrich your overall comprehension of the material covered in class.
Basis for the Grade
Students will be graded on attendance, exams, written assignments (including
essays and evaluations of required reading), and participation in class
discussions.
Attendance & Grading Policy
CCBC requires 100 percent attendance for all classes taken by students. All
absences will be handled by the Registrar’s Office and NOT the teacher.
Whenever an absence occurs (for whatever reason) the student must make up the
class. For all absences, students need to fill out the absence authorization form
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available in the Front Office. This form completed, along with the one-page
summary, is to be turned in to the absence authorization box in the Front Office.
In addition, any homework that was due the day of absence should be included as
well. This must be completed and submitted within two weeks of the absence.
All Absences will incur a penalty.
1. If the class is made-up by MP3 available in the library, the absence
penalty is a one increment grade deduction. (i.e. A to A-, A- to B+, etc.)
2. If the class is not made up, the penalty is a two increment deduction. (i.e. A
to B+, B to C+, etc.)
In the event of excessive absences due to illness and/or family emergencies, the
student may need to withdraw from school and return the following semester
when his or her health improves.
Tardies
For every two tardies there will be a one increment grade deduction.
Grading
This course is graded on a letter grade basis, with the Instructor responsible for
assigning a grade. The grade will be based on the four assignments: Textbook
reading summaries, Mid-Term Exam, Research paper, and the Final Exam. Out
of 100 possible points, the final grade will be based on the number of
accumulated points. The following grading scale will be used:
A
AB+
B
C+
C
CD+
D
DF
95-100
90-94
87-89
83-86
77-79
73-76
70-72
67-69
63-66
60-62
59 and below
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Homework Schedule
Reading Assignment
Topic
Reading Assignment
Study Guide Questions
Bible
Pgs. 9-23; 71-134 (76 pgs.)
Pgs. 119-121
God
Pgs. 27-68 (41 pgs.)
Pgs. 121-123
Angels
Pgs. 137-153; 157-192 (51 pgs.) Pgs. 123-125
Man
Pgs. 195-236 (41 pgs.)
Pgs. 125-126
Sin
Pgs. 239-269 (30 pgs.)
Pgs. 126-128
Christology
Pgs. 273-313 (40 pgs.)
Pgs. 128-130
Soteriology
Pgs. 319-387 (68 pgs.)
Pgs. 130-133
Pneumatology Pgs. 395-444 (49 pgs.)
Pgs. Handout TBD
Ecclesiology
Pgs. 455-502 (47 pgs.)
Pgs. 133
Eschatology
Pgs. 509-603 (94 pgs.)
Pgs. 133
Introduction to the study of Christian Doctrine
I. What is Christian Doctrine?
“Theology is the discovery, systematizing, and presentation of the truths
about God.” --Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology, page 15
“A conclusive summary statement inductively drawn from all biblical
evidence about a given subject of divine revelation.”
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II. Why Study Christian Doctrine?
Belief of basic Bible doctrine is Essential for salvation
Scriptural Evidence:
2 Timothy 3:16-17, Acts 17:11, 2 Timothy 2:15, John 5:39, Matthew 22:37
Romans 6:17 (cf. v. 19,22; Titus 2:1,10), Matthew 28:20; 2 Timothy 4:2; 1
Timothy 5:17, 1 Timothy 1:18-20; 1 Timothy 4:1; 6:3, Acts 17:22-31, 1 Timothy
4:12-16
III. Who Should Study Christian Doctrine?
1.
Those interested in Salvation
2.
Those who desire to grow in the Lord
3.
Those who want to teach
4.
Everybody
-- 1 John 5:13
-- 1 Peter 2:2
-- 2 Tim. 2:15
-- Acts 17:11
IV. How do we study Christian Doctrine?
1.
Primary Source- The Bible
2.
Secondary Sources- Commentaries, Church Fathers, Classes, Historical
Theology
3.
Interpretive Principles- The Literal, Grammatical, Historical Method
V. What are the Types of Doctrinal Studies?
1.
Biblical Theology- Old & New Testament
2.
Historical Theology- How doctrine developed through church history
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3.
Dogmatic Theology- Articles of Faith of certain churches
4.
Systematic Theology- Organized Theology
VI. Major Divisions of Systematic Theology
Bibliology
The study of The Bible
Theology Proper
The study of The Nature of God
Angelology
The study of Angels
Satanology / Demonology
The study of Satan / Demons
Anthropology
The study of Man
Hamartiology
The study of Sin
Christology
The study of Christ
Soteriology
The study of Salvation
Ecclesiology
The study of The Church
Eschatology
The study of Last Things
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BIBLIOLOGY:
“The Doctrine of the Bible”
"The Bible has been read by more people and published in more languages than
any other book. There have been more copies produced of its entirety and more
portions and selections than any other book in history. Some will argue that in a
designated month or year more of a certain book was sold. However, overall
there is absolutely no book that reaches or even begins to compare to the
circulation of the Scriptures."
-- Evidence That Demands a Verdict
by Josh McDowell, Here's Life publishers
I. Authority
The Problem:
How do we decide what is the correct Christian teaching?
What do we appeal to when we have a conflict in teachings?
Definition of Authority:
"The Power or right to require Obedience ."
Sources of Authority:
1. The Bible
2. The Church
3. Tradition
4. Personal Experience
2 Peter 1:16-21 refers to the Scriptures, as compared to human experience, as
“which is more sure than what we heard.” Here Peter raises the Word of God
above any human experience.
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The Problem with Scripture and Theories
1.
The Mormons:
“The Bible is accurate as long as it has been translated correctly.”
2.
The Jehovah Witnesses:
". . . Furthermore, not only do we find that people cannot see the divine plan in
studying the Bible by itself, but we see, also, that if anyone lays the "Scripture
Studies" aside, even after he has used them, after he has become familiar with
them, after he has read them for ten years -- if he then lays them aside and
ignores them and goes to the Bible alone, though he has understood his Bible
for ten years, our experience is that within two years he goes into darkness.
On the other hand, if he had merely read the "Scripture Studies" with their
references and had not read a page of the Bible as such, he would be in the
light at the end of two years, because he would have the light of the Scriptures."
Charles Taze Russell, The Watchtower, p. 298, Sept. 15, 1910.
3. The Roman Catholic Church – Scripture and Tradition
While not in the same category as the Jehovah Witnesses or the LDS, the RCC
had historically placed tradition on the same level as scripture, leading to various
doctrinal inconsistencies. They use Scriptures such as 2 Thessalonians 2:15 and 1
Corinthians 11:2 to support this doctrine. However:
By definition, you cannot have two ultimate authorities, lest one
will always be subject to the other! Mark 7:1-23
II. Revelation
A. What is meant by: “Revelation?”
"The act of God whereby He reveals to man that which would otherwise be
unknown ."
B. The Significance of Revelation:
Christianity is a religion of revelation, a faith based on the claim that God has
come to us and made Himself known to us. We need revelation because:
1.
Since we are God's creation
Himself to us.
, in order to know Him, He must reveal
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2.
3.
We are dead to God, morally and spiritually separated from God going our
own way (Rom. 3:11).
The natural man is not able to understand the things of the Spirit (1
Corinthians 2:14).
C. Revelation from God is Mandatory:
1.
God is unknowable apart from revelation. The following Scriptures show
that God is impossible to know apart from Christ:
John 1:14-18, John 12:45, John 14:7, Colossians 1:15, 1 Timothy 1:17,
1Timothy 6:16, Hebrews 1:3, Revelation 1:1
2. Man is not able to understand God apart from a supernatural revelation. Only
God can reveal God!
Types of Revelation:
1. General Revelation.
1. Definition:
God's revelation of Himself observable apart from the Bible and through
creation."
2. Means of General Revelation:
1. Ps. 19:1-4 The Heavens
2. Romans 1:18-21 Creation
3. Romans 2:14-15 Conscience
4. Matthew 5:45, Acts 14:15-17 Through His Provision
3. The Purpose:
As seen in Acts 17:27, the purpose is so that “man might seek after and grope
after the Lord.”
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Romans 1:18
A. Suppress the Truth:
1. In Greek the word is a present active participle which indicates effort is being
exerted to accomplish their task.
2. Expanded translation: “men who are constantly attempting to suppress the
truth.”
3. John 3:19-20 also gives us the answer.
How is God revealing Himself? The next two verses describe how this is done:
Verses 19-20
A. General Revelation
1. God has made Himself known in creation (1:19) (See also Ps 8, Ps 19:1-6).
2. Divine Nature: God has revealed Himself as wise, eternal and powerful (Rom
1:20).
3. God has revealed Himself as a moral God in giving man a conscience (Rom
2:14-15).
4. God has revealed Himself as benevolent through His provisions (Acts 14:17).
5. Acts 17:22-34 (esp. 24-28a): His control over the nations thus causing them to
seek Him.
6. Man is made in the image and likeness of God.
7. The Holy Spirit convicts the world of sin, of righteousness and of judgment
(John 16:5-11).
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Limitations of General Revelation:
Unable to give man a personal, saving knowledge of Himself
.
Man suppresses and perverts the Truth , worshiping the creation.
2. Special Revelation
Definition:
Special revelation is the act whereby God makes more precise truths known
about Himself to specific individuals. This has taken place in Visions, Dreams,
Theophanies, The Lot, His Angels and through the Urim and the Thummim.
But the main two ways God has revealed Himself is through The Bible , and
through Jesus Christ . John 1:18 says that Jesus declared the Father. The word
used here is exegesato means “to draw out or explain.” It is where we get our
English word exegesis. Jesus Christ explained the Father (John 14:9).
While all of mankind is subject to general revelation, not all receive special
revelation.
Special revelation is necessary due to the sinful condition of man. Since we are
dead in our sins, we need God to intervene and reveal Himself to us in a specific
way. He does this by the Person of Jesus Christ and His Word, which He
imparted to His apostles. When we read God’s Word, we are not reading man’s
opinions, but are reading exactly what God revealed to us through His Son Jesus
(Hebrews 1:1-3, John 17:6-8).
III. The Bible
The Bible is the absolute and Final Authority for Christian faith and Practice
. . . How Many Books Are In The Bible?
Old Testament
New Testament
39 Books
27 Books
= 66 Books!
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Inspiration of the Bible
The Bible is inspired in a supernatural and divine sense.
Definition of Inspiration:
God's superintendence of the human authors so that, using their own individual
personalities, they composed and recorded without error His revelation to man in
the words of the original autographs.
A. Key Verses on Inspiration
2 Tim. 3:16 - The Greek word Theopneustos ( G2315 means
God-Breathed and is also found in the LXX in Job 32:8.
2 Pet. 1:19-21- The Greek term moved is a nautical term and was used to describe
how the wind would fill the sail of a boat and move it along.
John 10:34-36- Jesus’ view was that the Scriptures could not be broken.
B. Verbal/Plenary
1. When the word verbal is used in the definition it means that the words are
inspired by God and not just the thoughts, ideas or concepts.
2. The word plenary means that every word is inspired.
3. Scriptural Evidence: Matthew 5:17-18, Psalm 19:1-7, Matthew 4:4.
4. Also, “it is written” is used 90 times in the New Testament (See Matthew
4:4,7,10).
5. See also Exodus 24:4 for support from the Old Testament.
(Note: The jot was the smallest Hebrew letter (yod) and the tittle (iota) was
the smallest extensions on the Hebrew letters. We would refer to this as the
dotting of the “i” and the crossing of the “t”.
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C. Inerrancy of the Bible
1. We declare that the Bible is inerrant in the Original manuscripts.
2. The Scriptural Evidences: a. Jesus said, “Thy Word is truth (John 17:7). A
number of times the Scriptures are said to be from God or from the Holy Spirit (2
Samuel 23:2, Acts 1:16,4:24-25,28:5, Hebrews 9:8,10:15).
3. It is a logical conclusion that if the Bible is inspired, then it is inerrant.
5. The same question is being asked as in the garden “Has God said?”
6. The Bible: Difficulties, YES! (See section on handling Bible Difficulties).
D. Opposing Viewpoints
1. Liberal Viewpoint or Dynamic Theory: The theory that only the thoughts
are inspired by God and not the exact words.
Problems:
a. How are thoughts different than words?
b. We use words to communicate our thoughts.
c. If the words are not correct, neither will the thoughts be true.
2. Naturalistic Theory: The idea that the writers themselves were inspired like
that of a Poet or Mozart.
Problems:
a. The Scriptures/Writings are said to be inspired, not the writers.
b. Some writers did not understand what they wrote (1 Peter 1:10-13).
c. The Scriptures did not originate with man, not even the best of men who had
the deepest religious experiences. The point the Scriptures make is that they
are not from men but from God (2 Timothy 3:16, 2 Peter 1:20-21).
Note: The meaning of “no private interpretation” in 2 Peter 1:20 is explained in
verse 21 as the Scriptures not having their origin in man but are from God.
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3. The Partial Theory: The idea that only some parts of the Bible are inspired
and without error. Often, they will say the parts that have to do with salvation are
inspired.
Problems:
a. If we cannot trust the Bible on such minor topics as history, science and
geography, how can we trust it in relation to eternal truths of salvation.
b. We are left with the impossible questions to answer, “Which parts are inspired
and which parts are not inspired?”
c. Who decides the question above? Which system of theology do we follow?
4. The Encounter Theory: This theory has the idea that the Bible becomes the
Word of God when it is used to speak to us. Karl Barth, a German theologian of
the mid-1900’s espoused this idea.
Problems:
a. The Scriptures never declare this about themselves.
b. The Scriptures declare that the very words are inspired by God and not that
they become the Word of God.
c. It leaves too much room for various interpretations being correct in relation to
a specific passage, rather than the concept of “One correct interpretation,
many possible applications.”
How to Approach Bible Difficulties
(From When Critics Ask: A Popular Handbook on Bible Difficulties
by Dr. Norman Geisler, Victor Press, 1992)
Some common mistakes when reading the Bible:
Mistake 1: Assuming that the unexplained is not explainable.
Mistake 2: Presuming the Bible guilty until proven innocent.
Mistake 3: Confusing our fallible interpretations with God’s infallible
revelation.
Mistake 4: Failing to understand the context of the passage.
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Mistake 5: Neglecting to interpret difficult passages in the light of clear ones.
Mistake 6: Basing a teaching on an obscure passage.
Mistake 7: Forgetting that the Bible is a human book with human
characteristics.
Mistake 8: Assuming that a partial report is a false report.
Mistake 9: Demanding that NT citations of the OT always be exact quotations.
Mistake 10: Assuming that divergent accounts are false ones.
Mistake 11: Presuming that the Bible approves of all it records.
Mistake 12: Forgetting that the Bible uses non-technical, everyday language.
Mistake 13: Assuming that round numbers are false.
Mistake 14: Neglecting to note that the Bible uses different literary devices.
Mistake 15: Forgetting that only the original text, not every copy of Scripture, is
without error.
Mistake 16: Confusing general statements with universal ones.
Mistake 17: Forgetting that latter revelation supercedes previous revelation
Grounds for receiving the Bible as God's Written Word
1. Jesus’ View of the Old Testament
a. It is viewed as a whole
(Matthew 5:17-18,7:12) since Jesus quotes
from the Law, the Prophets and the Writings (Luke 24:44).
b. It is the truth, or authoritative
(John 17:17).
c. It is the commandment of
God (Mark 7:6-13).
d. It cannot be broken
(John 10:35).
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2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
The Apostles View of the Old Testament
It was written for our instruction (Romans 15:4).
It was given by the Holy Spirit (2 Timothy 3:16-17, 2 Peter 1:21).
It is called Scripture in 1 Timothy 5:18.
It was not from man but from God (2 Peter 1:21).
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Jesus' Words and Teachings
His Words will not pass away (Mark 13:31)
His Words are spirit and life (John 6:63).
Directly from the Father (17:6-8).
How God has spoken to mankind today (Hebrews 1:1-3).
4.
a.
b.
c.
The Authority of the Apostles
Their authority comes from Jesus (John 14:26,15:26,16:13-15).
Paul’s writings are classified as Scripture (2 Peter 3:15-16).
Paul’s letters were read as authoritative in the churches (Colossians 4:16, 1
Corinthians 14:37, 2 Thessalonians 3:14).
d. In verses 17-19, Jude quotes Peter as authoritative (2 Peter 3:1-3).
e. Paul received direct revelation from Jesus Himself (Gal. 1:12, 2 Cor. 12:7-10).
The “Canonicity” of the Bible
1. How did we get the Old Testament?
a. The Jewish council at Jamnia officially decided and the Church accepted their
decision.
b. Five Characteristics: Apostolic Authority, Spiritual Character, Widely
Accepted, Internal Evidence of Inspiration, and Quoted in the New
Testament.
2. How did we get the New Testament?
a. A Four-Fold confirmation Process was given:
 Apostolicity- Was the author an apostle or directly associated with an
apostle?
 Acceptance- Was the book accepted by the Church in general?
 Content- Was the book doctrinally consistent with established orthodox
teaching from the Bible?
 Inspiration- Did the book reflect inspiration of the Holy Spirit? Was it
dynamic? Did it possess life-changing qualities for the believer to live by?
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b. General church acceptance was established.
 363 A.D. Council of Laodicea
 367 A.D. List of 27 books by Athanasius.
 393 A.D. Council at Hippo
 397 A.D. Council at Carthage
3. What about the Apocryphal books?
a. No Church council
recognized them as Scripture.
b. It was not until 1546 (Council at Trent) when the RCC officially declared them
to be Scripture.
c. The Jewish community never accepted these books to be Scripture.
d. Other than Augustine, Most of the Church Fathers did not accept these books
(Athanasius, Origen, Jerome, Cyril of Jerusalem) as well as Josephus (Jewish
Historian) and Philo (Jewish Philosopher).
e. Jesus
never quoted from these 15 books, yet He accepted all 39 OT books
(Luke 24:44).
f. The apostles never quoted from these 15 books as Scripture.
g. There are doctrinal and historical errors such as:
Doctrinal Errors:
Prayer for the dead
2 Mac 12:45-46.
Salvation by works
Tobit 12:9.
God helped Judith tell a lie
Judith 9:10, 13.
Historical Errors:
Tobit 1:3-5 and 14:11 state that Tobit was alive when the Assyrians conquered
Israel (722 B.C.) as well as when Jeroboam revolted against Judah (931 B.C.),
yet his life span is only 158 years.
Hermeneutics
“The Science of Interpreting Scripture”
1. Scripture must be interpreted literally
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2. Scripture must interpret scripture
3. Scripture can be interpreted only by illumination
4. Scripture has one meaning, but many applications
5. Scripture must be Interpreted contextually
6. We must recognize progressive
revelation
7. We use the Literal - Historical – Grammatical method
The Doctrine of Illumination
1. The work of the Holy Spirit in helping the believer to understand the truth of
the Bible.
2. The teaching ministry of the Holy Spirit.
3. Illumination is not concerned merely with understanding facts but with using
those facts to promote Christ-likeness (Christian Character).
Reliability of the Bible
“The Bible must be the invention either of good men or angels, bad men or of
devils, or of God. Therefore:
1. It could not be the invention of good men or of angels, for they neither would
nor could make a book, and tell lies all the time they were writing it, saying,
“thus saith the Lord,” when it was their own invention.
2. It could not be the invention of bad men or devils, for they would not make a
book which commands all duty, forbids all sin, and condemns their souls to
hell to all eternity.
3. Therefore, I draw this conclusion that the Bible must be given by divine
inspiration.”
(Charles Wesley, as quoted in A Compendium of Wesley’s Theology, p. 20)
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A. Clauncy Saunders Bibliographic Test
1. Clancy Saunders, a military historian who authored Introduction to Research
and English Literary History, established a method of verifying works of
antiquity.
2. He suggested that one must give any document three basic tests:
a. Internal
b. External
c. Bibliographic
3. As to the third area two questions are asked:
What is the time interval between the original and the oldest existing copies?
How many manuscripts do we have of this document?
This test examines the textual transmission of the text as well as the
reliability of the copies we have
B. The Internal Test
1. The Bible is said to have been written by eyewitness sources.
C. The External Test.
1. Do other historical materials or archeology confirm or deny the internal
testimony provided by the documents themselves?
2. Archaeology
D. The OT
1. Pre: Dead Sea Scrolls
a. Before 1948, we depended upon the fanatical method of copying the
Masoretes.
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b. The Scribes would count the letters (each letter had a numerical value) and
calculate each line.
c. They knew what the exact middle letter of the entire Torah.
d. If there was found to be an error they ripped it up and threw away the
document.
e. The last book was written in 450 B.C. and our oldest copy was 700 A.D. of
which we had 8-10 copies. Thus there was an 1150 year gap.
Sir Fredric Kenyon in ‘A Ready Defense’ writes:
“Besides recording varieties of reading, tradition, or conjecture, the Massoretes
undertook a number of calculations which do not enter into ordinary sphere of
textual criticism. They numbered the verses, words and letters of every book.
They calculated the middle word and the middle letter of each. They enumerated
verses which contained all the letters of the alphabet, or a certain number of
them, and so on. These trivialities, as we may rightly consider them, had yet the
effect of securing minute attention to the precise transmission of the text; and
they are but an excessive manifestation of a respect for the sacred Scriptures
which in itself deserves nothing but praise. The Massoretes were indeed anxious
that not one jot or tittle, not one smallest letter nor one tiny part of a letter of the
Law should pass away.” (pg. 50)
2. After the DSS
a. 600-800 manuscripts ranging from approximately 250 B.C. to 68 A.D.
b. One complete copy of Isaiah dated 125 B.C.
Note on the Isaiah Scroll:
Isaiah wrote in 740-680 B.C., thus now the gap has been narrowed to 555 years.
Before the DSS our oldest copy of Isaiah was from 916 A.D. or a difference of
1000 years. Here is what the Liberals have been waiting for, to supposedly find
great differences between the copies of the 916 A.D. manuscript and the 125 B.C.
copy. Yet here is what we found using Isaiah 53 as an example:
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-Of the 166 words in Isaiah 53, here are only 17 letters in question.
-Ten of these letters are simply a matter of spelling, which in no way affects the
meaning.
-Four of the letters are stylistic changes relating to conjunctions and such.
-The remaining three letters relate to the word light in verse 11 and does not
effect the meaning.
-(The word light is supported by the LXX and IQ Isaiah)
-Thus after 1,000 years of transmission there is only one word (three letters) in
question.
Gleason Archer states that the Isaiah copies of the Qumran community:
“proved to be word for word identical with our standard Hebrew Bible in more
that 95% of the text. The 5 % of variation consisted chiefly of obvious slips of
the pen and variations in spelling.”
D. The NT
1. One recent discovery places a date of a portion of the Book of Matthew at 65
A.D.
2. Other parts of the gospel of John have been dated at approx. 85-90 A.D.
3. Evidence from the Church Fathers: David Dalrymple in reading the Church
Fathers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries found all but 11 verses of the NT.
4. See chart below as to the accuracy of the NT:
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Reliability of the New Testament Documents
Author/Book
Hindu
Mahabharata
Homer, Illiad
Sophocles
Euripedes
Herodotus,
History
Thucydides,
History
Plato
Tetralogies
Demosthenes
Aristotle
Aristophanes
Caesar,
Gallic Wars
Livy,
History of
Rome
Tacitus, Annals
Suetonius
De Vita
Caesarun
Pliny
Secundus,
Natural
History
Date Written
Earliest Copies
Time Gap
No.
of Copies
1300 B.C.
800 B.C.
496-406 B.C.
480-406 B.C.
c. A.D. 1,000
c. A.D. 1,100
c. 1,400 yrs.
c. 1,500 yrs.
643
100
9
480 - 425 B.C.
c. A.D. 900
c. 1,350 yrs.
8
460-400 B.C.
c. A.D. 900
c. 1,300 yrs.
8
400 B.C.
c. A.D. 900
c. 1,300 yrs
7
300 B.C.
384-322 B.C.
450-385 B.C.
c. A.D. 1100
c. A.D. 1100
c. A.D. 900
c. 1,400 yrs.
c. 1,400 yrs.
c. 1,200 yrs.
200
5
10
100-44 B.C.
c. A.D. 900
4th cent. (partial)
mostly 10th cent.
c. 1,000 yrs.
10
c. 400 yrs.
c. 1,000 yrs.
1 partial
19 copies
A.D. 100
c. A.D. 1100
c. 1,000 yrs.
20
75 - 160 A.D.
A.D. 950
c. 800 yrs.
8
A.D. 61 - 113
c. 850
c. 750 yrs.
7
59 B.C.- A.D.
17
New Testament A.D. 50-100
c. 114 (fragment)
c. 200 (books)
c. 250 (most of
N.T.) c. 325
(complete N.T.)
+/- 50 yrs.
100 yrs.
150 yrs.
225 yrs.
5366
(From A General Introduction to the Bible by Geisler and Nix, Moody Press and
Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, HereÕs Life Publishers)
Page 23
THEOLOGY PROPER:
THE STUDY OF GOD’S NATURE
“What we believe about God is the most important thing about us”
I. The Existence of God
How do you define “God”?
“God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal, and unchangeable, in His being, wisdom,
power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth.”
“God is a personal and perfect Spirit who is infinite, eternal and unchangeable in
His being and attributes.”
Arguments for the Existence of God
Cosmological Argument: (The Argument from Creation)
This argument is based on the fact that the world exists. It is obvious that
something cannot come from nothing, thus there must be an original cause for the
world’s existence. Every effect must have a cause. The alternative to this
logical deduction is that the universe is eternal, but the second law of
thermodynamics rules out this theory.
“The universe is an observable effect which requires either an infinite regress of
causes or else a sufficient uncaused Cause.”
1. “Every effect must have a cause.”
Something cannot come from nothing.
Since the universe or cosmos is here, some thing or Cause had to cause it to
come into being. That Original Cause is God.
2. The only other explanations are that the universe is eternal yet the 2 nd Law of
Thermodynamics (entropy) refutes this idea. The universe is winding down.
3. Also, it is impossible to have an eternal universe since this would require an
infinite regress in time. If this were the case, we would have never been able
to come to this present moment.
Page 24
4. There must be an uncaused cause- Bertram Russell wrote- “Why I am not a
Christian” after reading John Stuart Mills argument. But the Law is “every
effect must have a cause” not every cause must have an effect.”
 Truths Learned About God: Intelligence, powerful, eternal, self-existing, will
(volition), source of life.
 Scriptures: Rom 1:18-26, Ex. 3:14
Robert Jastrow, and Astrophysicist of NASA who directs Goddard Institute
for space studies:
“Science has proved that the Universe exploded into being at a certain moment.
It asks what cause produced this effect? Who or what put the matter and energy
into the Universe? And science cannot answer these questions…….For the
scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason; the story ends like a
bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the
highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of
theologians who have been there for centuries.”
Teleological Argument: (The Universe Displays Purposeful Design)
1. Thiessen- Order and useful arrangement in a system imply intelligence and
purpose in the organizing cause. The universe is characterized by order and
useful arrangement; therefore, the universe has an intelligent and free cause.
2. See Psalm 8:3-4, 19:1-6.
3. Sun is 93 million miles from the earth, thus producing the right climate for
life.
4. The moon is 240,000 miles from the earth and provides the tides at proper
levels.
5. The earth is tilted on its axis and provides the seasons.
6. It is like saying a monkey started pounding away on a typewriter and
Shakespeare was produced.
7. Or an explosion occurred in a letter factory and the Bible was produced.
Page 25
The Earth




Our planet alone is 25,000 miles in circumference
It weighs 6 septillion, 588 sextillion tons and hangs in space
It spins at 1000 miles per hour with perfect precision to the split second
Travels through space around the sun at 1000 miles per second in an orbit of
580 million miles
The Milky Way
 Traveling through our galaxy at 186,000 miles a second, it would take you
125,000 years to get from one end to the other.
 Our galaxy is only one of billions…
The Sun
 The Sun- gives off 500 million, million billion horsepower
 Each second it burns up 4 billion tons of matter
Truths Learned About God
 His wisdom and the purposeful design of the universe.
 Scriptures: Ps 8:3-4,19:1-6, 94:9-10
Anthropological Argument: (The Argument from Man’s Make-Up)
Man is not only a physical being, but also consists of a conscience, will, intellect
and emotion. Plus the fact man possesses a social, religious and moral nature.
This all infers a Maker. Chafer says, “A blind force could never produce a man
with intellect, sensibility, will, conscience, and inherent belief in a Creator.”
1. Anthropos is man.
2. See Gen 1:26-28 and Eph 4:24, Col 3:10.
3. Man is created in the image of God and not just a physical being. He has a
will, emotions, conscience and intellect.
Page 26
4. L. S. Chafer Writes:
“There are philosophical and moral features in man’s constitution which may be
traced back to find their origin in God. …A blind force...could never produce a
man with intellect, sensibility, will, conscience, and inherent belief in a creator.”
 Truths Learned About God: God is Just, Holy and Moral.
 Scriptures: Genesis 1:26-28, Ephesians 4:24, Colossians 3:10
Moral Argument: (The Argument from the Morality of Man)
All men have a sense of right and wrong, a sense of morality, a sense of moral
obligation. If man is only a physical being, why does he have a sense of moral
obligation? Where does his sense of moral justice originate? This implies there is
a Lawgiver and a Judge. Can a sense of morality really evolve?
1. Since man has an awareness of right and wrong and a sense of morality, there
must be a God who placed it here rather than a blind force or by chance.
2. See Rom 2:14-15.
3. If man is only a biological creature, there is no explanation for his knowledge
of right:
4. And wrong- Evolution cannot answer the question as to why man is able to
recognize moral standard and concepts.
 Truths Learned About God: God is holy, just, good, and truthful.
 Scriptures: Rom 2:14-15
Ontological Argument: (The Concept of a Perfect Being)
“The concept of a perfect being infers the real existence of that perfect being,
namely God.”
1. It begins with an assumption and tries to prove the assumption.
2. Ontos is related to the word being or existence.
Page 27
3. It is philosophical rather than logical.
4. “If man could perceive of a Perfect God who does not exist, then he could
conceive of someone greater than God Himself which is impossible.
Therefore, God exists.”
5. The Church Father Anselm (1033-1109) first used this line of thinking.
6. The argument is based on the fact that man has an awareness of God, thus
God must have placed this thought in man.
7. See Rom 1:18-28.
Luther:
“This demonstrates that there was in their hearts a knowledge of a divine
sovereign being. How else could they have ascribed to a stone, or to the deity
represented by a stone, divine attributes, had they not been convinced that such
qualities really belonged to God.”
Tertullian:
“It was not the pen of Moses that initiated the knowledge of the Creator. The
vast majority of mankind, though they had never heard the name of Moses- to say
nothing of his book- know the God of Moses nonetheless. Nature is the teacher,
the soul is the pupil.”
Denney:
“There is that within man which that so catches the meaning of all that is without
as to issue in an instinctive knowledge of God.”
Example: Helen Keller- Anne Sullivan her teacher attempted to explain the Lord
to her and her response was, “I already know about Him- I just didn’t know His
name.”
Proof:
1. False Religions
2. The Hindus alone have some 330 million gods, which is about 8 per family (it
must be kind of crowded in heaven!!).
3. They also worship some 75 million cows.
Page 28
4. 400 million Buddhists, the most sacred thing on earth is an old tooth
supposedly their founders.
“God made man in His own image and man returned the favor.”
Weakness of these philosophical proofs:
One may agree with the argumentation and agree with the conclusions with any
one of these arguments. This, however, will not save the individual. This does
not mean that these arguments are not beneficial, but the individual must have a
personal relationship with Jesus Christ, God come in the flesh, in order to enter
the kingdom of God.
The Superior Argument
The Person of Christ
Bringing an individual into confrontation with the person of Jesus Christ is the
most direct way to "get around" the above arguments.
Jesus Christ's unique character.
His claim to be the revelation of God.
His death and resurrection (His historicity).
Demonstrate the fact of divine activity in and through Jesus Christ.
Page 29
II. Rivals to Monotheism
What is “Monotheism”?
Rival
Definition
Agnosticism
The belief that one cannot know God exists until proven.
Atheism
The belief that no God exists
Pantheism
The belief that the substance of God and the substance of the
universe are identical
Panentheism
The belief that God is in everything that exists
Polytheism
The belief in many gods
Deism
The belief that there is no personal God
Henotheism
The belief in many gods, but the worship of only one
Tritheism
A belief in three Gods
III. The Attributes of God
GOD IS GREAT!!! . . .
G racious
Isaiah 63:7Ps. 63:3; Eph. 2:1-10; Heb. 12:6 (discipline)
R ighteous Is. 45:21; Zeph. 3:5; Rom. 12:9 Vengeance is mine. Phil. 3:9
E ternal
Ps. 90:2; 93:2 102:12; Heb. 13:8 Mal. 3:6
A ll: Powerful Knowing Present 1 Chron. 29:11-13; Jer. 32:17-19, Rom. 8:28; 1
Cor. 10:13; Psalm 139:1-4; Ps. 139:7-10
T riune
Matt. 28:19 - Baptism of Jesus 2 Cor. 13:14 Salvation: Father initiates
Son - carries it out; atones
H.S. - conforms us to his image; And empowers us
Page 30
God is self-existant
:
God has no cause; He does not depend on anything for His continued existence.
I AM WHO I AM: Ex. 3:14; See John 8:58
Life in Himself: John 5:26
First and Last, Alpha and Omega, Beginning and End; as the Beginning, God has
no cause, Isa. 41:4; 44:6; 48:12; Rev. 1:8, 17; 2:8; 3:14; 21:6; 22:13
No God before or after Yahweh, Isa. 43:10
God is Transcendant : God is entirely distinct from the universe, as the
carpenter is distinct from the bench; excluding pantheism (God is all) and
animism (everything is a god).
Separate from the world, Is. 40:22; Acts 17:24
Contrasted with the world, Ps. 102:25-27; I John 2:15-17
Implied by doctrine of creation, Gen. 1:1, Isa. 42:5
God is Imminent Though transcendent, God is present with and in the world;
excluding deism (God is out there but not here).
God is near, so He can be known, Deut. 4:7; Jer. 23:23; Acts 17:27
Bound up with God's omnipresence, e.g., Ps. 139:7-10; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:28
God is Immutable
: God is perfect in that He never changes nor can He
change with respect to His being, attributes, purpose, or promises; excluding
process theology, Mormon doctrine of eternal progression.
Unchangeable, Ps. 102:26-27; Is. 51:6; Mal. 3:6; Rom. 1:23; Heb. 1:11-12; James
1:17; of Christ, Heb. 13:8
God's relations with changing men spoken of as God changing, eg., Ex. 32:9-14;
Ps. 18:25-27
God is Eternal : God is perfect in that He transcends all time and temporal
limitations, and is thus infinite with respect to time.
Duration through endless ages, Ps. 90:2; 93:2; 102:12; Eph. 3:21
Unlimited by time, Ps. 90:4; 2 Pet. 3:8
Creator of the Ages (of time itself), Heb. 1:2; 11:3
Implied by doctrines of transcendence, self-existence, and immutability
Page 31
God is Omni-Present: God is perfect in that He transcends all space and spatial
limitations, and is thus infinite with respect to space, with his whole Being filling
every part of the universe and being present everywhere (present at each point in
His fullness).
The universe cannot contain God, I Kings 8:27; Is. 66:1; Acts 7:48-49
Present everywhere, Ps. 139:7-10; Acts 17:28; of Christ, Matt. 18:20; 28:20
Fills all things, Jer. 32:32-24; of Christ, Eph. 1:23; 4:10; Col. 3:11
Implied by doctrine of transcendence.
God is Omnipotent
: God is perfect in that he can do all things consistent
with the perfection of His being. God cannot do the self-contradictory (make a
rock He cannot lift), nor can he do that which is contrary to his perfect nature
(e.g., He cannot change, He cannot lie, etc.).
Nothing is too difficult, Gen. 18:24; Jer. 32:17, 27; Zech. 8:6; Ma. 3:9
All things are possible, Job 42:2; Ps. 115:3; Ma 19:26; Mk 10:27; Lk 1:37; 18:27;
Eph. 1:11
God cannot lie, be tempted, deny Himself, etc., 2 Tim. 2:13; Titus 1:2; Heb. 6:18;
James 1:13
God is Omniscient
: God is perfect in that He knows all things, including
events before they happen.
Perfect in knowledge, Job 37:26
Knows the heart, I Sam. 16:7; I Chr. 28:9, 17; Ps. 139:1-4; Jer. 17:10a
Knows all events to come, Is. 41:22-23; 42:9; 44:7
God is Incorporeal : God has no body or parts, and is immaterial, being a
simple and infinite being of spirit; excluding the Mormon doctrine of God as an
exalted man
God is Spirit, John 4:24
God is not a man, Num. 23:19; I Sam. 15:29
Implied by the doctrines of self-existence, transcendence, omnipresence, and
creation
God is Creator : God is the One through whom all things have come into
existence; He created the entire universe out of nothing and also formed it.
Created all things, Gen. 1:1; Ps. 33:6; 102:25; Jn 1:3; Rom. 11:36; Heb. 1:2; 11:3
Made all things by Himself, Is. 44:24
Page 32
God is Personal
: God, as the author of personhood in the created universe,
cannot be less than personal Himself; thus He experiences relationships with
other persons, or self-conscious beings.
Scripture assumes the personhood of God in the use of personal pronouns, in
recording Him speaking and acting willfully, Gen. 1:3, 26; Heb. 1:1-2
Exodus. 3:14--God gives Himself a name (Yahweh), and says "I Am"
God is Incomprehensible : Not in the sense that the concept of God is not
understandable, but in the sense that God cannot be fully and directly known by
finite creatures, because of His uniqueness and infinitude.
None like God, Ex. 8:10; 9:14; 15:11; 2 Sam. 7:22; I Chr. 17:20; Ps. 86:8; I
Kings 8:23; Is. 40:18, 25; 44:7; 46:5, 9; Jer. 10:6-7; Micah 7:18
Analogies are used to describe God, Ez. 1:26-28; Rev. 1:13-16
God cannot be comprehended as He really is, I Cor. 8:2-3
God can only be known as the Son reveals Him, John 1:18; Ma. 11:25-27
God is Morally Perfect
: God's moral attributes are perfectly unified, with no
tension between His wrath and His love.
Good____: God is morally excellent, and does only good, Gen. 1:31; Deut. 8:16;
Ps. 107:8; 118:1; Nahum 1:7; Mrk 10:18; Rom 8:28
Holy____: God is morally transcendent, utterly separated from all evil; and
perfectly pure, Ex. 3:5; Lev. 19:2; Ps. 5:4-6; 99:5; Is. 6:3; 8:13; Hab. 1:12-13; I
Pet. 1:14-19
Righteous___: God is perfectly moral in all that He does, doing everything right,
Is. 45:21: Zeph 3:5; Rom. 3:26
True_____: God is perfectly truthful, and cannot lie, Jn. 17:17; Titus 1:2; Heb.
6:18
Loving____: God's moral character is pure love, sacrificial giving for the true
benefit of another, Deut. 7:7-8; Jer. 31:3; John 3:16; Heb. 12:6
Wrathful___: God's moral perfection requires Him to show displeasure against
anything which seeks to act contrary to its moral purpose, to judge that which
rebels against His authority as Creator and Lord, Ps. 103:8-9; Rom. 2:5; Heb.
10:31
Page 33
How Do You Define the Trinity? . . .
The Biblical Basis for the “Tri-Unity” of God
The doctrine of the Trinity sets limits to what the Bible explains as orthodox.
Luther on the Trinity:
Definition: "The only true God is the Triune God: Father, Son and Holy
Spirit, three distinct persons in one divine being or essence.”
(From Luther's Short Catechism)
Ron Rhodes
“Within the unity of the one Godhead, there are three persons- The Father, Son
and Holy Spirit, and each of the three are co-equal and co-eternal. (Reasoning)
Jesus is called the Son over 200 times in the NTJesus considers the Father to be someone distinct from Himself over 200 times in
the NTOver 50 times the Father and Son are seen to be distinct within the same verse
(Rom 15:6, 2 Cor 1:4, Gal 1:2-3, Phil 2:10-11, 1 John 2:1, 2 John 3).
John 5:20
“And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us an understanding
that we may know Him who is true, and we are in Him who is true, in His Son
Jesus Christ. This is the true God and Eternal Life.”
“We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding
the Persons: nor dividing the Substance.” --Athanasian Creed (Sixth
Century).
“Within the nature of the One True God there exists three eternal, co-equal,
co-powerful, distinct Persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.”
Page 34
What the Trinity is not:
 Not three separate Gods
:
 Not three equal Parts
of a substance. The Father is completely God, The
Son is completely God, the Holy Spirit is completely God. You cannot have
more of God if you have the Father and Son but not the Spirit.
 Christ is not Subordinate
to the Father by nature. Neither is the Spirit.
(The Father did not will the Son into existence. He is eternally begotten).
 Christ is not a Created Being (ie. the first created of all creation).
What the Trinity is:
The Bible holds the following five propositions to be true:
1. There is One God
Deut. 6:4, Is. 43:10; 44:6-8; 45:22, 1 Timothy 2:5, Jas. 2:19, Jude 25
2. The Father is God
2 Peter 1:17, Jn. 17:3, 1 Cor. 8:6
3. The Son
is God
Ex. 3:11-14, Jn. 8:56-59, 10:30-33, Heb. 1:6-8
4. The Spirit is God
Acts 5:3-4; 13:1-3, Hebrews 9:14, 2 Cor. 3:17-18
5. These are three distinct Persons :
The birth of Christ (Luke 1:35)
The baptism
of Jesus (Luke 3:21-22)
The Coming of the Holy Spirit (John 14, 16, 17)
Page 35
Two Examples of Tri-Unity:
1. H20--The Triple Point of Water:
"Water under pressure and in a vacuum at a given temperature below freezing
exists simultaneously as both liquid, gas, and ice, yet it is identifiable always as
water (H20)." (Essential Christianity by Walter Martin, p. 28).
2. The Trinitarian Triangle:
NOTE:
Theologians speak of:
A. The Economic Trinity- defines the difference in term of the offices or roles
(The Father, Son & Holy Spirit), and their works or functions (creation,
redemption).
B. The Ontological Trinity- explains the differences in terms of their essence or
beings.
Page 36
Ancient / Modern Heretical Views About God
Error
Ancient
Modern
One God/No Trinity
Sabellianism
Apostolics Modalism
Jesus is a Created Being
Arianism
Jehovah’s Witnesses
“Three Gods” or More
Tri-Theism
LDS (Mormons)
The Names of God
The names of God reveal a particular character or attribute of God
Elohim
El Shaddai
El Elyon
El Olam
Adonai
Yahweh (Jehovah)
Yahweh (Jehovah) Jireh
Yahweh Nissi
Yahweh Shalom
Yahweh Sabbaoth
Yahweh Tsidkenu
Yahweh Rohi
Yahweh Mekadesh
The Works of God
Creation
: Gen. 1:1-2:4; Col. 1:l6
Preservation : Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3; 2 Peter 2:9; Ps. 40:11
Providence / Soveriegn: Eph. 1:11 cf. Dan 4:35; Rom. 11:36; Rom. 8:28
Page 37
Angelology
“The Doctrine of Angels”
I. Introduction
A. The Bible asserts the existence of angels
1. Mentioned in 17 books of the Old Testament
2. Mentioned in 17 books of the New Testament
3. About 265 occurrences in the Bible.
B. Jesus asserts the existence of angels
1. Christ frequently mentioned the various relationships and ministries of angels.
a. Mat. 13:39,16:27,18:10,22:30,25:31,41,26:53; Mk. 12:25;
Jn. 1:51.
Lk. 15:10,16:22;
II. The Origin of Angels
A. Created
by a direct act of God's Will (Ps. 148:2,5; Jn. 1:3; Rom. 8:38-39;
Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:7)
B. If "the sons of god" in Job 38:7 are angels, then it is evident that the creation
of angels occurred prior to the creation of the earth .
C. All of the angels were originally created holy
28:14-15; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26).
D. They glorified God
(Genesis 1:31, Ezekiel
in their worship and work (Rev. 4:11).
Page 38
III. The Nature of Angels
A. They are not glorified human beings (Mat. 22:30; Heb. 12:22; Ps. 8:5; Heb.
2:7; 1 Cor. 6:3).
B. They are finite spirits. (Ezekiel 28:12-13)
C. They are designated in Scripture by the masculine gender. (Names)
D. They are a company, not a race. (Hebrews 12:22)
E. They have great knowledge, though not omniscient. (Daniel 10:20)
F. They have great strength, though not omnipotent. (Daniel 10:13)
IV. The Fall of Angels
A Did the angels fall? Yes! (Ez. 28:16; Is. 14, 2 Pet. 2:4, Jude 6)
B. When did they fall? We don’t know
C. What was the cause of their fall? Sin & Pride
D. What was the result of their fall? Eternal Punishment
V. The Description of Angels
A. The Godly Angels
1. The Angels
2. The Cherubim
Page 39
3. The Seraphim
4. The Living Creatures
5. The Archangels
6. The Watchers
7. The Sons of God
8. Guardian Angels? (Not a biblical term. Matt. 18:10)
B. The Ungodly Angels
1. The angels that are kept in prison
2. The angels that are free
3. The demons
4. Satan
a. Created by God
b. Original State
 "full of wisdom"
 "perfect in beauty"
 "perfect in thy ways"
 "absolute righteousness"
 Created with the highest position
c. His Fall
 Cause of his fall Pride – a desire to be as God
 Result of his fall Condemnation to himself and his follwers
Page 40
VI. The Work of the Angels
A. The Work of the Good Angels
1. Their General Work:
Worship God and Help Believers
2. Their Special Work
a. In relation to Christ prediction & announcement of His birth,
call to go to Egypt, announce second coming
b. In relation to Nations Michael guards Israel (Dan. 12:1)
c. In relation to believers They help
d. In relation to unbelievers They announce and inflict judgment
(Rev. 14, 16)
B. The Work of the Evil Angels
1. Hinder the work of the good angels
2. Oppose the people of God
3. Support the work of Satan
C. The Work of Satan
1. In Relation to God
a. Contradicts God's Word
b. Opposes God's Work
c. Counterfeits the works and work of God
d. Usurps God's position and power by his working through the man
of sin
e. Seeks to be worshiped
2. In Relation to believers
a. He tempts them to doubt, disbelieve and disobey God
b. Sows tares among believers
Page 41
c. He tempts them to lie
d. He tempts them to commit immorality
e. He uses demons to war against them in the spiritual life
f. Hinders their work
g. Incites persecution
h. Accuses and slanders believers.
3. In Relation to the World
a. Satan rules it under God's permissive will
b. Deceives the nations
c. Gathers them to the battle of Armageddon
4. In Relation to the Unbeliever
a. Snatches God's Word from their hearts
b. Blinds their minds
c. Prevents them from spiritually understanding the Gospel.
d. Uses them to oppose, hinder and harm believers
VII. The Destiny of the Angels
A. The Destiny of the Good Angels They will be with us in the New Jerusalem
(Rev. 21:12)
B. The Destiny of the Evil Angels The Lake of Fire (Matt. 25:41, 2 Pet. 2:21)
C. The Destiny of Satan The Lake of Fire / Bottomless Pit
VIII. The Christian and the Demoniac
A. The Christian's Warfare
Can a Christian be demon-possessed?
1. No
a. 1 Cor. 6:19-20 -- Christians are indwelt by the Holy Spirit
b. Mat. 12:28; 1 John 4:4 -- the Holy Spirit is greater in power than the
demonic spirits.
2. A Christian can be so influenced by demons that he appears to be demon
possessed. He may show some of the symptoms of demon possession.
Page 42
3. Demon influence may be thought of as a temporary operation of demon from
without, while demon possession may be thought of as a more permanent
demonic operation from within.
4. Just as the flesh can strongly influence the believer (Gal. 5:16 - 18; 1 Cor. 3:13) without displacing the indwelling Spirit (John 15:16-17; Eph. 4:30), so a
demon and/or demons may strongly influence a Christian without actually
displacing the Spirit. The believer who does not yield himself to the superior
power of the Spirit (1 John 4:4 cf. Rom. 6:13: 12:1) will to the extent of his
unyieldedness lack the control of the Spirit and leave himself open to the
influence of the flesh or even demonic power (cf. Eph. 4:26). Positively, the
extent of the believer's yieldedness to the Spirit is the extent to which he
experiences the power of the Spirit to give victory over the flesh and the devil
and demons.
C. There is no clear-cut case in the NT of a Christian being demon possessed.
D. The Believer's Course of Action Regarding Satan
1.
a.
b.
c.
Recognize Satan's limitations
He is not omnipotent
He is not omnipresent
He is not omniscient
2. Realize that Satan's power is limited by the will of God
a. Job 1:10; 2:4-6
b. Luke 22:31
3. Realize that he has been conquered.
a. 1 John 3:8
4. Remember that the believer has One who intercedes in his behalf.
5. Practice unceasing vigilance
6. Deny Satan any foothold in himself.
7. Put on the whole armor of God.
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Anthropology
“The Study of Man”
I. Non-Biblical Views of Man
Evolutionary Views
1. Atheistic/Natural
Evolution
“Man descended from the lower animals, body and soul, by a perfectly
natural process, controlled entirely by inherent forces.”
Limitations to Natural Evolution:
A. Cannot account for the inconsistency with the 2nd law of
thermonuclear dynamics.
B. Cannot become the cause
for the universe.
C. Cannot give meaning & purpose
to life.
D. Cannot reckon with a purposeful design for the universe. (Design
comes from mind, not chance.)
E. Cannot account for the lack of new species.
F. Cannot account for man’s conscience, moral code, personality, will.
2. Theistic Evolution
“God has created through the evolutionary process and the special creation
of man involved only the cultural, mental and spiritual aspects. The
physical body of man came from non-human origins.
3. Progressive
Creationism (Day-Age Theory)
Traditionally, this theory held that the seven days of creation were not to
be taken as literal 24-hour days; rather they were understood to be
geological ages.
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II. The Biblical View of Man
Man was created by God
A. The explicit
teaching of Scripture.
B. Adam and Eve were created directly, specially, and immediately.
C. Eve was made from Adam’s Rib by God.
D. Man comes from and goes to the dust .
E. Man became a living creature .
F. The Bible distinguishes between animal and human flesh .
The Gap Theory
“The gap theory places a lengthy period of time between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2,
basically as an accommodation to science. In that gap theorists can hold to the
antiquity of the earth yet understand the words of Genesis 1 and 2 literally,
adhering to twenty-four hour days of creation.
“The gap theory teaches that there was as an original creation and as a result of
Lucifer’s rebellion and fall, the earth became chaos. The phrase formless and
void (Genesis 1:2) describes the chaotic earth that God judged. Millions of years
took place between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, in agreement with scientific evaluation
concerning the age of the earth.”
(Moody Handbook of Theology by Paul Enns, p. 302-303)
II. Man was Created in the Image and Likeness of God
It was not a physical
likeness.
What does the phrase image and likeness mean?
“The Hebrew phrase image and likeness distinguish mankind from all other lifeforms. Traditional interpretations of the image refer to features such as human
knowledge, moral awareness, original moral perfection and immortality.”
(Milne, p. 96)
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A. It was a moral
likeness.
B. It was an intellectual likeness.
C. It was a spiritual
likeness.
IV. THE Nature of Man’s Composition
Man is both Material
and Immaterial
.
Various Views of Man’s Composition
ANALYSIS
VIEWPOINTS
MATERIAL
NON-MATERIAL
Soul
Dichotomous
Body
Spirit
Soul
Trichotomous
Body
Spirit
Soul
Spirit
Multi-Faceted
Body
Heart
Conscience
Mind
Will
Moody Handbook of Theology by Paul Enns (Moody Publisher), page 308
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Man has an immaterial aspect
A. Does man have a soul and spirit? Are they separate entities?
1. Biblical meaning of soul
a. Hebrew: nephesh
b. Greek: psyche
 The life principle : Numbers 6:6, 9:6, Romans 13:1; Leviticus 21:11
(literally, dead soul)
 The Earthly Life (earthly): Genesis 35:18; Romans 11:3
 Aspects of the immaterial person: Philippians 1:27; Leviticus 26:11.
 Seat of spiritual and/or emotional portion of man
Psalm 42:2,62:1
(God-related):
2. Biblical meaning of spirit
a. Hebrew: ruach
b. Greek: pneumatos
 Immaterial
 Life Principle
8:54-55
aspect of man: Genesis 41:8; 1 Corinthians 5:5.
: Acts 7:59; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Matthew 27:50; Luke
 Inner Man : Luke 1:47,80; Mark 2:8; 1 Corinthians 2:11; Matthew
26:41; 1 Chronicles 5:26
 Rational Mind or Spirit Related: Psalm 51:10; Romans 8:16; Ephesians
4:23
3. Both terms, soul and spirit, cover the same areas except that spirit does not
include the body.
B. How are the soul and spirit related? Are they different substances making
man trichotomous? Or are they different aspects of the immaterial nature of
man making man dichotomous? Or are they synonymous terms (no difference
between the two words)?
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1. Matthew 10:28 (cf. Matthew 27:50)
2. Hebrews 12:23 (cf. Revelation 6:9)
3. 1 Thessalonians 5:23 (cf. Luke 10:27)
4. Hebrews 4:12
“That no division between is indicated but rather a division of… is evident by
the last part of the verse, a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Obviously, thoughts and intents cannot be regarded as separable substantive
entities. Actually, intents are a kind of thought. The Word is a discerner of
thoughts and of intents.”
(Buswell, page 244)
Conclusion:
We cannot be dogmatic about anything other than the fact that man is
material and immaterial.
V. The Fall of Man
Hamartiology: “The Study of Sin”
The Nature of Sin
Definition of Sin
Sin is a violation or trespass
Sin is a failure to adhere
Sin is a principle
Sin is rebellion
Sin is a specific
of the law of God.
to the standard of God.
within man.
against God.
act towards God and man.
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Original Sin
Definition: "The sinful state or condition in which men are born
."
It is the inward root of all the actual sins that define the life of man.
It is derived from the original root of the human race.
It is present in the life of every individual from the time of birth.
Are all men born sinful?
Gen. 8:21, Job 14:4, Ps. 51:5, Ps. 58:3, Prov. 22:15, Jn. 3:6
Are all men sinful by nature?
Jer. 13:23, Eph. 2:2-3
Total Depravity
What it is not:
Every man is as thoroughly depraved as he can possibly become -- Gen. 15:16; 2
Tim. 3:13
The sinner has no inner knowledge of the will of God on good or evil -- Rom.
2:15
Sinful man is incapable of good acts toward men -- Mat. 7:11; 5:46, 47
Every unregenerate man will indulge in every form of sin.
What it does mean:
Corruption extends to the entirety of man's natural nature.
There is no spiritual good in relation to God in the sinner at all -- Rom. 7:18,
3:12
Total inability to change his corrupt nature -- Jer. 13:23; Rom. 7:24
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How is sin imparted to the human race?
The Imputation of Sin
I. Romans 5:12-19
Write out what each verse says about sin in Romans 5:
5:12: Through one man, sin entered the world, and death came through that
sin
5:15: Many died as a result of that sin
5:16: Judgment follows sin, one man’s sin caused condemnation to many
5:17: Through one man, sin reigned
5:18: Judgment follows sin; one man’s sin caused condemnation to many
5:19: Through one man, many were made sinners
II. Different Views
Pelagius:
A British monk (born 370) who moved to Rome and then eventually to Carthage
in North Africa His teaching immediately ran in conflict with that of Augustine.
He Taught:
1. That each person was born with a free will and the ability to choose good and
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
choose evil.
He did not believe that man’s will had been affected by the fall of Adam.
Man was created mortal and death and decay were part of the order of
creation. He viewed death in the book of Genesis as spiritual death and not
physical death since they did not drop dead on the spot.
Adam’s sin only affected himself and left man with a bad example.
Man is only responsible for his own sin and not that of Adam’s in any sense.
There is no natural inclination toward sin at birth.
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7. We do not inherit corruption or guilty, there is no inherent spiritual flaw in
man from birth.
8. Held to “Special Creation” of the soul to escape the idea of original sin or
depravity of man.
9. Grace was “free will, apprehension of God through reason, and the law of
Moses and Jesus’ instruction” (Erickson, p. 633).
10. Man can perfectly fulfill God’s commands without sinning (he taught this as a
possibility).
11. God does not exert any force upon man to choose good: There is no internal
work upon the soul,
12. Thus, he completely rejected any idea of predestination which Augustine
espoused.
13. Pelagianism was condemned by the Councils of Carthage (418) and of
Ephesus in (431).
14. Some modern day Unitarians hold this viewpoint today.
Semi-Pelagianism
1. A synergistic viewpoint: God and man work together in order to accomplish
what must be done for man to be saved.
2. This position was condemned by the Council of Orange in 529.
3. This Council emphasized in strong terms the inability of man and the
absolute need for God’s grace to bring about salvation, but did not insist upon
absolute predestination.
Roman Catholic Church- has been given the title Semi-Pelagianism by some,
which believes that men will cooperate with the grace of God in salvation. The
idea is that the fall of man did not leave man completely spiritually dead, but in a
weakened spiritual condition. Thus, man could initiate salvation.
Arminianism
James or Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609) was a Dutch Reformed pastor and
theologian who modified the original Calvinistic position in which he was
mentored.
He Taught:
1. Strong summarizes this view as:
Page 51
“God bestows upon each individual from the first dawn of consciousness a
special influence of the Holy Spirit, which is sufficient to counteract the
effect of the inherited depravity and to make obedience possible, provided
the human will cooperates, which it still has power to do.” (Systematic
Theology, p. 601)
2. We receive from Adam a corrupt nature, but not the guilt of Adam’s sin.
3. We begin life without righteousness and are in need of a special grace of God
4.
5.
6.
7.
to fulfill His commands.
The inability is both spiritual and physical, but not volitional.
Prevenient grace (from the cross) was a universal benefit & nullifies the
judicial consequences of Adam’s sin.
Prevenient grace has the effect of neutralizing the corruption received from
Adam.
This view is held by many Methodists, Wesleyans and Pentecostals today.
Reformed Theology
1. There is a definite connection of Adam’s sin with that of every person: We all
2.
3.
4.
5.
participated in that sin.
We all sinned in Adam and have received the consequences of that sin (death,
condemnation, guilt, sinful nature or corruption`).
At birth, or possibly conception, we receive a corrupted nature, are depraved
and born with sinful desires.
All persons are guilty of Adam’s sin, thus death has come upon all of us.
Views on how we all sinned in Adam:
Federal Headship
Adam was our representative Related to the “Special Creation” of the soul view.
This view was held by Hodge, Buswell and Berkhof.
Hodge summarizes this position:
“in virtue of the union, federal and natural, between Adam and his posterity,
his sin, although not their act, is so imputed to them that it is the judicial
ground of the penalty threatened against his coming also upon them.”
(Systematic Theology, 2:192-193)
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Natural Headship (Augustine 350-440)
We were present in Adam germinal or seminal form (or in all of our
ancestors), just as Levi was in the loins of Abraham (Heb 7:10). This view
relates to the Traducianist viewpoint of the creation of the soul. This view
is held by Calvin, Luther, Shedd, and Strong.
Augustine Taught of Adam/Man
In the Garden: Able to sin, Able not to sin
After the Fall:
Not able Not to sin
In Heaven:
Not able to sin
III. Summary
A. Overviews
Pelagian: God imputes neither a corrupted nature nor guilt to man.
Arminian: God imputes a corrupted nature but not the guilt of Adam.
Augustinian: God imputes both a corrupted nature as well as the guilt.
Imputation of Sin
Views
Rom 5:12
Death due to
own sin after
Pelagian
Adam’s
example
SemiPelagian
All people
consent to
Adam’s sinArminian
then sin
imputed
Adam
Sin affected
Adam alone
Humanity
No one
affected by
Adam’s sin
Modern
Unitarians
Catholics
Adam sinned
and only
partially
affected
humanity
Sin imputed to Adam alone
man due to
sinned but all
Federal
Adam’s sin
of humanity
affected
Sin imputed to Humanity
humanity due sinned in
Augustinian
to Adam’s sin Adam
Man receives Methodists,
corrupt nature Wesleyans,
but not guilt
Pentecostals
Holiness
Groups
Depravity is
total, both sin
and guilt
imputed
Depravity is
total; both sin
and guilt
imputed
Presbyterians
and Covenant
Theologians
Reformers,
Calvinists
Page 53
III. Importance of the Doctrine
The doctrine of the imputation of guilt and condemnation is then used as a basis
to prove that God can impute righteousness by one man’s act on the cross.
The Christian and Sin
The conflict according to 1 John 2:16
The World: The current thoughts, actions, ideas and the societal culture
around us
The Flesh: The depraved evil nature controlling our body.
The Devil: The Enemy of the Christians soul
The Provision
The Word Of God
The Intercession of Christ
The Indwelling of the Holy Spirit
Special Sins
What is the unpardonable sin?
Mat. 12:31
Mark 3:29
Points to consider:
The work of the Holy Spirit is to glorify or manifest Jesus Christ. The
miracles were signs of his authoritative ministry.
Salvation is found only in Christ.
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Therefore, resisting the work of the Holy Spirit is the only unpardonable
sin (Heb. 2:3, 4; 10:26-39; 6:46).
Repeated resistance brings a fixed state of hardening (John 17:12).
The unpardonable sin is not an arbitrary decree from God. It is simply a
moral impossibility for God to grant salvation outside of Jesus Christ.
Only God knows who is at this point.
What is the sin unto death? I John 5:16
Three common interpretations:
Arminian: Loss of spiritual salvation. A Christian who continues to sin
until he ends in spiritual death.
Sin leading to physical death for a Christian. God will judge a Christian
by physical death (I Cor. 11:30; Acts 5; I Cor. 5).
A reference to the unpardonable sin.
The context is spiritual life and death...
Commanded not to pray for him.
The Apostle’s Creed
(340 A.D.)
I believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ, His only begotten Son, our Lord; Who was conceived by the
Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary; suffered under Pontius Pilate; was
crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into hell; the third day he rose again
from the dead; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God the
Father Almighty; From thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic church, the communion of saints;
the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and life everlasting. Amen.
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The Nicene Creed
(325 A.D.)
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all
things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the
Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God;
begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things
were made.
Who, for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was
incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man; and was
crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered, and was buried; and the
third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven,
and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father; from thence he shall come again,
with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.
And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceedeth
from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and
glorified; who spake by the prophets.
And I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic church. I acknowledge one
baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and
the life of the world to come. Amen.
The Athanasian Creed
(435-535 A.D)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the
catholic faith;
Which faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he
shall perish everlastingly.
And the catholic faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and
Trinity in Unity;
Neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance.
For there is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the
Holy Spirit.
But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit is all one,
the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal.
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7.
8.
9.
Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Spirit.
The Father uncreated, the Son uncreated, and the Holy Spirit uncreated.
The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Spirit
incomprehensible.
10. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Spirit eternal.
11. And yet they are not three eternals, but one eternal.
12. As also there are not three uncreated nor three incomprehensible, but one
incomprehensible.
13. So likewise the Father is almighty, the Son almighty, and the Holy Spirit
almighty;
14. And yet they are not three almighties, but one almighty.
15. So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God;
16. And yet they are not three Gods, but one God.
17. So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Spirit Lord;
18. And yet they are not three Lords, but one Lord.
19. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every
person by himself to be God and Lord;
20. So we are forbidden by the catholic religion to say: There are three Gods or
three Lords.
21. The Father is made of none, neither created nor begotten.
22. The Son is of the father alone; not made nor created, but begotten.
23. The Holy Spirit is of the Father and of the Son; neither made, nor created,
nor begotten, but proceeding.
24. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy
Spirit, not three Holy Spirits.
25. And in this Trinity none is afore, or after another; none is greater, or less
than another.
26. But the whole three persons are co-eternal, and co-equal.
27. So that in all things, as aforesaid, the unity in Trinity and the Trinity
in
Unity is to be worshiped.
28. He therefore that will be saved must thus think of the Trinity
29. Furthermore it is necessary to everlasting salvation that he also believe
rightly the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.
30. For the right faith is that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ,
the Son of God, is God and man.
31. God of the substance of the Father, begotten before the worlds; and man the
substance of His mother, born in the world.
32. Perfect God and perfect man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh
subsisting.
Page 57
33. Equal to the Father as touching His Godhead, and inferior to the Father as
touching His manhood.
34. Who, although He is God and man, yet He is not two, but one Christ.
35. One, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by taking of the
manhood into God.
36. One altogether, not by confusion of substance, but by unity of person.
37. For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man, so God and man is one
Christ;
38. Who suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose again the third day
from the dead;
39. He ascended into heaven, He sitteth on the right hand of the Father, God
Almighty;
40. From thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead.
41. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies;
42. And shall give account of their own works.
43. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that
have done evil into everlasting fire.
44. This is the catholic faith, which except a man believe faithfully, he cannot be
saved.
The Creed of Chalcedon
(451 A.D.)
We, then following the holy fathers, all with one consent, teach men and confess
one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and
also perfect in manhood; truly God, and truly man, of a reasonable [rational] soul
and body; consubstantial [coessential] with the Father according to the Godhead,
and consubstantial with us as to His humanity; in all things like to us, except sin;
before the ages begotten of the Father as to His Deity, but in the latter days for
us, and for our redemption, begotten (the same ) of the Virgin Mary, the mother
of God, as to His humanity; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten,
manifested in two natures, without confusion, without coversion, indivisibly,
inseparably. The distinction of natures being by no means abolished by the
union, but rather the property of each preserved and combined into one person
and one hypostasis; not one severed into two persons, but one and the same Son
and Only-begotten, viz. God, Logos, and the Lord Jesus Christ; as the prophets
from the beginning [have declared] concerning him, and the Lord Jesus Christ
himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.
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Christology “The Person of Jesus Christ”
I. The Historicity of Christ
Secular Sources:
Cornelius Tacitus (A.D. 112)
Writing of the reign of Nero, Tacitus alludes to the death of Christ and to the
existence of Christians at Rome:
…”Hence to suppress the rumor, he falsely charged with the guilt, and punished
with the most exquisite tortures, the persons commonly called Christians, who
were hated for the enormities. Christus, the founder of the name, was put to
death by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the reign of Tiberius…”
Lucian (Second Century)
“…the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult
into the world… Furthermore, their first lawgiver persuaded them that they were
all brothers one of another after they have transgressed once for all by denying
the Greek gods and by worshipping that crucified sophist himself and living
under his laws.”
– The Passing Peregruis
Seutonius (A.D. 120)
“As the Jews were making constant disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus
[another spelling for Christus], he expelled them from Rome.”
Pliny the Younger (A.D. 112)
“They affirmed, however, that the whole of their guilt, or their error, was that
they were in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when
they sang in alternative verse a hymn to Christ as to a god, and bound themselves
to a solemn oath, not to do any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud,
theft, adultery, never to falsify their word, not to deny a trust when they should be
called upon to deliver it up.”
– Epistles X.96
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Thallus (A.D. 52)
One of the first Gentile writers who mentions Christ is Thallus, who wrote in 52
A.D.. However, his writings have disappeared and we only know of them from
fragments city by other writers. One such writer is Julius Africanus, a Christian
writer from about 221 A.D.. One very interesting passage relates to a comment
from Thallus.
“ ‘Thallus, in the third book of his histories, explains away this darkness as an
eclipse of the sun – unreasonably, as it seems to me’ (unreasonably, of course,
because a solar eclipse could not take place at the time of the full moon, and it
was at the season of the Paschal full moon that Christ died).”
Josephus (Antiquities, vol. 2, book 18, chap 3): A.D. 90
“Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a
man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the
truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the
Gentiles. He was Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men
among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did
not forsake him; for He appeared to them alive again the third day as the divine
prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning
Him. And the tribe of Christians so named from Him are not extinct at this day.”
Pliny- Governor of Bithynia (Asia Minor) wrote in 107 ad to Trajan about the
Christians
“They were wont to meet together, on a stated day before it was light, and sing
among themselves alternately a hymn to Christ as God….When these things were
performed, it was their custom to separate and then come together again to a meal
which they ate in common without any disorder.”
Religious Sources:
Twenty Seven Different New Testament Documents
Church Fathers – Polycarp, Papias, Ignatius, Eusebius, Irenaeus, Justin, Origen,
Clement of Rome, etc…
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II. The Pre-incarnate Christ
Scriptures
 Isaiah 9:6
 Micah 5:2
 John 1:1, 8:58
 John 17:5
 Colossians 1:15
 Revelation 1:8
III. The Incarnation of Christ
A. The Term (John 1:1, 14)
1. The term itself literally means “in flesh,” thus showing that God the Son took
upon Himself an additional nature, humanity through the virgin birth.
B. The Two Genealogies
1. The line in Matthew 1:1-16 traces the line through Joseph’s lineage (v. 16)
back to David, thus proving His rightful claim to the throne of David through
the line of the father.
2. The line in Luke 3:23-38 traces the line through Mary’s lineage, thus
connecting Him to the predicted seed of the woman in Gen 3:15.
3. Both lines trace back to David, thus proving His rightful claim to the throne of
David (Luke 1:32-33).
Note: An important work on this issue is Jesus’ Title to the Throne of David by
W.W. Barndollar.
Page 61
Scriptures
 Galatians 4:4
 Philippians 2:6ff
 John 1:1, 14
 Matthew 1,2
 Luke 1,2
 Colossians 1:21-22
 Hebrews 10:5, 10
 1 John 4:2-3
IV. The Virgin Birth of Christ
A. The Virgin Birth Proven by Scripture:
1. Genesis is 3:15 is referred to as the protevangelium since it is the first
prophecy about Christ. The phrase “her seed,” rather than “his seed” is
unusual and points to the fact the Messiah was ultimately born of Mary alone,
thus predicting the virgin birth.
2. Matthew 1:18 Mary was pregnant before she had been with Joseph.
3. Matthew 1:18 Mary was with child by the Holy Spirit.
4. Matthew 1:20 Joseph was told by the angel that Mary’s child was conceived
by the Holy Spirit.
5. Matthew 1:22-23 The virgin birth was a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah
7:14.
6. Matthew 1:24-25 Joseph did not have sexual relations with Mary until after
Jesus was born. Mary was clearly a virgin
7. Luke 1:34 Mary herself, and she would be the first to know, that she had not
been with a man.
8. Luke 1:35 The child was the result of the overshadowing of the Holy Spirit.
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9. Isaiah 7:14: The Hebrew word here is almah which can mean a young
maiden, but the word used by the LXX and the N.T. is parthenos which can
only refer to a virgin. The word almah in the O.T. can, and often does refer to
a virgin as seen in Gen 24:16. According to Gleason Archer in Encyclopeida
of Bible Difficulties (pp. 266-288) the term virgin (Heb. almah) “never refers
to a maiden who has lost her virginity.”
10.The Greek term for begot (gennao) is used in Matthew 1:2-15 and is in the
active form, but there is a deliberate change in verse 16 to the passive form
(egennethe). The translation “by whom was born Jesus” draws this point out
in the English. Also the Greek uses (hes) a feminine relative pronoun (instead
of hou which is masculine) here to emphasize that Jesus was born without
Joseph’s participation. The point is that Joseph did not beget Jesus: The
whom in verse 16 is a reference to Mary and not Joseph.
11.The Greek term used of Mary for virgin in Matthew 1:23 (parthenos) clearly
refers to a virgin. According to Arndt and Gingrich’s Lexicon, it could have
no other meaning (see p. 627)
12.Genesis 3:15 is referred to as the protevangelium since it is the first prophecy
about Christ. The “her seed” is a reference to Mary and supported by the fact
the phrase in Matthew 1:16 “by whom” (Greek hes) is a feminine relative
pronoun. These two passages point to the fact Jesus was born without the
participation of Joseph.
13.Two other possible references are Mark 6:3 where the townspeople refer to
Jesus as “the son of Mary,” where you would expect them to say son of
Joseph. When a man was identified by his mother, it was only due to the fact
that his paternity was unknown. Also, John 8:41 the Pharisees say, “We were
not born of fornication,” where the ameis is emphatic, thus suggesting they are
accusing him of this point.
B. The Importance of the Virgin Birth
1. The Scriptures claim that it happened, thus to reject this doctrine would also
be to reject the authority of the Bible. ARGUMENT FROM THE LESSER
TO THE GREATER: If we cannot trust the Bible on this subject, how can we
trust it in relation to eternal life?
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2. It guaranteed the sinlessness of Christ, without which His sacrifice on the
cross would have been worthless (2 Cor 5:21). Luke 1:34-35 refers to the fact
the offspring would be holy, thus showing us that somehow the Holy Spirit
did not allow the human nature of Jesus to be polluted with sin! Karl Bath,
(CD 1956, vol. 1, part 2, pp. 151-155) suggests that Jesus took upon Himself
the same depraved human nature that we possess, and that His sinlessness is
that He didn’t commit actual sin. The problem with this view is that it fails to
recognize the sin nature as sin itself. He also believes that the sin nature was
passed on by the man and not the woman (Credo pp. 70f.). Brunner says that
he is not interested in it at all and rejects the idea.
It makes it possible for Christ to be completely human and not inherit a sin
nature (Rom 5:12ff):
a. Every person born inherits Adam's sin, which constitutes a sinful nature, guilt,
death, condemnation and corruption (Rom 5:12-21). Every person inherits the
guilt and moral corruption, which we call original sin.
b. The fact Jesus did not have a human father partially broke this line from
Adam.
c. Luke 1:35 clearly states that the child to be born was holy.
3. Without it, there would be no union of God and man (Tertullian against
Marcion 4. 10). Carl Henry writes, “It may be admitted, of course, that the
Virgin Birth is not flatly identical with the Incarnation, just as the empty tomb
is not flatly identical with the resurrection. The one might be affirmed
without the other. Yet the connection is so close, and indeed indispensable,
that were the Virgin Birth or the empty tomb denied, it is likely that either the
Incarnation or Resurrection would be called in question, or they would be
affirmed in a form very different from that which they have in Scripture and
historic teaching. The Virgin Birth might well be described as an essential,
historical indication of the Incarnation, bearing not only an analogy to the
divine and human natures of the Incarnate, but also bringing out the nature,
purpose and bearing of this work of God to salvation.” (“Our Lord’s Virgin
Birth,” CT, 7 Dec 1959, p. 20).
4. It proves that salvation must ultimately comes from God: Salvation must be
from the work of God and not man as prophesied in Genesis 3:15. Jesus
spoke of the two types of births in John 3:3-5. See also John 1:13. Salvation
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is from the Lord alone, man is not even able to introduce the very first step in
the process of introducing the Savior into the world. It demonstrates the need
for and expresses the work of the Holy Spirit.
5. God is at work among us and not a by-stander- immanence vs. a deist
mentality.
Think of the other possibilities: Jesus would not seem to be fully God, if He
was born in the exact same manner as us; or, He would not appear to be
fully human, if He merely descended from heaven as a man.
Objection: Didn't Jesus inherit a sinful nature from Mary?
Answers:
The Roman Catholic View:
1. Mary was free from sin and thus Christ was not touched by sin due to this
fact.
2. They refer to this as the “Immaculate Conception”, that is, Mary was
conceived in her mother's womb free from inherited sin. On Dec 8th, 1854,
Pope Pius IX proclaimed, "The Most Holy Virgin was, in the first moment of
her conception ...... in view of the merits of Christ..... preserved free from all
stain of original sin."
3. The Church also teaches that "in consequence of a Special Privilege of Grace
from God, Mary was free from every personal sin during her whole life."
4. Millard Erickson describes this viewpoint as “Catholics interpret the virgin
birth as meaning that Jesus was not born in normal fashion. In their view, he
simply passed through the wall of Mary’s uterus instead of being delivered
through the normal birth canal, so that Mary’s hymen was not ruptured. Thus,
there was a sort of miraculous Caesarean section.” (p. 741).
5. A fourth century formula described Mary as a virgin “as ante partum, in
partu, et post partum” (before in and after birth).
6. They would explain the brothers and sisters of Jesus as either cousins or
children from a previous marriage of Joseph.
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The Protestant View:
1. Scripture nowhere teaches that Mary was free from sin.
2. Luke 1:35 Jesus was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and was thus
described as holy.
3. The work of the Holy Spirit in Mary somehow prevented the transmission of
the sin of Mary.
4. Remember: Nothing is impossible with God (Luke 1:37).
Church History Support
1. Tertullian in Against Marcion 4. 10 also support the need for the virgin birth
of Christ in relation to the incarnation.
2. Celsus (a Greek Philosopher) who wrote an anti-Christian polemic (177-180)
describes Jesus as the illegitimate son of Mary and a Roman soldier named
Panthera and that Jesus Himself had invented the story of His virgin birth (see
Against Celsus 1. 28, 32, 69.). According to the informant of Celsus the
mother of Jesus was a poor seamstress, and engaged to a carpenter, who
plunged her into disgrace and misery when he found out about her
unfaithfulness.
3. Against Celsus 1. 28: born in a certain Jewish village, of a poor woman of the
country, who gained her subsistence by spinning, and who was turned out of
doors by her husband, a carpenter by trade, because she was convicted of
adultery; that after being driven away by her husband, and wandering about
for a time, she disgraceful gave birth to Jesus, an illegitimate child, who
having hired himself out as a servant in Egypt on account of his poverty, and
having there acquired some miraculous powers, on which the Egyptians
greatly pride themselves, returned to his own country, highly elated on
account of them, and by means of these proclaimed himself a God.”
4. The Talmud also refers to the Lord as a son of a “pndira.”
5. In the Apostle’s Creed, produced in Gaul in 5 th or 6th century, yet it roots go
back much further, the virgin birth is affirmed. This document probably has
its roots in an old Roman baptismal confession. By the early second century
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the early form was already in use and Tertullian in North Africa and Irenaeus
in Gaul and Asia Minor.
6. Ignatius, writing approximately 117 A.D., referred to the virgin birth as one of
the “mysteries to be shouted out” (See Eph 18.2-19.1).
7. Opponents Celsus, Cerinthus, Carpocrates and the Ebionites. YET, we do not
have one person who would be labeled as orthodox as denying this truth.
V. The Humanity of Christ
A. Jesus Had A Human Body (Luke 2:7,40, 24:39)
1. He had a body just like ours as proven by the fact He became:
a. He got tired in John 4:6.
b. He slept Matthew 8:24
c. He got thirsty in John 19:28.
d. He got hungry in Matthew 4:2.
e. He got physically weak Luke 23:26.
f. He died in Mark 15:37.
g. He had blood Matthew 28:28, Hebrews 9:14, 10:19
h. He had a soul Matthew 26:38
i. He had a will John 5:30
j. He had a spirit John 11:33
k. In His resurrected body he has flesh and bones (Luke 24:39), He ate (John
20:17) and ascended to heaven in His body (Acts 1:9). Before and after
His resurrection, His body was still a physical body.
B. Jesus Had A Human Mind (Luke 2:52, Heb 5:8)
1. The Greek says he kept increasing!
C. Jesus Had a Human Soul and Human Emotions (John 12:27, 13:21,
Matthew 26:38)
1. The word troubled (tarasso) was used to describe strong human emotion. It
was used to describe:
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a. The disciples when they saw Jesus walking on the water and thought He was
a ghost (Matthew 14:26).
b. The fact King Herod was troubled when the wise men showed up (Matthew
2:3).
c. The time Zecharias encountered an angel who suddenly showed up in the
Temple (Luke 1:12).
2.
3.
4.
5.
He marveled at the faith of the Centurion (Matthew 8:10).
He wept at the sorrow of Lazarus' death (John 11:35).
He prayed with tears and cries (Hebrews 5:7).
He was tempted in every way as we are (Hebrews 4:15) yet without sin.
D. People Near Him saw Him Only as a Man (Matthew 13:53-58)
Jesus will be a Man Forever
After the Resurrection:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
He had the nail prints in His hands (John 20:25-27).
He had flesh and bones (Luke 24:39).
He ate food (Luke 24:41-42).
In Rev 1:13 Jesus still appears as "one like the Son of Man."
In Rev 5:6 He appears as a Lamb who has been slaughtered.
Why Jesus' Full Humanity Was Necessary
For Representative Obedience Rom 5:18-19
1. Paul refers to Christ as "the last Adam" (1 Cor 15:45), and calls Adam the
"first man" and Christ the "second man" (1 Cor 15:47).
2. As the first man failed in a perfect environment and sinned against God, the
second man triumphed over sin and the devil in the wilderness under the
condition of fasting for forty days and nights.
3. Christ completely represented man.
To Be a Substitute Sacrifice (Heb 2:16-17)
1. The word expiation or propitiation means satisfaction.
2. Since Christ was fully man, He could die in our place as a substitute.
3. Berkhof (p. 319) suggests the following three reasons:
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“(1) He might bring a sacrifice of infinite value and render perfect obedience to
the law of God; (2) He might bear the wrath of God redemptively, that is, so as to
free others from the curse of the law; and (3) he might be able to apply the fruits
of His accomplished work to those who accept him by faith.”
To Be the One Mediator Between God and Man (1 Tim 2:5)
1. We needed a mediator who could represent us to God and who could represent
God to us.
2. The only one who could do this is the God-Man, Jesus Christ.
To Fulfill God's Original Purpose for Man to Rule Over Creation (Genesis
1:28)
1. Jesus is now crowned with glory and honor (Heb 2:9), has been given all
authority in heaven and earth (Matthew 28:18), all things have been put under
His feet (Eph 1:22), and in the future we will rule and reign with Christ (Rev
3:21).
To Be Our Example and Pattern in Life (1 John 2:6,2 Cor 3:18)
1. We are to follow the Lord in suffering (1 Peter 2:21)
2. We are to look to Jesus who is the "author and perfecter of our faith" (Heb
12:2)
3. We are to look to the Lord when we grow tired from suffering at the hands of
others (Heb 12:3)
To Be the Pattern for our Redeemed Bodies (1 Cor 15:42-44, 1 Corinthians
15:23, Colossians 1:18)
1. Christ's body is the firstfruits (1 Cor 15:23) and He is the first-born of the
dead (Colossians 1:18)
2. We shall bear the image of the man of heaven (1 Cor 15:49)
3. We shall be like Christ (1 John 3:2)
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To Sympathize as our High Priest (Heb 2:18,4:15-16)
1. We now have Christ, who has infinite power and infinite compassion as our
helper.
2. Rom 8- He makes perfect intercession on our behalf.
To Destroy the Works of the Devil
1. Through death, which only a man can experience, He destroyed the one who
had the power of death (Hebrews 2:14).
It made possible the uniting of the full humanity and full deity in one person
(John 3:16, Galatians 4:4).
To reveal God to man.
1. John 1:14-18, 14:7-8.
VI. The Deity of Christ
The Eternality of Christ
Isaiah 7:14, 9:6
1. The term everlasting father carries the idea of “possessor of eternity.”
2. It also carries the idea of being the eternal source or origin of something.
Abraham is the father of the nation Israel. He is where the nation Israel came
from. He is the source of the nation. This word does not speak of a paternal
relationship. You might translate the phrase “Everlasting Father” as “Eternal
Source”.
3. In Hebrew and Aramaic-the Father of something was the one who possessed
it.
4. Theologian John R. Martin points out, “father of eternity” shows that Christ is
eternal; it shows his relationship to time and not his relationship with the
Father or the Holy Spirit.
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5. Targum of Isaiah- paraphrases of the OT the Jews used to help in their
understanding of the Scriptures states:
“His name has been called from old, Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, He who
lives forever, the Anointed One, in whose days peace shall increase upon us.”
Isaiah 9:6
The Jehovah’s Witnesses state that Jesus is a mighty god but he is not Almighty
God
There are two ways to respond to this:
Response A:
1. Is 10:21 Jehovah is referred to as mighty God, thus it cannot mean a lesser
deity
2. Jer 32:17-18 Jehovah is called mighty God in reference to Him as Creator
3. Elohim is the word for God here- used 2,570 times
One God verses: Isaiah 44:6, 44:8, and 45:5
Response B: Jesus as Everlasting Father
1. Better translated- Father of eternity
2. Means- possessor of eternity or eternal source
3. Theologian John R. Martin “an idiom used to describe the Messiah’s
relationship to time, not His relationship with the other members of the
Trinity.”
Micah 5:2
New World Translation- “And you O, Bethlehem Ephrathah, the one too little to
get to be among the thousands of Judah, from you there will come out to me the
one who has become ruler in Israel, whose origins is from early times, from the
days of time indefinite.”
1. Jesus was created a long time ago.
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Response:
This phrase is properly translated “whose origins are from old, from ancient
times.”
1. Hab 1:2 The phrase “from old” refers to Jehovah and His eternal existence,
surely not the idea that He had a beginning.
2. The phrase “from ancient times” = “immeasurable time”
3. Jamiesset, Fausset and Brown the two terms taken together speak of “the
strongest assertion of indefinite duration of which the Hebrew language is
capable.”
John 8:58
1. Ex 3:14 God’s Name which reveals (LXX ego eimi) and is used some 5300
2.
3.
4.
5.
times.
Ego eimi- The Eternally self-existent one- His character. LXX uses word in
Deuteronomy 32:39, Is 43:10, 46:4.
Leon Morris notes that ego eimi is not “an emphatic form of speech and one
that is not normally employed in ordinary speech.” It is seen also in John
4:26, 6:35, 48,51, 8:12,24,28,58, 10:7,11,14, 11:25, 14:6, 15:1,5, 18:5,6,8.
(Interesting Note: The JW Bible translates this accurately as I am in all these
cases! Yet it messes up 8:58 as “I have been,” which is an impossible
translation.)
John 8:24 why this is so important and John 17:3- ego eimi, also in 8:28
8:59 The Jews understood when they picked up stones to throw at Him.
Stoning was allowed for:





having a familiar spirit
cursing (blaspheme) Leviticus 24:16
false prophets
stubborn sons
adultery and rape
6. Not just that He was older than the great Abraham, but that He was much
greater than even Abraham’s eternal God.
7. Leviticus 24:16 Blasphemers were to be put to death by stoning. (Not for
lying saying that I am older than Abraham).
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Seen Abraham (3 Views):
1. Melchizedek
2. Three men in Genesis 18
3. By faith looked forward as in Hebrews 11:16
Rev 3:14
“These things says the Amen, the True and Faithful Witness, the Beginning of
the Creation of God.”
A. Greek arche
1. A wide range of meanings
2. Active Meaning - “one who begins” origin, source, creator or first cause”
3. Spiros Zodhiates- One of the most authoritative Greek Scholars of our day
and age, wrote:
“Christ is called the beginning because He is the efficient cause of the creation,
the Head because He is before all things and all things were created by Him and
for Him.
4. Arndt and Gingrich- The Most Respected and Authoritative- the meaning in
Rev 3:14 is “first cause.”
5. In Revelation God is referred to as the Beginning and the End (Rev 1:8, 21:6,
22:13).
6. Henry Alford, of Christ, “the whole of creation of God is begun and
conditioned: He is its source and primary fountainhead.”
B. Other Possibilities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The Greek word may also mean ruler or magistrate.
When used of person it usually carries that idea.
It is translated as principalities (plural form).
It carries the idea of rule or domain in Luke 20:20, Jude 6).
Idea is that Christ has authority over all of creation as the NIV interprets the
verse.
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C. English Translations





NIV “the ruler of God’s creation”
Jerusalem Bible “the ultimate source of God’s creation”
New English Bible “the prime source of God’s creation”
Knox’s Version “the source of God’s creation”
Goodspeed “the beginner of God’s creation”
1. The English word architect is derived from the Greek arche- Jesus is the
architect.
Eternality
 Jn 1:1,2,3,10,14,15, 8:58, 17:5, 24,
 1 Jn 1:1, Rev 1:8, 22:13
 Heb 1:11, 13:8,
 Col 1:16-17,
Scriptural Evidence
1. Explicit “Doctrinal” Statements
a. Matthew 1:23 – “God with us”
b. John 1:1, 18 – “The Word was God”
c. Romans 9:5 – “God blessed forever”
d. 1 Timothy 3:16 – “God in the flesh”
e. Colossians 2:9 – “Fullness of the Godhead”
f. Titus 2:13 – “God and Savior”
g. 1 John 5:20 – “The True God”
h. Isaiah 9:6 – “Mighty God”
i. 2 Peter 1:1 – “God and Savior”
j. Revelation 1:8, 1:17-18, 21:6, 22:12-20 – “First and Last”
k. Hebrews 1:8-10 – “Your throne O God, You LORD”
l. John 20:28 – “My Lord and my God”
m. Jeremiah 23:5-6 – “The LORD our Righteousness”
2. Jesus’ Own Claims (Did Jesus claim to be God?)
a. Matthew 8:2-3 (cf. Acts 10:25-26, Revelation 19:10)
b. Matthew 14:33 – Received Worship
c. Mark 14:61-64, John 5:17-18 – Declared equality with God
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d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
John 8:58 – “Before Abraham was I AM”
John 10:30-33 – “I and the Father are one”
John 14:9 – “He who has seen Me has seen the Father”
John 16:15 – “all things the Father has are mine”
John 20:27-29 – Allowed Himself to be called God
3. Divine Attributes
a. Self-Existence – John 2:19, 5:26, 10:17-18
b. Eternal – John 17:5, Isaiah9:6
c. Omnipresent – Matthew 28:20
d. Omnipotent – Matthew 28:18
e. Unchangeable – Hebrews 13:8, 1:11-12
f. Holiness – John 8:46, Matthew 27:3-4, Hebrews 4:15
g. Life – John 1:4, 11:25, 14:6, Colossians 1:17
4. Divine Actions
a. Forgives Sins – Acts 5:31, Mark 2:1-12, Luke 5:20ff, Isaiah 43:25, Psalm
103:3, 12
b. Receives Worship – Matthew 14:33, Hebrews 1:6 (cf. Luke 4:8), John
20:28, Revelation 5:8-14 (cf. Deuteronomy 6:13)
c. Receives Prayer – Acts 7:59
d. Gives life, light – John 1:4, 11:25, 14:6
e. Origin is heaven – John 3:13, 6:51, 17:5
f. Will come on the clouds – 1 Thessalonians 3:13 (Zech. 14:4-5)
g. Gives eternal life – John 17:2
h. Upholds all things – Colossians 1:17, Hebrews 1:3
i. Life, Resurrection, Judgment – John 5:21, 5:22, 27, 11:43
j. Creation – Colossians 1:16, John 1:3 (cf. Genesis 1:1)
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VII. Jesus Christ: The God-Man
The Problem
Jesus is shown in Scripture to be fully God. He is also shown as being perfect
human and fully human. These must be reconciled.
Only God can redeem. His deity gives infinite value to His sacrifice.
Party
Time
Docetists
Late 1st
Century
Ebionites
2nd
Century
Arians
4th
Century
Apollinarians 4th
Century
Nestorians
5th
Century
Eutychians
Orthodox
5th
Century
Reference
1 John 4:1-3
Irenaeus, etc.
Condemned by
Nicea, 325
Condemned by
Ephesus 431
Condemned by
Ephesus 431
Condemned by
Chalcedon, 451
III Constantinople,
680
From
Defined by
Beginning Chalcedon, 451
Teaching on Christ
Human Divine
Nature
Nature
Jesus only “appeared” as Denied
Affirmed
a man.
Denied Jesus’ deity
Affirmed Denied
Greatest of all God’s
created beings.
Divine Logos replaced
human spirit
Two distinct persons.
Son of God & human
Jesus
Not fully human, not
fully divine. Christ was
a single mixed nature.
Affirmed Reduced
Perfect humanity,
perfect deity. Christ is
one person.
Affirmed Affirmed
Reduced Affirmed
Affirmed Affirmed
Reduced Reduced
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The Solution
The Council of Chalcedon, 451 A.D.
“Following the holy fathers, we all with one consent, teach and profess one and
the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect Deity, and the same perfect
in humanity, truly God, and the same truly human, of perfect humanity, truly
God, and the same truly man, of reasonable soul and body, of the same substance
with the Father as to His divinity, of the same substance with us as to His
humanity; in all things like to us, except sin; before the ages begotten of the
Father as to His Deity, but in the latter days for us, and for our redemption,
begotten (the same) of the Virgin Mary, the mother of God, as to His humanity;
one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, manifested in two natures,
without confusion, without conversion, indivisibly, inseparably. The distinction
of natures being by no means abolished by the union, but rather the property of
each preserved and combined into one person and one hypostasis; not one
severed into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begotten, viz.
God, Logos and the Lord Jesus Christ.”
The Relationship Between the
Two Natures of Christ (The Hypostatic Union)
Lutheran View
Reformed View
“Ubiquity of Christ’s body which does involve a transfer of
the attributes of omnipresence to the humanity of Christ
(1527-1528).”
The union involves no transfer of attributes from one
nature to the other.
Luther taught the real presence of Christ in the elements of the Lord’s Supper.
As a result he taught Christ is present in human nature everywhere at all times.
Though he did not teach transubstantiation like the Roman Catholic Church, he
taught the elements were the actual body and blood of Christ.
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VIII. “Who Do Men Say That I Am?”
Bahai Faith
Jesus is a prophet for the Christians, as was Moses for the
Jews; he is one of several “manifestations of God”.
Christian
The highest human ever to convey the divine idea.
Science
Hare Krishna The son of Krishna; he was a spiritual master but not God
incarnate.
Jehovah’s
Witnesses
The first of God’s creations; considered to be the
archangel Michael, but is not considered in any way to be
equal with God the Father; he was only a perfect man.
Mormons
In his preexistent state he became a god through his
(Church
of obedience and devotion; he was conceived in the flesh by
Latter-Day
sexual relations between the Virgin Mary and Elohim, a
Saints)
resurrected and glorified father.
Transcendent Believed to be a master, along with several others.
al Meditation
Unitarian
No different than any other man except that he was born
Church
without sin; he is only regarded as one of the great sacred
men of times past.
Unitarians
He is not God incarnate, but has let God reveal himself
through him like many others have done; there was no
virgin birth.
Unity School
of
Christianity
Way
International
The only individual who has fully expressed the Christlike perfection which we all have the ability to reach.
A man who had no prior existence before he was
conceived by the act of God the Father creating sperm in
the womb of the Virgin Mary; Jesus was the Son of God,
not God the Son nor God Himself.
“Who do YOU Say That I Am?”
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Soteriology:
“The Work of Jesus Christ”
I. The Significance of the Atonement
The death of Christ is highly significant in Christian Doctrine. Contrary to the
facts in the case of ordinary men, it is the death, rather than the earthly life of
Christ is of supreme importance.
To more fully appreciate the salvation which God has given to each of us, it is
important for us to consider what actually took place on the cross, as well as what
did not .
II. Terminology Related To Salvation
1. The death of Christ was Substitutionary (vicarious)
1. Christ bears the punishment rightly due sinners.
2. Guilt is imputed to Him in such a way that He representatively bore their
punishment.
3. The importance of this doctrine.
a) Through Christ's death the righteous demands of God have been met.
b) It was a legal transaction in which Christ dealt with the sin problem for the
human race.
c) He became the substitute for humanity's sin.
4. Scriptural Evidence
a) 2 Cor. 5:21
b) 1 Peter 2:24
c) Hebrews 9:28
d) Isaiah 53:4-6
e) John 11:50-51
f) Romans 5:6-8
g) Galatians 3:13
h) Titus 2:14
i) 1 Peter 3:18
5. Christ died instead of sinners -- Matthew. 20:28; Mark 10:45
6. Christ died in behalf of or in place of sinners -Gal. 3:13; 1 Tim. 2:6; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Peter 3:18
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2. The death of Christ was Redemptive.
Three terms are used to describe redemption:
1. The Greek word agorazo
a) Redemption means "to purchase in the marketplace." This had to do with the
sale of slaves.
b) The believer has been purchased out of the slave market of sin and set free
from sin's bondage.
c) The purchase price for the believer's freedom and release from sin was the
death of Christ.
d) Scriptural Evidence:
(1) 1 Cor. 6:20; 7:23
(2) Rev. 5:9; 14:3,4
2. The Greek word exagorazo
a) Christ redeemed believers from the curse and bondage of the law that only
condemned and could not save.
b) Believers have been removed from the slave market.
c) Scriptural Evidence:
(1) Gal. 3:13; 4:5
3. The Greek word lutroo
a) Definition: "to obtain release by the payment of a price."
b) Scriptural Evidence:
1) (Luke 24:21)
2) 1 Peter 1:18
3) Titus 2:14
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3. The Death of Christ brought Reconciliation.
1. Sin had created a barrier between man and God and rendered man hostile
toward God
a) Isaiah 59:1-2
b) Colossians 1:21, 22
c) James 4:4
2. Christ removed the enmity and wrath of God -- Rom. 5:10
3. Two aspects of reconciliation
a) Objective (Provisional Reconciliation)
Man is reconciled to God prior to faith and man is rendered savable (2 Cor.
5:18a, 19a)
b) Subjective (Experimental Reconciliation)
Man is reconciled to God when he believes (2 Cor. 5:18b, 19b)
4. The death of Christ was a Propitiatory Sacrifice
(Romans 3:25 – Mercy Seat)
1. Christ fully satisfied all the righteous demands of God toward sinners.
2. Propitiation relates to:
a) The wrath of God -- Because God is holy, His wrath is directed toward sin and
must be satisfied to spare man from eternal destruction.
b) God Providing the remedy -- God provides the solution to sin by sending
Christ as a satisfaction for sin.
c) Christ's death Satisfies the wrath of God -- The gift of Christ satisfied the
holiness of God and averted His wrath.
5. The death of Christ provided Forgiveness.
1. “The legal act of God whereby He removes the charges that were held
against the sinner because proper satisfaction or atonement for those sins
has been made.”
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2. The Greek word charizomai means "to forgive out of grace."
Eph. 4:32 -- the cancellation of a debt.
3. The Greek word aphiemi means "to let go, release, to send away"
Eph. 1:7
Col. 2:13
6. The death of Christ brought Justification.
1. "To declare righteous the one who has faith in Christ"
2. It is a forensic (legal) act of God whereby He declares the believing sinner
righteous on the basis of the blood of Christ.
3. "Justification is a gift given through the grace of God (Rom. 3:24) and takes
place the moment the individual has faith in Christ (Rom. 4:2; 5:1). The ground
of justification is the death of Christ (Rom. 5:9), apart from works (Rom. 4:5).
This means of justification is faith (Rom. 5:1). Through justification God
maintains integrity and His standard, yet is able to enter into fellowship with
sinners because they have the very righteousness of Christ imputed to them.
III. The Extent of the Atonement
For whom did Christ die? Did Christ die only for the elect? Or did He die
for everyone though not everyone will be saved?
"Sufficient for all, efficient for the elect"
The atonement of Christ is universal in three respects:
1. The atonement is sufficient for all. “No sinner will be lost for lack of a
sufficient atonement.”
--A.A. Hodge.
2. The atonement is applicable to all. There is nothing lacking in the mode of
Christ's incarnation or in His death and resurrection that would make it
inapplicable to any member of the human race in any earthly circumstances.
3. The atonement is offered to all. The benefit of the atonement (salvation) is
offered to all men/individuals without exception.
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The atonement of Christ is particular in one respect:
1. The atonement is particular in its ultimate results. The effect of the
atonement (salvation/the free gift) will save only the elect. Many, perhaps a
majority of those who reach adulthood, are not saved, but are eternally lost.
IV. The Process of Salvation
A. God's Side- Salvation is the work of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The Father
1. Election
Definition: "The eternal act of God whereby He, by His foreknowledge
and good pleasure of His will, which He purposed in Himself, chose a
certain number of people to be the recipients of special grace and eternal
salvation.”
Eph. 1:4 -- God called out some from among the masses
Characteristics:
(a) Took place in eternity past (Eph. 1:4)
(b) It is a sovereign act of God according to His sovereign will (Rom. 9:11;
2 Tim. 1:9)
(c) It is an expression of the love of God (Eph. 1:4)
(d) It is not conditioned on man (2 Tim. 1:9; Rom. 9:11)
(e) It reflects the justice of God (Rom. 9:14,20)
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2. Predestination
Definition: "to mark out beforehand" "God by His sovereign choice
marked believers off in eternity past.
Characteristics:
(a) It includes the crucifixion -- not just individual salvation (Acts 4:28)
(b) It determined our status as adopted sons of God (Eph. 1:5)
(c) It assures our ultimate glorification (Rom. 8:29-30)
(d) The purpose of extolling the grace of God (Eph. 1:6)
(e) Secures our eternal inheritance (Eph. 1:11)
(f) It is according to the free choice of God and according to His will (Eph.
1:5,11)
Election and predestination do not take away man's responsibility. Even though
election and predestination are clearly taught in Scripture, man is still held
accountable for his choices. Scripture never suggests that man is lost because he
is not elect or has not been predestined; the emphasis of Scripture is that man is
lost because he refuses to receive the free gift of salvation the gospel.
3. Adoption
(a) Describes the rights and privileges as well as the new position of the believer
in Christ.
(b) The believer is released from slavery into freedom and maturity in Christ
(Rom. 8:15)
(c) The believer is released from bondage under the law into a new status as a son
(Gal 4:5)
(d) The Believer enjoys a new relationship wherein he may address God as
"Abba, Father!" (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6)
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(e) Takes place in eternity past but realized when the person believes in Jesus
Christ (Eph. 1:5)
The Son
The death of Christ as a substitutionary atonement for sin
Sanctification
(1) Positional sanctification
Hebrews 10:10, 14, 29, Colossians 1:21-22
(2) Experiental or progressive sanctification
Hebrews 10:15, 1 Peter 13-16, Romans 12:1-2
(3) Ultimate or final sanctification
Ephesians 5:26-27
The Holy Spirit
a) Conviction to the unbeliever
b) Regenerates the person to give him spiritual life
c) Indwells the believer
d) Baptizes the believer into union with Christ
e) Seals the believer
f) Empowers the believer
B. Man's Side
1. Believe the Gospel -- John 1:12; 3:16, 18, 36, 5:24; 11:25-26; 12:44; 20:31;
Acts 16:31; 1 John 5:13, etc.
2. What is Saving Faith?
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a) It is not mere Intellectual assent to a doctrine.
b) It is knowledge (Intellect).
(1) Certain truths are believed for salvation
(a) Jesus claimed to be God
i) Belief in His deity (Rom. 10:9-10)
ii) Believe what Jesus claimed to be (Jn. 8:24)
(b) Man's sinfulness
(c) Christ's atoning sacrifice
(d) Bodily resurrection of Christ
(e) Nature of God (i.e., Trinity)
c) It is Conviction (Emotions)
(1) There is an inner conviction of the truthfulness of the claims of Christ (John
16:8-11)
d) It is Volitional (Will)
(1) A decision must be made as an act of the will (Romans 10:9)
V. Regeneration
A. Definition:
1. Matthew. 19:28 -- the renewing of the world in the time of the Messiah.
2. Titus 3:5 -- the rebirth of a redeemed person.
3. Regeneration is separate from conversion.
a) Conversion is the response of the human being to God’s offers of salvation
and approach to man.
(Our active role)
b) Regeneration is the act whereby God imparts life to the one who believes.
(Our passive role)
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B. Explanation
1. It is instantaneous -- spiritual birth takes place when the Holy Spirit imparts
new life.
2. It is not the result of human experience -- It is not something that a person
does but it is done to a person.
3. It is not based on human effort -- It is not effected by the human will. It is an
act of God (John 1:13).
C. Results of Regeneration
1. An additional nature -- 2 Pet 1:4; Eph. 4:24; 2 Cor. 5:17
2. A new life -- 1 Cor. 2:16; Rom. 5:5; 1 John 4:9; Rom. 6:13
VI. The Security Of The Believer
A. Two views:
1. Arminian View -- Man can lose or forfeit his salvation by an act of his will.
2. Calvinist View -- The true believer will persevere in his faith (Perseverance of
the Saints).
B. Salvation is:
1. The work of the Father
a) Eph. 1:4,5
b) Rom. 8:28-30
c) Rom. 5:7-10
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2. The work of the Son
a) Eph. 1:7
b) Rom. 3:25
c) Rom. 5:1
d) Col. 2:13
e) 1 Cor. 1:2
f) John 17:24
g) 1 John 2:1
h) Heb. 7:25
i) If a believer could be lost it would imply that Christ's work is ineffective
as the believers mediator.
3. The work of the Holy Spirit
a) Titus 3:5
b) John 14:17
c) Eph. 4:30
d) 1 Cor. 12:13
4. The key issue in the discussion of the believer's security concerns the issue of
who does the saving
5. By grace.
Pneumatology:
“The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit”
I. Who Is The Holy Spirit?
A. The Scriptures indicate that the Holy Spirit is NOT an influence or power in
essence or by nature.
B. The Scriptures ascribe gender to the Holy Spirit (ie. personal pronoun "he" is
used not "it") in John 14, 15, 16.
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C. The Scriptures ascribe personality to the Holy Spirit.
1. He can be grieved: Eph. 4:30
2. He can be blasphemed: Mat. 12:31
3. He speaks: Acts 10:19,20; 13:2
4. He can be lied to: Acts 5:3
5. Intercedes for us: Rom. 8:26-27
6. He can be insulted: Heb. 10:29
II. The Holy Spirit Is God
A. Scriptural evidence supports this.
1. Ps. 95:7-11 cf. Heb. 3:7-19
2. Is. 6:8-10 cf. Acts 28:25-27
3. Jer. 31:32-34 cf. Heb. 10:15-16
4. Acts 5:1-4
B. The Holy Spirit has the attributes of God
1. Omnipotence: Lk. 1:35-37
2. Omnipresence: Ps. 139:7-10
3. Omniscient: Is. 40: 13; I Cor. 2:10
4. Eternal: Heb. 9:14
C. The Holy Spirit is the Third Person of the Trinity
1. Is. 48:16
2. Mat. 28:19
3. 2 Cor. 13:14
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D. The Holy Spirit is called LORD
1. One Lord: Eph. 4:5; I Cor. 8:6
2. Father is called Lord: Is. 64:8; Mat. 11:25
3. Son is called Lord: Jn 11:32; Acts 2:36; Rom. 6:23; I Cor. 8:6; I Tim
6:15; Rev. 17:14
4. Holy Spirit is called Lord: 2 Cor. 3:17
E. The Holy Spirit is a distinct person from the Father and Son.
1. At the Incarnation: Lk. 1:35
2. Christ's Baptism: Mat. 3:16; Lk. 3:21-22
3. The Great Commission: Mat. 28:19
4. His sending from heaven: John 14:26, 16:7
5. In Paul’s Writings: 2 Cor. 13:14
F. The Holy Spirit participates in the Work of God:
1. Creation
a) Father: Gen 1:1, Is. 42:5; Zech. 12:1
b) Son: Jn. 1:3; I Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:16-17; Heb 1:2, 10
c) Holy Spirit: Gen. 1:2; Job 33:4; Ps. 104:30
2. Indwelling
a) Father: Jn 14:23; I Jn. 2:23
b) Son: Eph. 3:17; Rev. 3:20
c) Holy Spirit: Jn 14:17; I Cor. 6:19
3. Resurrection of Christ
a) Father: Gal. 1:1; I Thes. 1:9-10
b) Son: Jn. 2:18-22; Jn 10:17-18
c) Holy Spirit: I Peter 3:18
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4. Glory
a) Father: Is. 42:8
b) Son: Jn 17:5; Heb. 1:3
c) Holy Spirit: I Pet. 4:14
III. How Is The Holy Spirit Referred To In The Bible?
A. Names
1. The Spirit of God: Gen. 1:2
2. The Spirit of the Lord God: Is. 61:1
3. The Spirit of the Father: Mat. 10:20
4. The Spirit of Grace: Zech. 12:10
5. The Spirit of Truth: John 14:17
6. The Spirit of Holiness: Rom. 1:4
7. The Spirit of Life: Rom. 8:2
8. The Spirit of Adoption: Rom. 8:15
9. The Spirit of Christ: Rom. 8:9
10. The Spirit of the Son: Gal. 4:6
11. The Spirit of Glory: I Pet. 4:14
12. My Spirit: Gen 6:3
13. The Holy Spirit: Ps. 51:11
14. The Helper: John 14:16:26
15. The Eternal Spirit: Heb. 9:14
B. Symbols
1. The Breath or the Wind:
a) Ps. 33:4; Ez. 37:9; Jn 3:8; 20:22; Acts 2:2
b) Unexpected action, invisible, heavenly, sovereign. Breath
indicates a direct manifestation of His very presence (Pache 21)
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2. The Dove:
a) Luke 3:22
b) Gentleness, tenderness and purity (Pache, 22)
3. Oil:
a) Lk 4:18; Acts 10:38; Heb. 1:9; II Cor. 1:21; I Jn 2:20
b) allusions to the unction of oil described in the OT for priests,
prophets and kings (Pache, 22); Zech. 4:2-5.
4. Fire:
a) Acts 2:3-4; Mat. 3:11-12; Lk. 3:16-17
b) Represents, not the power of the Holy Spirit, but the purifying
action, and judgment of impurity.
5. Living Waters
a) John 17:38-39; 4:14; Is. 44:3
b) refreshes and quenches our thirst
c) See Ex. 17:6 (cf. I Cor. 10:4) as an allusion to the Trinity.
6. The Earnest
a) Eph. 1:13-14; II Cor. 1:21-22
b) A solemn guarantee of our full salvation--a down payment!
IV. The Work of the Holy Spirit
His Relationship to the World
A. In Creation and Preservation (see II.F.1.c above)
B. In the Affairs of Non-Believers
1. Jn 16:8 – Convicts the world of sin, righteousness, judgement.
2. Accomplishes His will through individuals (ie. Cyrus, Is. 44:28-45:6)
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C. His Relationship to Scripture and to Christ
1. To Scripture
a) The author: 2 Peter 1:21; John 16:13; Acts 28:25; Acts 1:16;
Heb. 3:7;10:15
b) Interpreter: Eph. 1:17; I Cor. 2:12; John 16:14
2. To Christ
a) Conceived by the Holy Spirit -- Mat. 1:18,20; Lk 1:35
b) At His Baptism -- Mt. 3:16; Mk 1:10; Lk 3:22; Jn 1:32
c) Led by the Spirit into the wilderness -- Mt 4:1; Mk 1:22
d) Spirit is upon Him -- Mt. 12:18; Lk 4:18
e) Full of the Spirit -- Lk 4:1
f) In the power of the Spirit -- Lk 4:14
g) Rejoiced in the Spirit -- Lk 10:21
h) Cast out demons by the Spirit of God -- Mt. 12:28
i) Raised Christ from the dead – 1 Pet 3:18
His Relationship to the Believer
A. The Work of the Spirit at Salvation
1. Regeneration: John 3:3-8
2. Indwelling: John 14:17; Rom 8:9; 1 Cor. 3:16, 6:19
3. Baptizes into the Body of Christ -- 1 Cor. 12:13
4. He seals: Eph. 1:13f., 4:30; 2 Cor. 1:22
B. The Continuing Work of the Spirit in the Believer
1.
2.
3.
4.
He fills: Eph. 5:18. General filling and for specific purposes.
He guides: Gal. 5:16, 25
He empowers: Rom. 8:13; Gal. 5:17; Zech. 4:6
He teaches: John 14:26; 16:13; 1 John 2:20,27
5. Gives gifts: see following pages
6. He leads us: Romans 8:14
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C. The Fruit of the Holy Spirit
1. Identified in Galatians 5:22
2. What is a "fruit?"
a) Fruit is not something which you strive to achieve
b) Fruit is the natural outgrowth of being connected to the vine (abiding in
Christ)
D. The Gifts of the Holy Spirit
1. What is the purpose of the gifts?
a) They are to be used for service
b) They are for edification (1 Cor. 12:7; 14:26)
2. Four Classifications:
a) 1 Corinthians 12:4-11 – Gifts
(1) Word of Wisdom
(2) Word of Knowledge
(3) Faith
(4) Gifts of Healing
(5) Effecting of Miracles
(6) Prophecy
(7) Distinguishing of Spirits
(8) Various Kinds of Tongues
(9) Interpretation of Tongues
b) 1 Corinthians 12:28 – Offices
(1) Apostles
(2) Prophets
(3) Gifts of healings
(4) Helps
(5) Administrations
(6) Various Kinds of Tongues
c) Romans 12:6-8 – Expressions of
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(1) Prophecy
(2) Service (helps)
(3) Teaching
(4) Exhortation
(5) Giving
(6) Leadership
(7) Mercy
d) Ephesians 4:11 – Offices
(1) Apostles
(2) Prophets
(3) Evangelists
(4) Pastors / Teachers
The Baptism With The Holy Spirit
In the Church today there exist two major views concerning the doctrine of the
baptism with the Holy Spirit. There are many that teach salvation and the
baptism with the Holy Spirit are one in the same thing. There are many on the
other hand who teach these are separate experiences in the Christian's life. To
this writer the evidence favors, and is conclusive with the latter view. In order to
prove this one needs to go directly to the Scriptures and discover the truth
contained in them. We will look at this doctrine in five areas which include: (1)
There is a Baptism with the Holy Spirit, (2) Jesus is the Baptizer, (3) The
purpose, (4) The four prepositions used in conjunction with the believer and the
Holy Spirit, (5) The distinction between salvation and the baptism with the Holy
Spirit.
I. There is a Baptism with the Holy Spirit
A. Read Matthew 3:11--Who is speaking here? John the Baptist. What does he
say about himself? He baptizes with water. What does he say about Christ?
He baptizes with the Holy Spirit. This same statement occurs in Mark 1:8,
Luke 3:16, John 1:33-34.
B. According to Acts 1:4-8, what were the disciples to wait for in Jerusalem
specifically mentioned in verse 5? The Holy Spirit.
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C. Read Acts 10:44-48--What happened here? The Holy Spirit fell upon the
Gentiles. In Acts 11:14-18, Peter is telling the story of what happened in Acts
10 and what does he call it in 11:16? Being baptized with the Holy Spirit.
II. Jesus is the Baptizer with the Holy Spirit
A. It is important to see that Jesus is the one who baptizes people with the Holy
Spirit in order to prove it is a distinct experience apart from salvation. Each
person of the Trinity has their role in the work of salvation and it is imperative
that one sees the difference. The Father
sent the Son, and the Son died on the cross and the Holy Spirit indwells the
person. Who does John 1:33-34, Mark 1:8, Luke 3:16 and Matthew 3:11 say
will be the one who baptizes with the Holy Spirit? Jesus.
B. In Acts 2 the disciples were baptized with the Holy Spirit. In verses 32,33,
who is the one pouring out the Holy Spirit? Jesus.
C. According to Luke 24:49, who will send forth the promise of the Holy Spirit?
Jesus.
III. The Purpose of the Baptism with the Holy Spirit
A. It is important to see what the Scriptures indicate the purpose of the Holy
Spirit is. Many try to teach it is for the purpose of receiving gifts (especially
tongues) but this is not Scriptural. The clearest and most concise verse in the
Bible concerning the purpose of the Baptism with the Holy Spirit is found in
Acts 1:8--What does it say its purpose is? To empower to be a witness. The
clear teaching of Scripture is that it is to receive power to be a witness for
Christ. This may or may not be the point of which any of the gifts or spiritual
manifestations take place.
B.
Read Luke 24:44-49--What is the purpose of the Holy Spirit coming
mentioned especially in verse 49? Endue with power. What is it associated
with in verse 48? (Just as in Acts 1:8) to be a witness.
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C. What does Peter say in Acts 2:16-21 would be the result of those having the
Spirit poured out upon? The supernatural gifts. The baptism with the Holy
Spirit is not an experience, which brings a person to completion, but is the
point of entry into the supernatural realm. When the Scriptures (Acts 1:8)
speak of receiving power to be a witness it refers to being the type of witness
illustrated in the entire book of Acts. This would include love being the most
important manifestation but also the power of God (gifts, miracles, salvation,
casting out demons) being manifested in your life.
IV. The Four Prepositions used in conjunction with the Holy Spirit and the
Believer.
A. There are four different prepositions used to illustrate the separate works the
Holy Spirit accomplishes in ones life. These are with, in, upon, and filling.
Let's look at how this relates to one life today. Read John 16:7-11: What is
the Holy Spirit trying to show people who have not accepted Christ? Jesus is
the Messiah, the Savior. In John 14:16-17, what two prepositions are used
here? With & in Before one is saved the Holy Spirit is with the person
convicting them of their need for Christ.
B. The next relationship centers around the preposition according to Romans 8:9,
where does the Spirit dwell? In us.
C. The next relationship relates to the word upon which is the same as the
baptism with the Holy Spirit. Where does the Holy Spirit come in Acts 1:8 in
relation to the person? Upon us. What about in Luke 24:49? Upon us, Acts
19:1-7? (especially verse 6) Upon
D. The next relationship is the filling of the Holy Spirit, which is an experience
the believer needs on a daily basis. What does Eph. 5:18 exhort us to be?
Continually filled with the Spirit. This literally means keep being filled with
the Holy Spirit. What happened to the Apostles in Acts 4:31 and 4:8? They
were filled with the Holy Spirit.
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V. The Distinction Between the Baptism with the Holy Spirit and Salvation
A. Many teach that the Baptism with the Holy Spirit and salvation are one and
the same experience based on a couple of verses. When there verses are
examined in light of others they do not stand on their own. The first verse
pointed to is Eph. 4:5 which states there is only one baptism. Salvation is,
therefore, synonymous with the baptism with the Holy Spirit. But what type
of baptism is mentioned in Matthew 28:18-20? Water baptism. What type of
baptism is mentioned in Matthew. 3:11? A baptism with the Holy Spirit.
Does not this mention at least two different types of baptisms found in the
Scriptures? Yes. If you read Eph. 4:1-5 in context, one can see Paul is
emphasizing the unity of the Body of Christ in that section, and that there is
only one baptism into the Body of Christ. Or, in other words, there is only
one salvation, not many.
B. The main verse used to try to prove the terms are synonymous is I Cor. 12:13.
This verse is speaking of the salvation experience and not the empowering of
Acts 1:8. The problem is that people see baptism and spirit and try to say this
is the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. But whom does Matthew 3:11 say will
baptize with the Holy Spirit? Jesus. Who does 1 Cor. 12:13 say is doing the
baptizing? The Holy Spirit.
C. Now let's look at how this worked out in the Apostles lives and during the
early church. What did Jesus say about the Holy Spirit and the Apostles in
John 14:16-17? Was with them & would be in them. But when did the
Apostles receive the Spirit, or by using the prepositions, when did the
Apostles have the Holy Spirit come in them? Turn to John 20:21-23--What
did Jesus give them when He breathed on them? The Holy Spirit. But now
one must notice what He told them to do in Luke 24:49 and Acts 1:4 Wait for
the Holy Spirit. And what did Jesus call this event in Acts 1:5? Baptized with
the Holy Spirit.
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D. Now let's look at how this worked out in the early church's ministry. Read
Acts 8:5-17. What were the two responses of the people according to Acts
8:6,12? Heeded the Word and believed. So, were these believers or
unbelievers? believers. But what did the Apostles pray for these people,
according to Acts 8:14-17? That they might receive the Holy Spirit. Notice
that verse 16 did not say these people had not yet had the Holy Spirit in them
but He had not yet fallen upon them. The Church only baptizes (or should)
believers and these believers needed the Holy Spirit to come upon them or in
other words to experience the baptism with the Holy Spirit for power.
E. Another place in the Word where this sequence is found is in Acts 19:1-7.
What did Paul do to these people in verse 5? Baptized them with water. So
were they believers or unbelievers? Believers. Then what did he do in verse
6? Laid hands on them. Notice the preposition in verse 6, of where the Holy
Spirit came-which is Upon. The Baptism with the Holy Spirit is clearly an
experience after salvation for the believer to have the Holy Spirit come upon
him to receive power to be a witness. But in some cases (as in Acts 10:44-48)
it can occur at the same time as salvation. But regardless of the timing of this
experience, the result should be receiving the power to be a witness for Jesus
Christ. Then, on a daily basis according to Eph. 5:18, one needs to be
continually filled with the Spirit.
Ecclesiology:
“The Doctrine of the Church”
I. The Rites of the Church
What is a sacrament?
An outward sign of an inward grace
A visible sign of a spiritual grace
This term is normally used by those who hold that the rites are more than
just symbolic gestures.
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What is an ordinance?
Emphasizes the fact that these rites were ordained by the Lord, with no thought
of them as actual conveyors of grace, but rather only as symbols.
This term is normally used by those who hold that these rites are merely
symbolic gestures.
How many rites are there in the church?
Roman Catholics
a) Baptism
b) The Eucharist (Lord's Supper)
c) Confirmation
d) Penance
e) Extreme Unction
f) Holy Orders
g) Marriage
Protestants
a) Baptism
b) The Lord’s Supper
What determines which rites are true?
Roman Catholics
(1) The church
(2) Tradition
(3) Scripture
Protestants
Non-memorialists:
(a) Is the rite instituted by Christ?
(b) Is it a New Testament practice?
(c) Is grace conveyed through it?
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Memorialists:
(a) Is it a New Testament practice?
(b) Is it instituted by Christ?
From the above points, Protestants reject five of the Roman Catholic sacraments
II. The Rite of Baptism
The Institution of Baptism
Commanded by Christ -- Mat. 28:19
Practiced by the Early Church –
Acts 2:38; 8:12, 36-38; 9:18; 10:47; 16:14-15, 33; 18:8; 19:5
I Cor. 1:14-17 -- Paul is not minimizing the practice of Baptism but is
subordinating it under the gospel. Paul did not see Baptism as a part of the
gospel.
The Meaning of Baptism
1. Identification with Christ
a) Acts 2:38
b) Acts 8:16
c) "Into the name"
(1) a technical term of commerce meaning "to the account" of someone,
signifying ownership
(2) In rabbinical writings it carried several ramifications, but the basic
thought was "with respect to or regard to." This is the most likely meaning
of the term, signifying Jesus as the one to whom the candidate is made
over."
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2. Identification with His death and resurrection
a) Acts 22:16; Heb. 10:22; I Cor. 6:11; cf. Acts 2:38
b) Signifies the believer’s death to the old life and his resurrection as a new
creature into union with Christ (Rom. 6:4; Col. 2:12; I Peter 3:20ff.
3. Identification with believers
a) Signifies the inward reality of the participation into His body. The convert is
outwardly identified with the believing community (Acts 2:41)
b) Baptism followed a profession of faith Acts 8:36; 10:47; 16:33
The Efficacy of Baptism
1. Roman Catholic View -a) Faith is not necessary. Baptism is given the power to work the regeneration of
an infant involuntarily (ex opere operato)
b) Baptism is a means by which God imparts saving grace; it results in the
remission of sins (Baptismal Regeneration)
2. Lutheran View -a) Faith is a prerequisite to baptism.
b) Baptism works salvation.
3. Reformed View -a) Baptism is a sign and seal of the covenant.
b) Baptism is equal to circumcision in the OT. It is both the means of initiation
into the covenant and a sign of salvation
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4. Memorialist View -a) Baptism is a symbol of our salvation.
b) An outward sign of an inward change.
c) A public testimony of faith.
5. Is Baptism necessary for Salvation? No
Who Should Be Baptized?
1. Infant Baptism
2. Believer's Baptism
How Should We Baptize?
Baptism has been administered in three ways:
a) Sprinkling
b) Pouring (Effusion)
c) Immersion
Biblical Examples of Baptism
a) John's Baptism -- Mt. 1:9-10; John 3:23
b) The Eunuch -- Acts 8:36
Symbolism of Baptism
a) Col. 2:12
b) Rom. 6:4
Note – Didache said to baptize by immersion in running water or pour water
three times if immersion wasn’t possible. It also instructed the church to
baptize in the name of the Father, Son and The Holy Spirit.
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III. The Rite of the Lord’s Supper
1. Instituted
by Christ
a) Mat. 26:26-29
b) Mark 14:22-25
c) Luke 22:17-20
d) I Cor. 11:23-26
2. Disciples are told to practice
on the night before his crucifixion
this until He returns.
The Meaning of the Lord's Supper
Significance of the Lord's Supper – 1 Corinthians 11:24-26
A remembrance and proclamation. A Remembrance of Christ's Death. In
instituting this remembrance of Himself, Christ desired that the church proclaim
His death as the final salvation act of God, even as He did to the disciples at the
Last Supper. The church, in remembering Christ, makes present the risen Lord
who is also the crucified one who invites all to continually appropriate the saving
efficacy of His sacrifice which was made once for all at Calvary.
Communion with Christ. A Present Fellowship with Christ. The remembrance
of Christ is the proclamation of the death of the risen Lord who is present in the
church. He who invited the disciples to share the Last Supper continues to be the
real Host at each communion service.
Proclaim His return. An Anticipation of Christ's Return. Along with the
recollection of His death, this eschatological outlook was always present in the
celebration of the supper.
What takes place at the Lord's Supper?
a) Roman Catholic View
Transubstantion (a change in substance). The literal body and blood of Christ
are present in the elements of bread and wine. When the priest utters the formula
of consecration over the bread and wine they are transformed, so that while the
characteristics of the bread and wine remain the same, their substance is truly
changed into the body and blood of Christ.
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(1) Problems with this view
(a) It views the work of Christ as Continual or incomplete (Jn
19:30; Heb. 10:10-14)
(b) It was forbidden for Jews to drink blood (Lev. 17:10-16)
b) The Lutheran View
Real presence of Christ’s body and blood. Also holds to the real presence of the
body and blood of Christ, but without any transformation of the elements as in
transubstantiation. The body and blood are said to be "in, with, and under" the
bread and wine which remain as such.
c) The Reform View
Special grace imparted. It unites the memorial position in rejecting the physical
bodily presence. But it does believe that Christ is present through the Spirit in
such a way that His entire person--body and blood--is enjoyed in the supper. The
presence of the body and blood is a dynamic presence in which the efficacy of
Christ's sacrificial death is made effective in the believer through partaking of the
elements of faith. The body and blood of the crucified Christ are thus present by
the redemptive presence of the glorified risen Christ. The elements are more than
mere symbols of His death, but in the partaking of them by faith there is a real
partaking of Christ in His redemptive presence.
d) The Memorial View
To remember. The words of institution are to be interpreted simply in a
figurative sense, making the bread and the cup symbolic of the spiritual truth of
Christ's death and its blessings. Christ is present spiritually, and eating and
drinking of Him signifies faith in Him and reliance on His death.
The Efficacy of the Lord's Supper
1. The Lord's Supper is concerned not with a special presence of Christ but with
the further enjoyment of His continual presence in the believer's life.
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2. Partaking in the Lord's table in faith means nothing less than increasing in the
life through a fresh appropiation/realization of the Savior.
3. Christ comes to us on the level of personality. As with the reception of the
Word, the real saving presence of Christ is communicated in the reception of the
elements only when it is "combined with faith" in those who partake.
Eschatology:
The Doctrine of Last Things
PART ONE: Personal Eschatology
"The study of the last things is technically known as eschatology, from the Greek
word for 'last.' It is perhaps the dominant term of twentieth-century theology. It
is a more complex subject than might be supposed, for the 'last things' are not
simply the events at the end of history” (Milne, Know the Truth).
I. What is Personal Eschatology?
"It relates to the individual from the time of death until he receives his
resurrection body."
II. Views of the Afterlife
Types of Death
Physical Death -- The separation of the body from the soul.
The termination of physical life.
1. Separation of body from soul (Eccl. 12:7; Acts 7:59; James 2:26)
2. Death of the soul or life (Matthew. 2:20; Mk. 3:4; John 13:37).
3. Departure/exodus (Luke 9:31; 2 Pet. 1:15)).
4. Body decays in the grave and returns to dust (Gen. 3:19)
5. Physical death is the result of man's sin (Rom. 5:21; 6:23; I Cor. 15:56).
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6. Physical death is a curse/judgment (Rom. 1:32; 5:16)
7. For the believer physical death is the entrance into the presence of Christ.
2 Cor. 5:8, Phil. 1:23, 1 Thess. 4:14
Spiritual Death -- the spiritual state in which one finds oneself before salvation
(Eph. 2:1,5).
Eternal Death or the Second_ Death -- Eternal judgment which comes at death
upon those who have never been made spiritually alive. It is the judgment of
God which comes upon those who have never, in their lifetime, "passed out of
death into life" (John 5:24; cf. Rev. 20:6)
The Intermediate State
The Scriptural Teaching
1. The Immortality of the soul
a) Exodus 3:6 (Matthew. 22:32)
b) Luke 16:19-31
c) Rev. 6:9ff
2. The Believer is with Christ
a) 2 Cor. 5:8; cf. v. 6
b) Phil 1:23
c) Luke 23:43 (paradise = heaven, 2 Cor. 12:3f)
3. The Believer is in fellowship with other believers
a) Hebrews 12:23
b) Luke 16:19-31
c) Rev. 14:13
4. This state is better than the present state -- Phil 1:23, 2 Cor. 5:8
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Non-Scriptural Teachings
1. Purgatory
a) A place of purging or cleansing.
b) A place for those souls which are not perfectly pure and are in need of
cleansing.
c) Biblical Refutation
(1) Christ fully paid our penalty for sin.
(2) We cannot add to the merits of Christ (Heb. 1:3)
(3) No indication that temporal punishments for sins committed in this life
continue after death
2. "Soul Sleep"
After death the soul lapses into a state of sleep or unconsciousness.
a) Arguments for:
Scripture often represents death as sleep
Mat. 9:24; John 11:11; 1 Thess. 4:13
Scripture indicates that the dead are unconscious.
Ps. 146:4; Eccl. 9:5f., 10; Isa. 38:18
b) Arguments against:
(1) The word sleep is a metaphor describing the appearance and posture of the
body.
(2) The word sleep was also used by the Greeks, Egyptians, etc., to describe their
dead and they believed in a conscious afterlife.
(3) The scriptures clearly teach that after death, man is conscious either in the
bliss of heaven or the torments of Hades.
Mat. 17:1-3, Luke 23:42,43, Acts 7:55-60, 2 Cor. 5:1-8, Phil. 1:21-23, Heb.
12:22-24, 1 Peter 3:18-20, Rev. 6:9,10
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3. Reincarnation: "Whatever a man sows, this he will also reap"
a) Is reincarnation valid?
Heb. 9:27,28, Phil 1:21-24, 2 Co. 5:8, Dan. 12:2, Mat. 25:41,46, Eccl. 12:7; 3:21
Ps. 78:39
b) John the Baptist is NOT Elijah -- John 1:21, Luke 1:17
NOTE: Elijah appeared in Mat. 17, not John!
c) Contradictions: (Hebrews 9:27)
(1) Personality of God: Ex. 3:14; Jn 4:24; Heb. 1:3; 11:6
(2) Atonement of Christ
Heb. 1:3; 7:24; 2 Co. 5:21; Heb. 9:22; 1 Pet. 1:18-19; 1 Jn. 1:7; Rom. 5:6-8; Eph.
1:7; Col. 1:20
(3) Physical Resurrection:
1 Cor. 15:14-17; John 20:27; Lk 24:39; 16:19--31; Mat. 25:41-46; Jude 13; Jn
3:16,36; 5:22, Daniel 12:2, Isaiah 26:5, Job 19:25-26
(4) Eternal Judgment:
Heb. 9:27; Rev. 20; Matt. 25:46
(5) Destiny of Believers:
2 Cor. 5:8; Phil 1:23; I Jn. 3:2
(6) No second choice: Heb. 9:26-28
(7) No law of Karma but grace:
Eph. 2:8,9; 1:5-12; Col. 1:20; Rom. 5:1,2,8,9
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4. Annihilationism
“There is no conscious existence at all for the wicked after death. The unsaved
simply cease to exist.”
a) Scripture indicates that the unsaved will continue to exist forever (Eccl. 12:7;
Matthew 23:15, 33, 25:41, 46; Rom. 2:5-10; Rev. 14:11).
b) There are degrees of punishment, and annihilationism does not allow for this
(Luke 12:47ff.; Rom. 2:12; Rev. 20:12)
III. The Existence of Hell
In The Old Testament
The word sheol in the Old Testament
1.
Used 65 times: hell 31 times
2.
grave 31 times
3.
pit 3 times
4.
A shadowy place or place of darkness (Job 10:21,22, Ps. 143:3)
5.
Location: "down" "beneath the earth" "lower part of the earth" (Job 11:8;
Is. 44:23; 57:9; Ezek 26:20) == not part of this world
6.
Reunited with ancestors, tribes, people Gen. 15:15; 25:8; 35:29, 37:35;
49:3; Num. 20:24, 28; 31:2; Deut. 32:50; 34:5; 1 Sam. 12:23
7.
Different Sections of sheol
8.
Lowest part and highest part (Deut. 32:22)
9.
Righteous and wicked went to sheol at death
Gen. 37:35
10. In OT it was loss but gain in NT (Phil. 1:21)
In The New Testament
A. The word hades in the New Testament
1. In the LXX hades is used 71 times. Refers to sheol 64 times.
2. Literally is the realm of disembodied spirits.
3. In the NT hades is used 10 times
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4. Hades does not mean:
a) Death (qa/natoj)
b) Grave (mneema)
c) Hell (gehenna)
d) Heaven (ou)/ranoj)
5. What hades does mean:
a) Remember the concept of progressive revelation!
b) Luke 16:19-31
(1) Two sections -(a) Abraham's bosom (paradise)
(b) Place of torment
c) Before Christ's Ascension, believers as well as unbelievers were said to enter
Sheol or Hades
d) After Christ's resurrection, the NT pictures believers as entering heaven to be
with Christ (Phil 1:23)
e) Paul uses the language of transition when he speaks of Christ taking the
righteous out of hades and bringing them into heaven (Eph. 4:8,9).
f) Peter pictures Christ as proclaiming to the spirits in prison the completion of
His atonement.
g) Paul refers to paradise now being in the third heaven (2 Cor. 12:2-4)
h) Hades is now a temporary place of torment while the wicked await the coming
resurrection and their eternal punishment (2Peter 2:9)
B. The word gehenna in the New Testament.
1. Used 12 times in the NT
2. The place of future punishment in the eternal state
3. The final, eternal garbage dump where idolaters would be thrown after the
resurrection.
4. Jesus uses it 11 times:
a) Place of Judgment
b) Placed at the end of the world after the resurrection
c) Body and Soul are punished
d) Place of conscious torment
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e) Wicked remain for eternity
C. Tartaroo – Only found in 2 Peter 2:4
Per Paul Enns, Tartarus is “The name in classical mythology for the subterranean abyss in which rebellious gods and other such beings such as
titans were punished.” It was also used in Hellenistic Judaism and in the
book of Enoch (20:2) in connection with fallen angels.
IV. Is There Judgment for Believers?
A. Judgment for deeds
1. Rom 14:10
2. 1 Cor. 3:11-15
3. Mat. 25:14-30
4. Luke 19:11-27
5. Mat. 20:1-16
B. Rewards/crowns
1. 1 Cor. 9:25
2. 2 Tim. 4:8
3. James 1:12; Rev. 2:10
4. 1 Peter 5:4
5. 1 Thessalonians 2:19 (Phil 4:1)
C. Deeds done in the body, whether good or bad.
1.
2 Corinthians 5:9-10
D. Teachers
1. What they teach - James 3:1
2. How they build - 1 Corinthians 3:10-15
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Eschatology:
The Doctrine of Last Things
PART TWO: General Eschatology
I. What is General Eschatology?
“The sweep of future events from the Return of Jesus Christ to the making
of the new heavens and new earth.”
II. Commonalties in General Eschatology
The Return of Jesus Christ will be physical.
1. Christ will return in the same way He left: Acts 1:11
2. Christ will return personally: Jn 14:3; 21:22ff.
3. Christ will return unexpectedly: Mat. 24:32-51; 25:1-13 Mark 13:33-77.
4. Christ will return triumphantly: Luke 19:11-27
5. Christ will return in glory with His angels: 2 Thes. 1:7-10; Titus 2:13.
The Return of Jesus Christ will be sudden.
1. 2 Peter 3:10
2. Mat. 24:26-28
3. 1 Cor. 15:51ff.
4. Rev. 22:12
There will be a period of trouble/tribulation.
1. Daniel 9:24-27
2. Daniel 12:1
3. Mat. 24:21,22
4. Luke 21:34
5. Rev. 3:10
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There will be a judgment.
1. False prophets: Mat. 7:21-23
2. Cities: Jer. 30:7, Mat. 11:21-24
3. All who are in the graves: John 5:27-29, Rev. 19
4. The nations: Mat. 25:41; Rev. 20:9; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 6
5. The unbeliever: Rev. 20:11-15; 21:8
There will be a New Heaven and a New Earth.
1. Mat. 5:18
2. Mark 13:31
3. 2 Peter 3:10-13
4. Is. 65:17; 66:22
5. Rev. 21ff
6. New Jerusalem: Rev. 21:2-22:5
III. Differences in General Eschatology
There will be a taking up/rapture of the Saints:
1. Pre-Tribulation Rapture: The rapture will occur prior to the seven-year
tribulation.
2. Mid-Tribulational Rapture: The rapture will occur in the middle of the sevenyear tribulation.
3. Partial Rapture View: "Not all believers are raptured at one time, either
before the great tribulation or after. Believers are raptured in groups, as they are
ready. 'The basis of translation must be grace or reward. Those who expect all in
the real Church to be translated at once, think of translation as wholly of grace.
Salvation is of grace . . . But after people are saved, they are rewarded for
faithfulness and watchfulness.
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Repeatedly believers are warned against lack of these. In 1 Corinthians 3:14,15,
we are told of rewards for believers. Now is translation a reward? We believe
that frequent exhortations in the Scriptures to watch, to be faithful, to be ready for
Christ's coming, to live Spirit-filled lives, all suggest that translation is a reward'"
(Millard J. Erickson, Contemporary Options in Eschatology, page 169).
4. Post-Tribulational Rapture: The rapture will occur at the close of the sevenyear tribulation.
There will be a 1000-Year Reign of Jesus Christ: (Rev.20:2-7)
1. Amillennial View -- There will be no earthly, literal millennium. The reign of
Christ began at his ascension into heaven and will continue through the ages.
2. Historic Premillennialism -- There is a literal, earthly 1000 year reign of Jesus
Christ on the earth which will take place at the end of the seven year tribulation
period. Satan will be bound during this period. This view bases its belief strictly
on a literal reading of Revelation 20 and does not use Old Testament prophecy to
give fuller revelation into the detail of this period. Israel is considered to be the
church. Those holding this view are usually post-tribulational.
3. Dispensational Premillennialism -- There is a literal, earthly 1000 year reign
of Jesus Christ on earth which will take place at the end of the seven year
tribulation which will be the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies. Satan
will be bound during this period. This view emphasizes the distinctions between
Israel and the church and is pre-tribulational. The references in Revelation to
Israel are literally to the nation Israel.
4. Post-Millennial View -- There will be a literal, earthly reign of Jesus Christ.
This period is ushered in by the church and will end with the return of Jesus
Christ. This view emphasizes the positive influence of the church and how the
world is "getting better and better every day."
5. Scriptural teaching:
a) A Righteous Government: Mat. 19:28; Ps. 2:6; Rev. 19:16; Is. 11:3-5
b) Worship: Ezekiel 40 - 48
c) Peace: Is. 9:6-7; 11:6-9
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IV. The Scriptural Teaching of Heaven
The word heaven is used three ways in Scripture.
1. The atmoshperic heaven.
a) The space surrounding the earth and extending to a height of about ten miles.
b) The clouds are in the atmospheric heavens (Ps. 147:8) and the birds fly in it
(Gen. 1:20)
2. The universal heaven.
a) The realm of the sun, moon, stars, and planets.
b) God created the universe (Gen. 1:1; Ps. 33:6), placing these lights in the
heaven (Gen. 1:14).
3. The dwelling place of God (ie., "the third heaven")
a) Paul refers to the third heaven in 2 Cor. 12:2.
b) This is a specific place where God dwells (Mat. 6:9).
c) God sits in the heavens (Ps. 2:4; Isa. 66:1).
d) God renders fire/judgment from heaven (Gen. 19:24; Josh. 10:11
e) God's provisions come from heaven (Ex. 16:4)
f) God hears our prayers from heaven (Ps. 20:6).
The New Jerusalem (Revelation 21-22)
1. "In Revelation 21, the final eternal abode for believers is described as 'a new
heaven and a new earth' (21:1). The old heaven and old earth are renovated by
fire (2 Peter 3:10) because they were the domain of angelic and human rebellion
against God. The redeemed believers of all ages will live in the New Jerusalem.
Although the New Jerusalem is the home Christ has gone to prepare (John 14:2),
it is also the heaven of the eternal state."
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2. "An important aspect of heaven will be the intimate, personal fellowship of
believers with God (Rev. 20:3-4). Earth's sorrows will disappear in heaven;
every single tear will be wiped away.
3. The purpose of the eternal abiding place of believers is to bring glory to their
Lord who has provided for their redemption (Rev. 21:24-26)."
V. Supplementary Material on Eschatology
What are the greatest problems of pre-tribulationalism raised by the
advocates of mid- and post-tribulationalism?
A. The Rapture is to be heralded by no warning indications whatsoever.
B. The removal of the restraining power in 2 Thess. 2:6-7 is the Holy Spirit.
C. The coming of the Lord to receive up His church is devoid of real comfort for
the final generation of Christians if it does not entail escape from the Tribulation
itself.
D. There is no mention of the Church in revelation 4-l8.
E. There is too radical of a distinction between Israel and the church.
What are the greatest problems with post-tribulationalism raised by the advocates
of pre- and mid-tribulationalism?
A. It fails to account for that attitude of eager personal expectation that was
characteristic of the first-century apostles and saints as they looked forward to the
Lord's return.
B. It hardly does justice to the sequence of events in the Rapture passage (1
Thess. 4) and the Day of the Lord (1 Thess. 5).
C. It fails to give sufficient weight to those New Testament passages that speak
of the church as being delivered from the wrath of God to be experienced by the
unbelieving world.
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D. It can furnish no satisfactory explanation for the white-clad saints who
accompany the Rider on the white horse described in Revelation 19, who returns
to earth in order to crush rebellion and punish sin.
D. Several passages in Isaiah refer to the population of the millennial kingdom as
consisting of flesh-and-blood believers who will enjoy prosperity, peace, and
a long, happy life. Where are these non-transformed earth-dwellers going to
come from that will make up the citizenry of Christ's earthly kingdom?
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STUDY QUESTIONS
Chapter 1: Concepts and Definitions
1. What are the three elements included in the concept of theology?
2. What is "historical theology"? What is the benefit of studying it?
3. What are the four characteristics of biblical theology?
4. What does systematic theology attempt to do?
5. What is Ryrie's definition of theology? (Page 15)
Chapter 2: Some Presuppositions
1. What is a presupposition (look up in a dictionary)? What is the Christian's
basic presupposition?
2. What are the three interpretive presuppositions?
3. What are the two systematizing presuppositions?
4. What are the four personal presuppositions?
Chapter 3: The Question of Authority
1. What is the source of religious truth in all forms of liberalism?
2. What does neo-orthodoxy lack in regard to authority?
3. What is the basis for authority for conservative Protestants?
Chapter 9: Special Revelation
1. What are the avenues of Special Revelation?
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Chapter 10: The Biblical Doctrine of Inspiration
1. Ryrie states that it was once proper to just say "I believe in the inspiration of
the Bible" but now you need to say "I believe in the verbal, plenary, infallible,
unlimited inerrant inspiration of the Bible"? What brought about this expanded
explanation of the inspiration of the Bible?
2. Ryrie gives three passages which affirm the inspiration of the Bible. Give the
passages and Ryrie's conclusion to each of them.
3. Give an example of material which came directly from God.
4. Give an example of researched material used in the Bible.
5. Give an example of historical material.
6. Does the Bible record things that are untrue? If so, give an example
7. What is Ryrie's definition of inspiration?
Chapter 11: Defection From the Biblical Doctrine of Inspiration
1. What relationship does biblical teaching about salvation have to historical
facts?
Chapter 12: The Inerrancy of the Bible
1. Can one be a Christian and not accept the concept of inerrancy?
2. How important is inerrancy?
3. What is a "positively defined" definition of the inerrancy of the Bible?
4.
Can something that is both divine and human be without error?
example does Ryrie give?
What
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Chapter 13: Inerrancy and the Teachings of Christ
1. Did Christ hold to the inerrancy of Scripture? What evidence is presented in
this chapter (state the passage and a brief explanation).
Chapter 15: The Canon
1. What is the meaning of canon?
2. When was the canon of Scripture completed?
3. When were the books of the Apocrypha officially recognized by the Roman
Catholic Church?
4. What are the three tests Ryrie lists to determine canonicity? Give a brief
explanation of each.
5. When did a writing become canonical?
Chapter 16: The Interpretation of the Bible
1. What does hermeneutics mean?
2. What does it mean to allegorize Scripture?
3. What are better labels for the literal interpretation of the Bible?
4. What are the four principles Ryrie gives for normal hermeneutics? Briefly
describe each.
5. What is meant by the doctrine of illumination?
6. How does the Holy Spirit illumine the Scriptures to believers?
Scriptures support this?
What
Chapter 4: The Knowledge of God
1. Who is the source of our knowledge of God?
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2. According to John 1:18; 14:7, what was one of the purposes of Jesus Christ
coming into the world?
3. What is a full knowledge of God composed of? Explain.
4. What is the purpose of our knowledge of God?
5. What are the prerequisites to the knowledge of God?
Chapter 5: The Revelation of God
1. What is general revelation?
2. What is special revelation?
3. How does general revelation come to man?
4. What does general revelation reveal about God?
5. What are the purposes of general revelation?
Chapter 6: The Perfections of God
1. How does the Westminster Shorter Catechism describe God?
2. List the fourteen attributes of God that Ryrie lists. Give a brief definition of
each and what impact that has on us.
Chapter 7: The Names of God
1. What do the names of God provide for us?
2. What are the seven names of God Ryrie lists?
Chapter 8: The Tri-unity of God
1. Is the doctrine of the Trinity explicitly taught in the Old Testament? In the
New Testament? Is this a biblical teaching?
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2. What is B.B. Warfield's definition of the "Trinity"?
3. What are the practical ramifications of the Trinity on?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Redemption
Revelation
Fellowship
Proper relationships
Prayer
Chapter 18: The Creation of Angels
1. Are angels created beings?
2. When were they created?
3. How were they created?
Chapter 19: The Nature of Angels
What is the nature of Angels? (list five characteristics)
Chapter 20: The Organization of Angels
1. How many angels are there? Are more being created?
2. How are angels ranked?
3. Who is the Angel of Yahweh?
Chapter 21: The Ministry of Angels
What is the specific ministry of angels to believers?
Chapter 22: The Reality of Satan
1. Is Satan a personal being? Give scriptural evidence.
2. What is his nature?
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3. What are Satan's titles that indicate his position over this world?
Chapter 23: The Creation and Sin of Satan
1. When was Satan created?
2. What was Satan's position in heaven according to Ezekiel 28:11-19?
3. What was the nature of Satan's sin?
Chapter 24: The Activities of Satan
What are Satan’s activities in relationship to believers?
Chapter 25: Satan's World
1. What is Satan's aim in the cosmos?
2. What will happen when the Lord returns?
3. Who is ultimately control in the cosmos?
4. What is the Christian's relationship to the cosmos?
Chapter 26: The Reality of Demons
1. What is not the origin of demons?
2. What evidence is there that demons are fallen angels?
3. What is the current situation of the fallen angels (i.e... two groups)?
Chapter 28: What Do Demons Do?
1. In Relation to God?
2. In relation to religion?
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3. In relation to nations?
4. In relation to people?
5. How should a Christian combat demonic warfare in his/her life?
Chapter 29: Evolution and Origins
1. What are the three main views concerning origins. Give a brief explanation of
each.
3. What are the four major problems with evolution?
Chapter 30: The Bible and Origins
1. What does creatio exhihilo mean?
2. What is the Gap Concept or the Gap Theory? After reading the strengths and
weaknesses, what do you think about the idea?
Chapter 31: The Creation of Man
1. What are the characteristics of man's creation?
2. What is Ryrie's view regarding the words "image" and "likeness?"
3. What are the three views regarding the transmission of man's soul? Which
does Ryrie feel makes more sense?
Chapter 32: The Facets of Man
1. What does it mean to say that man is bipartite?
2. Why does Ryrie say that man is not a trichotomy (body, soul, and spirit)?
How does he explain Heb. 4:12, 1 Thess. 5:23, and 1 Cor. 15:44?
3. What are the Facets of the immaterial aspect of man?
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Chapter 33: The Fall of Man
1. What were the penalties of Adam's fall?
On the Race?
On the Serpent?
On Satan?
On Eve and Women?
On Adam and Men?
2. What are the ramifications of Adam's and Eve's sin?
Chapter 34: The Biblical Concept of Sin
1. What are the eight basic words in the Old Testament that refer to sin? Give a
brief definition or explanation of each.
2. What are the twelve basic words in the New Testament that refer to sin? Give
a brief definition or explanation of each.
3. What is Ryrie's rather lengthy definition of sin?
4. What is Strong's definition of sin?
5. What is Buswell's definition of sin?
6. What is the chief characteristic of sin?
Chapter 35: Christ's Teaching Concerning Sin
1. What specific sins did Christ mention?
2. What are some of the categories of sin?
3. What are some sources of sin?
4. What are some consequences of sin?
5. What is the basis for the forgiveness of sins? What scriptures support this?
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Chapter 36: The Inheritance of Sin
1. What does total depravity not mean?
2. What does total depravity mean?
3. What is the penalty for inherited sin? Give scriptural support.
4. Is mankind sinners from birth? Give scriptural support.
5. What is semi-pelagianism? What church holds this view?
6. What is Arminianism? What type of theology holds to this view?
Chapter 37: The Imputation of Sin
1. What does imputation mean?
2. What three types of imputations do theologians recognize?
3. What are the two views as to the relationship of Adam's sin to the rest of the
human race?
4. What is the penalty for imputed sin? For inherited sin?
Chapter 38: Personal Sins
1. How are personal sins transmitted?
2. What are the results of Personal sins?
3. What is the remedy for personal sins?
Chapter 39: The Christian and Sin
1. What is the Standard for the believer?
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2. What are the enemies of the believer?
3. What is the penalty for sin?
a. for the unbeliever?
b. for the sinning believer?
c. for the persistently sinning believer?
4. What are the preventives for sin?
5. What is the remedy for the believer's sin?
Christology
Chapter 40: The Pre-incarnate Christ
1. What does it mean to say that Christ preexisted?
2. Why is this important?
3. What five evidences does Ryrie give for Christ's pre-existence?
4. What does eternality mean in reference to Christ?
Chapter 41: The Incarnation of Christ
1. What does incarnation mean?
2. What was the means of the incarnation?
3. What is the evidence of the Virgin Birth?
4. What is the explanation of the two genealogies listed in the gospels (Matthew
and Luke)?
5. What are the purposes of the Incarnation?
Chapter 42: The Person of Christ Incarnate
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1. What are the evidences for the full deity of Christ?
2. What are the evidences for the full humanity of Christ?
3. The union of the deity and humanity of Christ is a difficult subject to
comprehend. Discuss the following:
A. What is the meaning of nature?
B. Explain the communion of attributes.
C. Did Christ have two wills or one?
4. Explain briefly the following heresies:
Docetism.
Ebionism.
Arianism.
Apollinarianism.
Nestorianism.
Eutychianism.
Chapter 43: Christ: Prophet, Priest, and King
1. What is meant by "Christ as Prophet?"
2. What is meant by "Christ as Priest?"
3. What is meant by "Christ as King?"
Chapter 44: The Self-Emptying of Christ
1. What is meant by kenosis?
2. What is the central passage dealing with the kenosis of Christ? What is this
passage saying about Christ's self-emptying?
3. What is the false meaning(s) of the concept? Explain.
Chapter 45: The Sinlessness of Christ
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1. What is the meaning of the "sinlessness of Christ?"
2. Was Christ peccable or impeccable? Defend your answer.
Chapter 46: The Resurrection and Ascension of Christ
1. Why is the resurrection of Christ important? Explain.
2. What are the results of Christ's resurrection?
3. What is the significance of the Ascension of Christ?
Chapter 47: The Post-Ascension Ministries of Christ
1. What is Christ's present ministry?
2. What is Christ's future ministry?
Soteriology
Chapter 49: Biblical Terminology
1. What was the necessary condition for salvation in the Old Testament?
2. Who was the object of faith in the Old Testament?
3. Who initiates salvation?
Chapter 51: The Meaning of the Death of Christ
1. What are the four basic doctrines that focus on the meaning of Christ's death?
2. What does substitutionary atonement mean?
3. Summarize the doctrine of the redemption in relation to sin.
4. What does propitiation mean?
5. Is there a need for a propitiatory sacrifice? Explain.
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Chapter 52: Some Results of Salvation
1. What is the cornerstone of grace and faith?
2. What is the meaning of justification?
3. What is the problem in justification?
4. Outline and explain the five steps that were involved in justification.
5. What is the second important benefit of the death of Christ? Explain.
6. What is a third benefit of the death of Christ?
7. What is the meaning of adoption?
8. What are the ramifications of adoption?
Chapter 54: The doctrine of Election
1. Give the three major viewpoints on election. Give a brief explanation of each.
2. Define election.
3. Define predestination. Does the Bible teach double predestination? Explain.
4. Define foreknowledge.
5. Define retribution.
6. Define preterition.
7. How does retribution and preterition work together?
8. Summarize the doctrine of election.
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9. What are the three objections to the doctrine of election? How does Ryrie
respond to the objection that election is inconsistent with human freedom?
Chapter 55: The Extent of the Atonement
1. What is the proper question to ask when speaking of the extent of the
atonement?
2. What is limited atonement? What is unlimited atonement? Which do you
believe is the correct view?
Chapter 56: The Application of Salvation
1. What is conviction? How is it accomplished?
2. What is general calling?
3. What is effective calling?
4. What is regeneration?
5. What is faith?
6. What are the kinds of faith?
7. What are the facets of faith?
Chapter 57: The Security of the Believer
1. What is eternal security?
2. What is preservation?
3. What is Perseverance?
4. What is the doctrine of Assurance?
Chapter 58: What is the Gospel?
1. What are some fallacies in the presentation of the Gospel?
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2. What are some fallacies instating the content of the Gospel?
Eschatology
Chapter 70: The Distinctiveness of the Church
1. What are the various concepts of the Kingdom?
2. Summarize the universal kingdom concept.
3. Summarize the Davidic/messianic kingdom.
4. Summarize the mystery form of the Kingdom.
5. Summarize the spiritual kingdom.
6. Summarize the church's relationship to the kingdom.
Ecclesiology
Chapter 74: Ordinances For The Church
1. How many ordinances are there?
2. Why is baptism important (name 6 reasons)?
3. What is the meaning of baptism?
4. What are the arguments used for infant baptism? What are the refutations?
5. What are the arguments used for believer's baptism?
6. What is Ryrie's conclusion on the mode of baptism?
7. What is the significance of the Lord's Supper?
8. What are the requirements of the Lord's Supper?
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Chapter 76: Other Ministries of the Church
What three ministries are mentioned in this chapter?
BIBLIOGRAPHY
The following bibliography is a partial listing of the many fine theological works
available. Some of the works are easier to read than others. Some issues of
doctrine necessarily become detailed and rather overwhelming. However, never
let the difficulty of the language hinder you from reading them and understanding
the truth in them. It may help to use dictionaries (standard, Bible, or theological).
I. General Works
Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co.,
l94l.
Boice, James Montgomery. Foundations of the Christian Faith.
Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1986.
Downers
Buswell, J. Oliver. A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion. Grand
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1962.
Duffield, Guy P. and Van Cleave, Nathaniel M. Foundations of Pentecostal
Theology. Los Angeles: L.I.F.E. Bible College, 1983.
Little, Paul. Know What You Believe. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1970, revised
1987.
Martin, Walter. Essential Christianity. Santa Ana: Vision House Publishers,
1962, revised 1975.
Milne, Bruce. Know the Truth. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1982.
Thiessen, Henry C. (revised by Vernon Doerksen). Lectures in Systematic
Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1949, revised 1979.
Williams, J. Rodman. Renewal Theology: Systematic Theology from a
Charismatic Perspective. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988.
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II. Specific Doctrinal Works
1. Biblical Authority
Archer, Gleason. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids: Zondervan,
1982.
Bruce, F.F. The New Testament Documents: Are they Reliable? Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1943 revised 1960.
Comfort, Philip W., editor. The Origin of the Bible. Wheaton: Tyndale, 1992.
Geisler, Norman L. A General Introduction to the Bible. Chicago: Moody
Press, 1968.
Geisler, Norman L. Decide for Yourself: How History Views the Bible. Grand
Rapids: Zondervan, 1982.
Geisler, Norman L. When Critics Ask. Wheaton: Victor Press, 1992.
Harris, R. Laird. Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan, 1957.
Henry, Carl F. H., ed. Revelation and the Bible. Wheaton: Tyndale, 1958.
McDowell, Josh. Evidence that Demands a Verdict. Here's Life Publishers.
Montgomery, John W., ed.
Publishers, 1974.
God's Inerrant Word.
Minneapolis:
Bethany
Pinnock, Clark H. Biblical Revelation. Chicago: Moody Press, 1971.
Robinson, John A.T. Can We Trust the New Testament? Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1977.
Youngblood, Ronald, ed. Evangelicals and Inerrancy. Nashville: Nelson, 1984.
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2. Nature of God
Beisner, E. Calvin. God in Three Persons. Wheaton: Tyndale Publishing, 1978.
Packer, J.I. Knowing God. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1973.
Any of the above mentioned general works.
3. Angels and Demons
Graham, Billy. Angels: God's Secret Agents.
Ice, Thomas and Dean, Robert.
Rebellion. 1991.
Overrun by Demons? formerly
A Holy
Lindsey, Hal. Satan Is Alive and Well on Planet Earth.
Montgomery, John W. Demon Possession. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1976.
4. Man, Sin and Salvation
Ramm, Bernard. Offense to Reason: The Theology of Sin. New York: Harper
and Row, 1985.
Any of the above mentioned general works, esp. Berkhof.
5. Person of Christ
Rhodes, Ron. Christ Before The Manger Grand Rapids: Baker Books. 1992
McDowell, Josh. Jesus: A Biblical Defense of His Deity. San Bernardino:
Here's Life Publishers, Inc., 1983.
Ramm, Bernard L. An Evangelical Christology. Nashville: Nelson Publishers,
1985.
Stott, John R. The Cross of Christ. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1986.
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6. Doctrine of the Church
Saucy, Robert L. The Church in God's Program. Chicago: Moody Press, 1972.
7. Doctrine of the Last Things
Archer, Gleason L., et. al. The Rapture: Pre-, Mid-, or Post-Tribulational?
Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984.
Clouse, Robert G., ed. The Meaning of the Millennium: Four Views. Downers
Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1977.
Gundry, Robert H. The Church and the Tribulation. Grand Rapids: Zondervan,
1973. (Post-Tribulational)
Ladd, George Eldon. The Blessed Hope. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1956. (PostTribulational)
Lightner, Robert P. The Last Days Handbook. Nashville: Thomas Nelson,
1990. (Pre-Trib, presents all views fairly)
Morey, Robert A.
Publishers, 1984.
Death and the Afterlife.
Minneapolis:
Bethany House
Walvoord, John F. The Millennial Kingdom. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1959.
(Pre-Millennial)
Walvoord, John F. The Rapture Question. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1957.
(Pre-Tribulational)
Wood, Leon J. The Bible and Future Events. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1973.
(Pre-Tribulational)
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Preparation for Final Exam
Areas to study for the Final Exam:
1.
Know the different areas in systematic theology.
2.
Know the definition of general and special revelation.
3.
Know what verbal, plenary inspiration means.
4.
Know the different views on the existence of God.
5.
Know how to define the Trinity. Support with scripture.
6.
Know about the image and likeness of God in man.
7.
Know the terms that apply to man’s composition.
8.
Be able to define the total depravity of man.
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