Guideline on Enterprise Promotion and Development

Ensuring Economic Security among returnee Women
Migrant Workers (WMWs) and their family members
Guideline on Enterprise Promotion and Development
Submitted to:
UN Women for Nepal Institute of Development Studies (NIDS)
Prepared by:
Sushil Kumar Sharma
Bishwa Raj Karki
Industrial Enterprise Development Institute
P.O.Box: 3676, Tripureswor, Kathmandu
February, 2011
Proper mobilization and effective utilization of a country's available human resources are
essential for broad based national economic development from which women and men of all
social groups enjoy benefits equally from the development effort. Women are seen as actively
integrated into economic life and their labor and economic output as essential for supporting
their families. However, most Nepalese women, both the rural and urban, have often faced
increasing impoverishment and difficulty in meeting their basic needs. The patriarchal
structure of Nepalese society has always considered women as subordinate to men and their
contribution is only recognized as supporter to family and left behind while counting
households and economic activities. Women cover more than half of population in Nepal and
their exclusion in both private and public arena indicate a 50% drag down in the development
and it is an extreme loss of human potential for the national holistic development agenda and
bottleneck to achieve MDG. Imparting education and skill for gainful employment to the girls
and women, especially in the lower strata of economic group and families is crucial.
Recent development, after 10 years of armed insurgency in the nation, has forced many men
to leave their homes both to ensure their physical and economic security. This has in many
instances lead to women taking the lead role to support for the survival of the family which
has pressurized women to enter into the job market and foreface to economic activities both in
the country and outside the national boundaries. But, low literacy level, lack of ownership of
assets, lack of skills and trainings, their confinement within household to fulfill
responsibilities of caring and nurturing the children and elderly, most women cannot
maximize the gains from employment opportunities. Most women are engaged in lower rung
of economic activities mostly concentrated in informal sector making them exposed to abuse
and exploitation. Despite the ongoing peace process opportunities in the labor market have
not seen a significant improvement. The number of Nepali men and women entering jobs in
the foreign market is in the rise with estimated thousand Nepali men and women leaving the
country per day. Many are reaching their employment destination without any skill and proper
information as required by the job resulting to exploitation and violence in many cases.
Despite these constrains, remittance sent in by these workers has been the backbone
supporting the conflict- ridden economy. Remittance is contributing to 23% of the GDP- a
formidable sector with substantive contribution. However, there is lack of vision and policies
to maximize these gains of international labor migration linking it to the development of
Nepal. The potential of remittance both financial and skills to secure socio economic
development of Nepal remains severely underutilized and untapped.
In such situation it is seen essential to design an integrated package to link remittance to
create sustainable alternative livelihood in Nepal. Proper reintegration package needs to be
introduced to provide potential migrants with alternatives to use the remittance in productive
sectors on their return hence, sustaining and multiplying gains of their opportunities of
international labor migration. Reaching out to potential migrants with required skills and
information including the analysis of cost and benefit within foreign employment provides
them with informed choices and help prevent them from violence and exploitation. Ironically,
Nepal is feeling the deficit of workers in the very sectors where Nepali workers are engaged
in large number in various international labor destinations. There is a big challenge to bridge
this gap between supply and demand and generate opportunities in Nepal especially targeting
for those that are forced to re-migrate with the aim to retain them in the country, while
providing opportunities of reintegration to those who return from abroad as migrant workers
seeking opportunities to invest their remittances.
Forced and unplanned migration for women is more costly due to the nature of their work as
domestic workers and care givers which are not always regulated by the national laws of the
countries of employment. Issues of decent work and social security remains elusive in the
informal economy and state intervention and monitoring to ensure safety and security can be
limited. Moreover, the long time separation of a mother from household creates a vacuum
especially creating care deficit which has also seen the growth in delinquencies among their
children. The absence of household members have added work and care burden especially
among the female members that remains in Nepal especially taken on by elderly daughters.
The changes in societal fabrics can have devastating impact if it is not addressed timely. On
this ground, it is critical to educate/ train women on their work requirements and their rights
as migrants to ensure safe migration remains a challenging job. Likewise, creating alternatives
in Nepal and helping women to make informed choices in seeking opportunities either in
Nepal or abroad remains a daunting task ahead.
Considering the need to address these concerns, a pilot initiative was tested in 3 districts of
Nepal, namely Kathmandu, Kaski and Sunsari, by providing entrepreneurship development
opportunities to returnee WMWs and the members of families of migrants by utilizing
remittance with the objective to create alternative livelihood opportunities in Nepal. It has
been able to generate positive response as the intervention has provided opportunities for the
participants to earn an equivalent income staying in Nepal. More significantly women are
grateful as they could stay close to their family and at the same time be economically secured.
Hence 94% out of approximately 750 returnee WMWs and migrant families have shared that
if given such opportunity they will not want to go for foreign employment. As a part of this
initiative, there is a provision for the replication, extension and expansion of the package.
Therefore, this enterprise Development guideline has been developed from the perspective
and need of target group (women migrant workers and migrant family members). The
guideline will be instrumental in identifying the target group (which is a challenge as there is
limited data on the returnee and there are not settled in one cluster), identification of the
entrepreneurial traits/qualities among them and developing such qualities and skill through
training to establish and run WMWs owned enterprises. Beside this, the guidelines will also
provide input on process and method; on how an enterprise will be started and established by
such target group like WMWs. It also includes the component on leadership and
organizational development of the target group to mobilise them as agent of change. The
development practitioner (professionals or development agents) will be benefited from this
guideline in carrying out programs on economic enhancement of such migrant women
workers and family of migrant workers, who are dependent on remittance.
Last but not the least, this guide line is the product of relevant, informative documents/
reports, professional input, support of the professionals/staffs in the UN Women, NIDS,
POURAKHI and two decades long experience of Industrial Enterprise Development Institute
(IEDI) in the field of entrepreneurship promotion and development in Nepal.
Part-I: Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 6
1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 What are the Objectives of Developing this Guideline? .................................................. 7
1.3 What Methodologies have been applied to develop this Guideline? ............................... 7
1.4 For whom has this Guide line been developed? ............................................................... 8
1.5 Who is the Target Group? ................................................................................................ 8
1.6 What Age Group is accommodated? ................................................................................ 8
1.7 On what type of employment has the program focused? ................................................. 9
1.8 Organization of the Guide line ......................................................................................... 9
1.9 Team Composition ........................................................................................................... 9
Part II: Entrepreneurship Development Training ..................................................................... 10
2.1 Objective ........................................................................................................................ 10
2.2 Identification of the potential location, target group through exisitng baselines, reports
and consultations .................................................................................................................. 10
2.3 Training Need Assessment of the WMWs /Participants Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.4 Awareness Workshop ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.5 Final Selection of the Training Participants .......................................................................
2.7 Train the Trainers / EDF/ Social Mobilisers .................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.8 Enterprise Development Training .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.9 Group Formation ............................................................................................................ 15
Part III: Follow up Counselling ................................................................................................ 17
3.1 Follow up........................................................................................................................ 17
3.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 17
3.1.2 Purpose of follow up ............................................................................................... 17
3.1.3 Method of follow up ................................................................................................ 18
3.1.4 Time plan for follow up event ................................................................................. 20
3.1.5 Frequency of Follow up Visit.................................................................................. 20
3.1.6 Areas of Support Services during Follow up .......................................................... 20
3.1.7 Start-up Stage .......................................................................................................... 22
3.1.8 Roaster of Experts ................................................................................................... 23
3.2 Counselling Service........................................................................................................ 24
3.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 24
3.2.2 Counselling Style .................................................................................................... 24
3.2.3 Steps of Counselling................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2.4 Documentation/Filing.............................................................................................. 27
3.2.5 Enterprises sick or die ............................................................................................. 27
3.2.6 Program for Growth Oriented Enterprises .............................................................. 28
3.2.7Networking with Organization ................................................................................. 29
3.2.8Value Chain Development ....................................................................................... 30
3.2.9 Monitoring and Evaluation...................................................................................... 31
3.2.10 Exit strategies ........................................................................................................ 32
Part-I: Introduction
1.1 Introduction
The Nepalese women, both the rural and urban, have often faced increasing impoverishment
and difficulty in meeting their basic needs. Women in this view are rightfully seen as actively
integrated into economic life and their labor and economic output as essential for supporting
their families. The patriarchal structure of Nepalese society has always considered women as
subordinate to men and supporter to family and left behind while counting households; as a
result poor access to the resources its control and benefits.
Economic Security of Women Migrant Workers (WMWs) project implemented by UNIFEM,
a part of UN WOMEN Nepal in partnership with Nepal Institute of Development Studies
(NIDS) and Pourakhi, the organization of returnee WMWs, aiming as piloting a community
level initiative to encourage investment of remittances in sustainable community-based
enterprises in order to enhance the economic security of WMWs and their families. The
overall objective of the project is to identify target groups for enhancing their technical,
managerial, marketing and entrepreneurial capacity and improve their access to technical,
financial and market services for the productive enterprise development. To achieve the stated
objectives, the project aims to promote gender-responsive policies, strategy and program on
foreign employment, remittances and reintegration.
As the impact of the armed insurgency and the ongoing political instability, opportunities in
the domestic market have been severely curtailed, and Nepali men and women have been
forced to take on jobs in the foreign market. Hence, many are reaching their employment
destination without any skill and proper information as required by the job resulting to
exploitation and violence in many cases. On the other hand the remittance has been the
backbone of sustaining the conflict ridden economy when most of the industries were forced
to a halt. Remittance is contributing to 23% of the GDP a formidable sector with substantive
It is seen essential to design an integrated package to link remittance to create sustainable
alternative to livelihood in Nepal. Proper reintegration package need to be introduced to
provide potential migrants with alternatives to use the remittance in productive sectors on
their return hence sustaining and multiplying gains of their opportunities of international labor
migration. Forced and unplanned migration for women is more costly due to the nature of
their work as domestic workers and care givers which are not always regulated by the national
laws of the countries of employment. Similarly the long term migration of women away from
the family has seen to be comparatively expensive as there is a vacuum on rearing and caring
of the children that are left behind. This is resulting in engagement of the children of migrants
in the unsocial behavior which could be devastating in a country that is have high population
of migrants especially WMWs. To mitigate the above mentioned situation, NIDS/
POURAKHI with the support of UN WOMEN developed do-able guideline on Enterprise
Promotion and Development Program to provide customized support services to WMWs and
the migrant families so as to enable them to have productive investment of remittance earned
as migrant workers, to the status of self-employment and owner of the business venture.
Beside this, the guidelines will also provide input on process and method; on how an
enterprise will be started and established by such target group like WMWs, which is designed
and developed based on field tested finding and recommendations with the similar target
1.2 What are the Objectives of Developing this Guideline?
The main objective of developing this guidelines on Enterprise Promotion and Development
Program for WMWs is to guide the program designer, organizer, implementer, the
trainers/facilitators and social mobilisers to the whole process of enterprise development
program for: (i)Returnee Women Migrant Workers (WMWs) (ii) Migrant Workers'
immediate family members (those members of the family who have full access to mobilize
and control over the remittance or any kind of earning/resources made /owned and (iii)
Excluded Women (for example: survived from the trafficking violence affected
women(VAW), differently able women, single women etc) who are in need of economic
security: This third category are taken as a potential group to migrate in search of work. This
guideline is prepared as generic version which needs to be customized for the specific target
group because the issues of MWWs (the returnee from Japan Korea or Israel and returnee
from Gulf countries is different and at the same time the issue of violence affected women,
differently-able (disable) and single women is quite different from one another which needs to
be addressed differently and properly (skilled trainers and mobilisers’) from the very
beginning of base line survey.
1.3 What Methodologies have been applied to develop this
Professionals of Industrial Enterprise Development Institute (IEDI), Nepal reviewed relevant
documents, process of pilot program implementation and discussed with concerned staff UN
Women, NIDS/ Paurakhi. Based on which, professionals of IEDI have prepared this
guidelines on Enterprise Promotion and Development Program for WMWs and members of
migrant families including some excluded women’s group that has been identified through the
learning of the project, as highly potential group for foreign labor migration with high
1.4 For whom has this Guide line been developed?
The goal of the project on Economic Security of WMWs is to contribute to reduce poverty in
Nepal by enhancing the economic security of WMWs and their families through the
productive investment of remittances. UN Women Nepal is executing and implementing the
project through two prominent organizations, namely Nepal Institute of Development Studies
(NIDS) and Paurakhi, under the overall guidance and support of a Steering Committee at
national level chaired by the Secretary of the Ministry of Labor and Transport Management
(MOLTM) at the national level and District Advisory Committee for Enterprise Development
(DACED) at the sub national level. This guide line has been developed for/ to identify steps
on supporting returnee women migrant workers, their families to initiate enterprise
development while including other excluded women’s group that has been identified through
the learning of the project, as highly potential group for foreign labor migration with high
1.5 Who is the Target Group?
Basically the program will render services to the following groups:
1. Returnee Women Migrant Workers (WMWs)
2. Women Migrant Workers' first line family (those members of the family who have full
access to mobilize and control over the remittance or any kind of earning/resources
made/owned by the Women Migrant Workers.
3. Potential migrant workers (Excluded women’s groups for example: survived from the
trafficking, violence affected women (VAW), Dalit, Janajati, differently able and
single women etc.)
1.6 What Age Group is accommodated?
The women are considered active labor force up to the age of 58 or even more as far as the
health and family need drives them to work. The women are working more than 12 hours
which is more than of the men. The program will have affirmative action towards the women
who have zeal, tenacity and keenness to work and make earnings to live a life of self respect.
Therefore, the potential and productive working groups need to be benefited; however the
program will accommodate women /Group who are within the range of 18 to 50 years age.
1.7 On what type of employment has the program focused?
There are various types of program initiated for the economic empowerment of the women /
group in Nepal. The first one is lively hood /subsistence program which is considered just for
fulfilling family needs. Second one is generation of income by working during off hours of
household routine activities and third one is full time involvement in an enterprise; and also
creating employment for self and providing employment opportunities for others to make an
earning. Beside this, some programs are providing skills to create wage labors in the domestic
and international job markets. This program will mainly focus on the women who want to be
fully involved in Enterprise Creation and Development, so that full time employment of the
returnee WMWs and migrants families will be created including those are felt necessary to be
included from the learning of the pilot defined within the category of excluded women ( most
vulnerable potential migrants groups).
1.8 Organization of the Guide line
This guide line has been basically divided into three parts. The first part deals with the
introduction of the program. The second part deals with the process of selecting the training
participants, data base and profile management of the scattered WMWs, their trainings on safe
migration, enterprise creation and encourage them to live life of dignity and social respect.
Similarly, the third part deals with the process/methods of follow-up, counseling and support
services, the WMWs may require, during and after the establishments of enterprises.
1.9 Team Composition
The Industrial Enterprise Development Institute (IEDI), a leading organization in the field of
entrepreneurship and enterprise development in Nepal, assigned two experts to develop the
guidelines. Mr. Sushil Sharma, Gender in Enterprise, Manager of IEDI, coordinator and Mr.
Bishwa Karki, Marketing Manager of IEDI was involved as a resource person. Equal support
and guidance was taken from the project team at NIDS and POURAKHI including UN
Women while developing the manual.
Part II: Entrepreneurship Development Training
2.1 Objective
Basically the project/program has objectives as the followings:
2.1.1. To facilitate the reintegration among the returnee WMWs through the mobilization of
2.1.2 To create alternative livelihood option among the returnee WMWs and the migrant
families including those are felt necessary to be included from the learning of the pilot
defined within the category of excluded women ( most vulnerable potential migrants groups)
to curtail forced and irregular international labor migration.
2.2 Identification of potential Location, target groups through
existing baselines, reports and consultations.
The first level of information of the location and target group will have to be assesses through
the existing information, reports and through the consultation. There is limited information
and data on the migrant population and this population is scattered and not concentrated in
one area. The current Census of 2011 will bring out data of the absentee household of every
district. There are studies and reports that are available that will also help in identifying the
districts. Consultation with the stakeholders involved in this sector can also be the good
source of information. However, identifying the WMWs' can be very challenging as they
would rather not share their status as many have reached to countries of employment through
irregular channels and there is still a stigma among those women that have left home to work
outside as the very act is always linked with trafficking for sexual purposes. Hence,
consultation meeting organized with the existing women’s groups working in the community
(Mother’s groups, Paralegal committee, Women’s cooperatives, especially organization of
migrant workers and families of migrants) is a necessary for the identification of the potential
area and targeted women participants for intervention.
As for the baseline on excluded women, it is available in the Village Development Committee
(VDC) and District Development Committee (DDC) as their demographic profile. For the
information/data of violence affected women, WCDO, Health post, VAW office in 50
districts of Nepal and community centers, safe-house, women’s group, health centers, local
NGOs and Para legal committees etc are the source of information centre. As well as Women
for Human Rights (WHR) for Single women, Nepal Dalit Commission and NDDC for Dalit,
NEFDIN, Nepal Disable Association for differently able people and other NGOs and CBOs
working for trafficking and violence against women are the source of information centers.
They are good entity for information compilation, management and dissemination.
Accordingly through this information the potential participants can be identified.
2.3 Awareness Workshop
After having compiled information and knowledge on potential location, a two- constructive
day will be allocated for awareness training/ workshop in the identified districts by involving
the target groups. First part of the training workshop will be dealt with safe migration
concepts and the second session will have the introduction of enterprise/business, its benefit.
First day orientation on Safe Migration orientation will provide detail information to the
participants regarding the issues concerning WMWs throughout the migration cycle and what
is required to make it safe. The session will also discuss the advantage and disadvantages of
foreign labor migration as well touch upon the financial literacy (management of remittances)
including the significance of exploring opportunities available in Nepal.
Second day will be devoted to provide the participants Business Awareness orientation, which
will be an eye opening event for the WMWs/ the participants. The awareness workshop will
provide career option: comparative view on substance and commercial way of doing
economic activities. It will provide participants information on a full cycle of
entrepreneurship training and its benefit. It will also focus on the importance of initiating
economic activities in owns’ country where the activities will: earn income, social capital,
family togetherness with support, supporting hands of the institutions with security of
property and right of citizen. (Annex 1 contains a one day safe migration orientation and
enterprise development orientation curriculum developed by NIDS/ POURAKHI. This has to
be reviewed and made more expansive to contain all relevant information mentioned above as
currently the orientation was only for a day)
Note: While addressing the specific needs and their issues like psycho-socio aspects, issues of
disability, single women, women within Dalit and Janajati /indigenous women, the trainers
and mobilisers needs to be adequately oriented to devote sometime for issue based discussion
and orientation on their rights and responsibilities.
Beside this, the procedural formalities will also be taken into consideration as follow:
1. Inform, educate and create ownership of the local government and non government
organizations and civil society towards the program starting form the very beginning of
the program.
2. Encourage participation / involvement of the male family members in promotion of the
program and for the encouragement of the returnee WMWs participation. Invite as much
as possible participation of returnee WMWs, migrant’s families and those from excluded
groups. The awareness workshop will not accommodate more than 40 participants in one
3. Join hands /collaborate with local N/GOs to avoid duplication of the program and
maximize outputs with minimum resources
4. Publicize and share experience of MWMs through case studies, pamphlets, and true and
carbon copy of the news published by the news paper and Medias.
5. Educate the workshop participants on the whole cycle of the program (starting form the
selection of the participants, the step wise process, how they will be benefited from the
program) to the exit strategy.
6. Evaluate the effectiveness of awareness program.
2.4 Collection of the Baseline Information of Potential Participants
A socio-economic profile of potential participants on individual basis will be created from
among those participating in the awareness programme who is interested to take up enterprise
development. This will help is saving the time and resources while enabling the program
organizers to have a baseline of the target group and to design and formulate appropriate
strategy. In this context, a HH survey form developed and being used by NIDS/ POURAKHI
will be filled from individual participants during the awareness programme which also
includes questions designed to elicit the information required for enterprise development as
well as to assist in generating information on the socio-economic status of WMWs (Annex-2
contains the HH survey Form currently used by NIDS/POURAKHI).
2.5 Final Selection of the Training Participants
After completion of the awareness workshop the participants will be selected. For this,
1. Baseline questionnaire filled by participants will be reviewed.
2. Most potential participant will be selected based on the criteria such as literacy level,
age, entrepreneurial, interest, capacity to invest, and existing knowledge, which is
included in the baseline survey form.
The applicant will be further interviewed using the participant selection criteria.
The most potential candidates among the applicants will be selected. (Everybody
cannot be entrepreneur, they require some or minimum level of entrepreneurial
The Enterprise Development training will accommodate 20 to 25 participants in each
training; however 20 will be the ideal in number.
2.6 Preparation /Update of Enterprise Creation and
Development Manual
After the selection of the participants, ILO-SIYB package while accommodating the subjects
like self strength, weakness, opportunity, threat, risk bearing capacity assessment, selection of
suitable enterprises, their management, competition and collaboration, business plan
preparation (both production and service oriented business) including costing and pricing, etc.
will be given during the training. In addition to this, documents available at Department of
Cottage and Small Industry on basic procedure/rules and regulation of the Government of
Nepal including registration process and the information of the potential enterprises from the
feasibility studies will also be incorporated during the training. A separate manual can be
developed to include these aspects in addition to the ILO-SIYB packages.
Note: There can be two level of participation which has to be identified while screening the
participants among returnee WMWs. Some that has remittance to invest and are usually the
returnee from more affluent countries like Korea, Japan, Israel and other developed countries
who are more educated and aware. Some among them would have already initiated some form
of enterprises without knowing much about doing business. The training module has to be
catered to their needs and has to be conducted separately. Annex 3 contains a 2 days
enterprise development training module for the target group used by NIDS and POURAKHI.
This can also be reviewed to introduce concepts on developing marketing plan for expansion,
on double entry book keeping with VAT, information on Fund mobilization and management,
financial planning for growth, were some of the demand that have come through this training.
A separate training module for participants returning for those returning without remittance
those who are mainly coming back from Gulf countries and have lower level of literacy and
awareness. Annex 4 contains the 7 days in-depth enterprise development training module for
the returnee WMWs from Gulf used by NIDS and POURAKHI.
2.7 Train the Trainers / Social Mobilisers
Through an orientation workshop the trainers/ social mobilisers will be trained and educated
on the training manual. The transformation of the whole skill and knowledge exclusively
depends upon the trainers. Therefore, highly motivated and committed trainers will be
imparted training and facilitation skill. Furthermore, apart from providing the training and
facilitation skill the trainers/mobilisers will be educated on the whole process of the program
starting from the identification of the potential WMWs, their selection, developing of the
baseline, establishment of enterprise, support services, growth process and exit strategy. They
will also be provided training on the counseling processes and style because they will be the
front line professionals executing the program in the field level.
Organization that have years of experience in the field of enterprise development and
counseling service along with organization that have experience on issues of migration and
gender will have to jointly design the training curriculum. Priority will be given to members
of/among the WMWs while recruiting the trainers and social mobilisers. The reason behind
recruiting social mobilisers among the WMWs or women from the disadvantaged groups will
be an effective strategy to reach the invisible target group who are reluctant to identify
themselves due to various social stigma (e.g. for WMWs, as their mobility is linked with
trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation and society looks them low especially for those
returning from Gulf Countries and the sector they work as domestic worker is considered less
prestigious). Learning from the experience, it was seen that social mobilisers recruited by
POURAKHI/NIDS was able to break this silence and reach out to them and pursue them to
join the program. Also building their capacity with a view of developing them as local
resource person for advocating for their issues as well as business services counselors will be
promising for sustaining the program.
2.8 Enterprise Development Training
Pre training Activities:
After the selection of the participants the following preparations will be ensured before the
formal starting of the training:
1. Fix venue, date and time of the training accessible to the participants and resource
2. Send invitation letter to the invitees.
3. Select training venue with enough space for energizers, simulation exercises/business
4. Security (inform the local authorities and local service providers) to avoid
interference from out –side
5. One separate room for mothers accompanied by infants/babies (if required)
6. Tea breaks and Tiffin /lunch/ Foods
7. Training materials for Trainers and participants
During the training:
A seven days' training component is itself a bottom line element as a take- off of the
entrepreneurship development program. The seven days training on entrepreneurship will be
provided to the selected WMWs in their respective location.
The training will be conducted through the following process:
1. Formal opening of the training program (in presence of local governance authorities,
influential local NGOs, successful women entrepreneurs for motivational purpose and
other promoting stake holders, line agencies, activist as per their availability)
2. The layout of sitting arrangement in the training hall will be U in shape, so that each
and every participant could interact, face to face, with each other or in some cases
depending on the participants, the layout of the sitting arrangement without any desk
or table but the carpet setting helps to break the barriers among women and also help
in better maneuvering of the hands-on exercise of the training sessions. The venue
will be decorated with relevant information (pictures to the best possible)
success/failure stories, posters on the wall, and pictorial book-lets collected from
various organizations or developed by NIDS/Paurakhi for additional information and
re- enforcements throughout the training ( both information on enterprise development
and also safe migration).
3. Back up support will be provided to the front line trainers by the master trainer (if
required), before, during and after the training session delivery, until the trainers built
self confidence. Note: Social Mobilisers will be given few sessions during the training
to build their capacity to train as independent trainers by the end of the programme on
their own.
4. Constructive feed-back will be given on trainer’s performance by circle of trainers
(COT) at the end of the day.
5. Preparation of the lesson/session plan and sharing will be made mandatory to achieve
best results.
6. Evaluation of the training will be carried out. (Annex 5 contains the final training
evaluation sheet used by NIDS and POURAKHI.)
7. Based on the business schemes developed by the entrepreneurs at the end of the
training, the Action plan of each participant will be prepared to design the follow up
and monitoring support. (Annex 6 contains the Format of the Action Plan)
8. The organizer will do needful preparation and maximize participation of concerned
service providers including some prominent authorities for formal closing of the
training program to get social recognition and to facilitate further support. The
interaction with the service providers would facilitate the introduction of each other
and provide knowledge of each other’s engagements and open opportunities for
further interactions to take support in future. In the later phase of the programme
implementation, this day can also be used to provide opportunity for the newly
established entrepreneurs (from earlier trainings) to showcase their products which
have a double benefit, a) it will help the new entrepreneurs to market their produce, b)
it will also be a motivation to the potential entrepreneurs who have just received the
9. Certificate of the training program will be distributed to the participants.
10. Report preparation and submission.
2.9 Disaggregated, Profile of the potential entrepreneurs
After the training, the program's main interventions will focus on organizing these groups, ,
providing the follow up/counseling for establishment of enterprises and providing required
support to help them initiate new businesses as well as helping them to build leadership
capabilities and networking . For this purpose, disaggregated data on the basis of sex, caste,
ethnicity, enterprsie chosen, skill training taken, etc will be maintained.(Annex 7 contains the
format for maintaining the database of the entrepreneurs used by NIDS/ POURAKHI)
Post Training Activities
2.9 Group Formation
The seven days training will be the starter of the entrepreneurship development program for
the participants. After the training they enter into the process of enterprise /business creation
which requires various counseling, support and facilitation. At the end of the training program
an entrepreneur group of the WMWs will be formed on the basis of geographical cluster and
if possible the nature of business. The formation of group will make (the program
implementer/organizer) easier for:
1. Easy access to the training participants/group
2. Communication
3. Dissemination of information
4. Regular/Periodical follow up meeting and monitoring
5. Support Delivery
6. Exchange/sharing of learning' between or among the group
7. Encouragement in formation of self-help group/cooperatives
8. Ownership Feeling of the group
9. Sustainability of the group
10. Enhance collective bargaining power of the WMWs
11. Facilitate collective/cooperative marketing of the product and services
12. Documentation of the support services provided and its reflection/impact
13. Monitoring and evaluation
(Note: After the formation of these entrepreneurs groups, it can be brought to the notice of the
social mobiliser appointed through the Local Governance programme to facilitate linkages
with the ongoing social mobilization processes practiced by DDC and VDC)
Part III: Follow up Counseling
3.1 Follow up
3.1.1 Introduction
Follow up is a post-training activity that intends to collect information on the status of
potential entrepreneurs in the process of establishing a new business venture. After graduating
the training program the potential entrepreneurs of EDP in fact enter into a real field where
they have to work hard to materialize their business plan for establishing enterprises. During
this process they meet and interact with several people and organizations so as to keep their
business start up efforts moving ahead. Underline below are some organizations and people as
an example, the potential entrepreneurs may need to visit to full fill their requirements,
 Raw material suppliers
 Machines/equipment suppliers
 Banks/financial institutions
 Custom office
 Wholesaler/retailer
 Market areas
 Similar production house/
Purpose of visit
 To collect information on R/M price and
 To collect information on Machine/equipment
price and availability
 To explore possibilities for loan
 To garner information on custom duty on R/M
and M/E
 To get the enterprise registered, if required
 To get the information on market
 To explore the market dynamics- buyers and
 How others are operating businesses or producing
the products?
There could be several other individual or organization the potential entrepreneurs may need
to visit as per the nature of their enterprises.
3.1.2 Purpose of follow up
At the end of EDP training, all potential entrepreneurs, along with their business plan are
asked to prepare their Action Plan (annex 6) with all the activities to be carried out step by
step to complete the process of enterprise establishment in a certain time frame. The Action
Plan should be prepared in a way that it should reflect all the major activities, in a sequential
order, e.g. the location to be selected, output to be achieved after the completion of the
activity, process to be selected, person responsible for, and time frame for activities to be
accomplished. In the Action Plan, they also fill up a column under a heading where they need
to write name of individual or organization if, they need support from them to accomplish the
particular activity.
The Action Plan prepared by the potential entrepreneurs becomes a basis for the trainer/social
mobilisers to develop the follow up plan as post training activities. They need frequent
counseling and moral support to facilitate market linkages. The Action Plan indicates the time
frame the trainers/social mobilisers need for follow up and support. During the time,
trainer/social mobilisers also collects information of the status of the trainees (Annex 8) as
whether the planned activities have been completed within the time frame or some problems
have occurred in the process. If, the potential entrepreneurs have been facing problem to
accomplish the planned activities, it is the responsibility of trainer/social mobilsers to discuss
on it to find out the root cause of the problem and help them to resolve it. It is therefore
important to develop capacity of social mobilisers on follow up and counseling skills. If, all
the activities planned for the period have been completed, the trainer should discuss on the
pros and cons of other planned activities to be carried in the future and fix the time for next
follow up.
3.1.3 Method of follow up
Follow up is a very important effort to ensure the success of the training program. The follow
up could be further effective if, spouse and/ or in laws of potential entrepreneurs are also
included during the follow up meeting. Follow up can be done in different ways as given
Follow up
door to door
Group counselling
Door to door basis:
Trainers/social mobilisers plan the follow up in the door to door basis by visiting potential
entrepreneurs individually. They meet with potential entreprenuers either in their residence or
invite them to visit in the office. Trainers/social mobilisers should use standard form for
follow up. Please refer to annex 6 for the follow up form.
It is important here to note that trainers must create separate file of each potential
entrepreneurs with details of potential entrepreneur’s profile. The form filled up in each
follow up visit is to be kept in the file of potential entrepreneurs separately which will be
eventually uploaded in the disaggregated profile of the potential entrepreneurs which can be
developed into a software rather than having it in the spreadsheet for better management of
the data and for effective follow up and monitoring. The method of door to door basis for
follow up is very useful for collecting rich information and provides space for discussion on
potential entrepreneurs issue in an individual basis. So, the potential entrepreneurs feel
comfortable to share their enterprise related issues with trainer. However, this is known as
expensive follow up method because the trainer/social mobilizers have to visit and deal with
potential entrepreneurs individually which takes lot of time.
Workshop method
In workshop method, all the potential entrepreneurs of a training batch are invited in a hall in
a scheduled date and time so as to collect information on their current status. Trainers/social
mobilisers play role of facilitator to help potential entrepreneurs share their status in the
process of establishing planned enterprises. Trainers/social mobilisers should also be careful
in probing and digging out the problems faced by potential entrepreneurs in the process of
establishing enterprises. In many cases, potential entrepreneurs blame others for creating
problems however, they might have neglected or unknown about their weaknesses or
shortcomings which are the reasons for creating the problems. So, the Trainers/social
mobilisers involved in conducting follow up workshop must be equipped with the knowledge
and skills on workshop facilitation.
The workshop method is a cost effective method for follow up because one or two facilitators
can conduct follow up of many potential entrepreneurs in a day. This method is also very
useful for sharing the problems among the group and identifying amicable solution with the
experience of fellow participants. However, this method could be most effective in digging
out the real problems of potential entrepreneurs if, the facilitator are able to create
comfortable environment for potential entrepreneurs to share their enterprise problem.
Group counseling methods
If any similar types of problem arise, group can be called and discuss on the issues and
explore way out with their participation. In this process, if needed, representatives from the
concerned service providers can be invited to support them. The size of group is need based,
small to middle, preferably small.
Correspondence method
The Trainers/social mobilisers may also sometime conduct follow up by telephone or
correspondence with potential entrepreneurs. This method of follow up can be applied if;
other two methods of follow up become difficult to apply due to specific reasons. We can
garner information about the potential entrepreneurs through this method of follow up but
sometimes, it may create confusion that whether the information given by the potential
entrepreneurs is valid or not. Because this method does not provide Trainers/social mobilisers
a space to interact with potential entrepreneurs face to face. In some cases, potential
entrepreneurs may communicate the effect of the problem than the root cause which may
mislead Trainers/social mobilisers in the planning process and rendering support services.
Most of the time, combination of all methods are applied for effective follow up.
3.1.4 Time plan for follow up event
In general, the first follow up of potential entrepreneurs of EDP is done within 1 to 3 months
after the completion of EDP training however, time plan may vary person to person due to
various reasons. Some aspects as examples that may affect the time plan for follow up are
underlined below;
a. Action plan of potential entrepreneurs
b. Nature of the business
c. Nature of activities planned
There could be other reasons as well that also affecting in making decision for fixing the
follow up time. It is also important for support organization to have understanding on fixing
the length of follow up duration. Usually, support organizations in Nepal are seen involved in
carrying out follow up to two years.
3.1.5 Frequency of Follow up Visit
It could be a debatable issue that how often potential entrepreneurs need to be followed up
after EDP training. It, in fact, very much depends upon the nature of enterprise selected, types
of service required and level of business skills of potential entrepreneurs. However, it is
recommended that potential entrepreneurs should be followed up at least one time within 1
month and it should be maintained at least for a year. The frequency of follow up visit can be
maintained at least one time within 3 month after one year or let the potential entrepreneurs
visit to program office as per their needs of service support. It is important to mention here
that whenever Trainers/social mobilisers visit client the follow up form must be filled up, no
matter whether the meeting was held in client’s office or program office.
3.1.6 Areas of Support Services during Follow up
After completing the EDP training, potential entrepreneurs expect various types of support
services as post-training support. Some of the support services they might look for are given
below as examples;
Support services after training
1 Revision of business plan
2. Business plan preparation for new enterprise
3. Preparation and submission of proposal for bank loan
4. Purchase of machine and equipment
5. Identifying sources of raw materials
6. Retain motivation level of potential entrepreneurs
7. Register the enterprise
8. Facilitate potential entrepreneurs to discuss with their family
9. Select location of enterprise
10. Select the middle person
11. Develop marketing strategies
12. Finalize layout of enterprise and its flow
13. Seeking for business information
Points as mentioned above could be the areas of support a Trainers/social mobilisers has to
plan for as post training services however, some key supports as elaborated below are very
much vital and need to be planned properly and adequately as post support services.
Technical skill training
Potential entrepreneurs equipped with technical skills are found faster in establishing
enterprises because they feel independent and confident to run enterprises. So, one of the
important jobs of a trainer/social mobiliser is to find out the type and level of technical skill
needs of potential entrepreneurs on the enterprises they have selected. For which trainer/social
mobiliser has to develop a roaster of organizations providing skill training and provide them
support to have access to skill training. It is important, also to keep in mind, that every
potential entrepreneur may not need skill training as well as supporting for skill training may
have to be in the cost sharing basis depending on the socio-economic status of the potential
entrepreneurs. So, Trainers/social mobilisers need to be very much professional while
assessing the needs of skill training for potential entrepreneurs as it will have substantial
impact on program budget.
Access to credit
Availability of adequate capital required for the enterprise selected during the EDP training
has a greater impact on business start up rate and their successful operation. Many micro and
small enterprises die in the inception phase because of inadequate capital. Because they start
enterprises with whatever capital they have. This is happening because many potential
entrepreneurs hesitate to approach financial institution for loan due to lack of information on
credit policy and procedures of financial institutions. Few of them who try to reach financial
institution for loan are in many cases discouraged due to inadequate know how to complete
the loan procedures. So, Trainers/social mobilisers have a greater role as facilitators to
educate potential entrepreneurs on loan procedures and support them to have access to loan.
There is also a possibility to initiate the saving and credit among the entrepreneurs groups
which can also facilitate some savings and loan facilities for immediate requirements locally.
Trainers/social mobilisers have to facilitate this among the entrepreneur groups and also
explore for trainings on the formation and management of a cooperative to ensure the formal
regularization of the loans that starts getting accumulated. There are trainings conducted at the
local level free of cost that deals with the basics of cooperative, but taking benefits from that
opportunity would require timely planning and coordination.
Technology Transfer and Support
To acquire a suitable technology for micro and small enterprises in Nepal has been a big
problem for entrepreneurs. Nepalese entrepreneurs, in many cases, have been seen in deep
problem due to wrong selection of technology. So, social mobilisers should create directory of
technology providers (both, Nepal and international based) and help in transferring it to
potential entrepreneurs as per their needs and requirement. The process of acquiring
information on technologies and disseminating them to needy entrepreneurs could effectively
be done if; a moderate information cell is established in Pourakhi.
Market linkage
An enterprise remains healthy if, its market is vibrant and insured. The market dynamics and
behavior always keep on changing. In addition, the newly established micro and small
enterprises face difficult situation because they have to compete with established domestic
enterprises as well as imported products. So, support for market linkage could play a pivotal
role to establish enterprises run by potential entrepreneurs. For which Trainers/social
mobilisers should support them during the follow up and counseling to develop and
implement suitable marketing strategies and plan. In addition, Trainers/social mobilisers
should also support potential entrepreneurs for developing market linkage by organizing
Business to Business (B2B) Workshop which creates space for potential entrepreneurs to have
dialogue with different market forces and develop functional business linkages.
3.1.7 Start-up Stage
EDP training enables participant to explore opportunities so as to establish new enterprises.
The role of Trainers/social mobilisers during the follow up also plays pivotal role to help
them establish enterprises by providing them customized support program.
Establishing an enterprise is relatively easy job however, due to patriarchal structure of the
society, it is a great challenge particularly for women to run enterprise successfully. To
establish an enterprise is just beginning of the game however, entrepreneurs have to encounter
with various situations to make their path of business clean, wide and safe. In general,
entrepreneurs usually find themselves in the following situations when they launch new
Situation of Newly Established Enterprises
Growth is inconsistent,
Market reaction unpredictable,
Entrepreneur in daily struggle to survive,
Decision making process difficult,
Confined in small niche market,
Change in products or distribution patterns or
Marketing tactics may be needed,
Organization centralized,
Rely on intuition and skill,
Financial crisis
Lack of knowledge of account keeping
Lack of knowledge of overall management of the business
More investment and low income/ sales
Lack of cooperation from the family/spouse
To overcome the situation as mentioned above is, in fact, a tough job for general people
however, entrepreneurs are the people called champion, business leader, change agent who
after all, manage situation with their skills and vision and move forward towards destination.
But, no doubt, they need support services to become compatible to the changing business
scenario. So, Trainers/social mobilisers must be very careful during this stage in providing
follow up and consultancy services. The detail of consultancy service is given below on the
proceeding headings;
3.1.8 Roaster of Experts
It is obvious that a support organization will not be in a position to offer all type of services
required for enterprise creation and development because of resource constraints and is not
possible through Trainers/social mobilisers due to their limited skills and capacities.
However, developing a Roaster of Experts of different discipline may help, to a large extent,
to avail varieties of services required for entrepreneurs at the local level. Trainers/social
mobilisers should identify the types of expertise entrepreneurs may look for in the future and
based on which a Roaster of Experts can be developed with a view to avail support services at
the local level.
3.2 Counseling Service
3.2.1 Introduction
Counseling services, enable potential entrepreneurs of EDP to materialize the skills and
knowledge acquired from EDP training , identify the causes of business problems and their
solutions, manage and run the business in a planned and sustainable way, garner business
related information in a cost effective manner, improve business performance and
management competitiveness to maximize the use of scarce resources, and achieve the main
objective of enterprise that is to maximize the profit.
The potential entrepreneurs who start enterprise after having EDP training could face several
business related problems. Because many could be just first generation entrepreneur with lack
of family business culture brought up. They may posses low level of business education,
market exposure, confidence level because of the historical subordination by being woman.
They have just graduated from a very short enterprise skill training however; they need
several other knowledge, skills and exposure to run the enterprise in a proper manner. So,
counseling service could play vital role to capacitate them to run enterprise successfully.
(Annex 9 includes the format for the baseline for, for the counseling)
3.2.2 Counseling Style
In general, there are three distinct counseling styles being often used by consultants keeping
in mind the level of skill of the entrepreneur as mentioned below;
A. Expert Style
B. Coaching Style
C. Facilitation Style
The most important aspect in counseling is to get acquainted with the level of motivation and
skills of the person seeking counseling service and based on which counseling style has to be
fixed. If, the person seeking for counseling service possesses very low level of skills on the
particular business problem/issue should be instructed by the counselor as what and how to
do to overcome the business problem, then the Expert Style Consultancy is required where
consultant remains active in directing entrepreneur to address business problems. In this
situation, the Trainer/Social mobilisers help the entrepreneurs to resolve the business related
problems/issues by applying expert style of counseling service, and if the problem is of
complex nature may also have to take support from the external experts.
As an example: If, an entrepreneur needs to keep business account but does not have
basic skills in book keeping. In this case, a Trainer/social mobilisers should transfer
skills to the entrepreneur in keeping business account. So, a trainer/Social mobilisers
here remains active and plays a role of book keeping expert to resolve the business
Coaching is another important style in providing counseling service. In the course of
implementing coaching based counseling service both entrepreneur and consultant remain
equally active.
As an example: If, an entrepreneur plans to expand production capacity of the
enterprise s/he may at first prepare a business plan for expansion. In this context,
Trainer/Social mobilisers may apply coaching style of counseling because the
entrepreneur knows the basic process of preparing a business plan for new enterprise
but may not be familiar with process of preparing a business plan for expansion. So,
coaching method is the best in this case, where both remain active in accomplishing the
If, the person is relatively better of in terms of skills and knowledge on the particular business
problems/issues s/he may need just facilitation type support to resolve the business problem.
Here the Trainers/social mobilisers just provide advice or suggestion to entrepreneurs to solve
their business problems. In this situation, entrepreneurs, to a large extent, are capable of
handling their day to day business, but are facing problems to handle business problems due
to lack self-confidence or inadequate information, or slightly less skills and knowledge. In
this situation, a Trainers/social mobilisers can encourage entrepreneurs to solve their business
problems by telling them as the way you are doing the job is correct, or informing them the
sources of information they are looking for, or advising them what they should do to bridge
the little skills gap they have at the moment.
As an example: A women entrepreneur is in confusion that the project location she has
selected is appropriate or not. Hence she visits to a consultant for a counseling service.
In this situation, the consultant can help her solve the problem through facilitation style
of counseling.
The end goal of the counseling is that the Trainers/social mobilisers involve the entrepreneur
in identifying the cause of problems and implementing the solution so as to achieve planned
result. In this process, Trainers/social mobilisers help entrepreneurs develop their capacity and
skill in handling the business problems so that, later on, entrepreneurs are able to handle their
business problem on their own. This is in fact, client centered consultancy method. So,
development workers should always try to implement the Process Based Consultancy
The graph given below may help better understand the counseling style;
Facilitation Style
Coaching Style
Entrepreneur more active
Both remains active
Stage III
Stage II
Expert Style
Bothe remain inactive
Consultant more active
Stage IV
Stage I
The graph depicted above highlights that if, entrepreneurs are in stage I meaning less capable
of handling business problem. In this situation they need instruction and directives from a
Trainer/social mobilisers to overcome the business problem. In stage II, entrepreneurs are
partially capable of handling business problem but need active support of consultant. Hence
both remain active to handle the business problem. In stage III, entrepreneurs are capable of
handling business problem but may lack self-confidence to handle the business problem
independently. In this situation, Trainer/social mobilisers should play role of a facilitator and
encourage entrepreneurs to take a lead to perform the job. Stage IV is a situation where both
remain inactive because the job is over and entrepreneurs are capable of handling their
business problem independently. So, there is no need of support.
It is important to keep in mind that an entrepreneur who keeps contact for counseling service
may be in one stage among the four as mentioned above. So, the Trainer/social mobilisers
should apply counseling style accordingly, keeping in mind the stage of entrepreneur. In some
cases all methods can be apply for get effective outcome/results.
However, in some cases
when situation is of complex nature and the Trainer/social mobiliser is unable to handle the
situation, assistance from external consultant can be taken to solve the problem.
3.2.3 Steps of Counseling
After the EDP training, the potential entrepreneurs are expected to be supported to address the
problems emerged during the process of enterprise establishment. In this situation,
Trainer/social mobilisers should help them in solving the problem by identifying the root
cause of the problem. To do so, Trainer/Social mobilisers have to follow the following
sequential steps as underlined below. But all the problems may not have similar kind of
complication so all the steps mentioned below may not necessarily be followed in the case of
addressing minor business problems. Therefore, it is appropriate to make decision to follow
partial or complete counseling steps keeping in mind the depth of the problems and
consequences of it.
Steps of Counseling
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Diagnosis of Problem
Recognition of Problem
Explore the options
Identification and Selection
of Alternatives
Ownership on alternative
Developing Action Plan
Follow up & Evaluation
Collection of baseline and relevant data
Identifying areas of problem
Finding of root causes of problem
Client taking ownership of problem
Brainstorming for solutions
Selection of alternative after analyzing
consequences of each alternative
Client selecting solution of problem
Action Plan with date of client visit
Results monitoring and support
Closing of consultancy process
3.2.4 Documentation/Filing
Documentation is very vital in the process of providing counseling services to entrepreneurs.
Trainer/social mobilisers must create separate file of each counseling cases. Hence,
Trainer/social mobilisers should start filing with a copy of business plan of the enterprise
followed by a base line data, business data, result of analysis and client meeting form filled up
in every visit to entrepreneur. Documentation process should be continued till end of
counseling service. These documents could also be used as sources of information for other
counseling cases. Please refer to annex VIII for Counseling Form.
3.2.5 Enterprises sick or die
In some cases, potential entrepreneurs select and start enterprise which might be started in an
adverse situation (born sick) because of market, environment, opposition from the family,
unavailability of capital, raw materials, adverse government policies or other external
constraints. If, entrepreneurs continue their operation of business activities even in a such
condition, there is no doubt that the entrepreneur will lose money and efforts and enterprise
will die after a certain time frame So, it is important to give due consideration on business
viability while selecting business idea during EDP training as well as constantly providing
information about the business environment.
If, Trainer/Social mobilisers face this type of born sick cases or cases of enterprise sinking,
the entrepreneurs have to be advised to diversify/ modify the enterprise through counseling
support. The Trainer/Social mobilisers should support entrepreneurs to identify and select
new enterprises which can be established by mobilizing the fixed assets of the sick enterprise,
to the extent possible, so as to prevent entrepreneurs from heavy loss.
It is also important here to note that some enterprises turned into sick enterprises after certain
time frame due to inadequate knowledge and skills of entrepreneurs. In this case,
Trainer/Social mobilisers can help entrepreneurs revive sick enterprises by providing
counseling service as well as assistance from external experts, if required. It is obvious that all
cases mentioned above should be kept as high attention cases and Trainer/Social mobilisers
must keep them in their close supervision. Due to these alerting types of scenario frequent
follow up and counseling are required to motivate to continue and diagnose their problem
time to time to prevent from enterprise failure. Hence the person involved as Trainer/Social
mobilisers must have thorough knowledge and skills in the field of management consultancy
service and if required take assistance from external experts.
3.2.6Program for Growth Oriented Enterprises
When newly established enterprise passes the stage of inception they start changing their
business behaviors. They try to explore new market areas, gradually increase production and
try to consolidate the management practices. These are some situations underlined below
which are often seen when small enterprises gradually move towards growth;
Symptoms of Growth Oriented Enterprise
Single line product to multi-products,
Limited market to wider markets,
Product/service lines innovation and development,
Expansion of enterprise,
Strategic implementation of well-defined plans,
Leadership than founding role,
Observation/exposure visit to successful enterprise
Successful expansion.
Diversification of enterprise by linking with other products and productions
Joining with parental/ umbrella unit
Major Program for Growth Oriented Enterprises
 Planning production and productivity
 Strategy for making market grow
 Developing marketing plan for expansion
 Double entry book keeping with VAT
 Fund mobilization and management
 Financial planning for growth
 Managing growth and transition
 Developing business plan for growth and expansion
 Quality vs. hygiene/safety
 Financial management
There could be other support program/events relevant to growth oriented enterprises. So,
Trainer/Social mobilisers and supporting organizations have to take lead to identify the
support needs of these entrepreneurs. Programs mentioned above are only indicative example
which could help growth oriented enterprises manage their stage of business transition safely
and successfully.
3.2.7 Networking with Organization
There are number of organizations in Nepal both outside and inside Kathmandu who represent
to enterprises of different categories. The Federation of Nepal Chambers of Commerce and
Industries (FNCCI), its District Chapters, Federation of Cottage and Small Industries
(FNCSI), Federation of Women Entrepreneurs' Association, Federation of Handicraft
Associations are some organizations who fall in this category. These organizations, on behalf
of their member enterprises' advocate and lobby with stakeholders to create enterprise friendly
policies and programs which help enterprises increase their market outreach, access to new
technology & capital market. These are some examples given above as areas of benefit
enterprises can reap if; they tie themselves with these organizations as member. Moreover,
there are among these newly established entrepreneurs from diverse groups like returnee
WMWs, disable women, single women, women within Dalit and Janajati /indigenous women.
There are existing organizations that are working to advocate for the rights of disadvantaged
and minority women. These entrepreneurs could also be linked with these groups as well.
Also it has been learning through this existing project on ensuring economic security of
WMWs that most of the enterprises are home based. There is also an organization working for
the rights of Home Based Workers, which can be explored and linked. The supporting
organization, therefore, should play facilitating role so as to accelerate the process of getting
membership at the earliest possible.
There are other important stakeholders such as Ministry of Local Development (MoLD),
DDCs, Municipality, VDCs, Government Line Agencies, Micro-Finance Institutions, and
local Cooperatives who can play important role to support women run enterprises by
incorporating support programs in their annual plan. Hence, Trainer/Social mobilisers should
facilitate the process of developing linkage between the entrepreneurs; and at the same time
help entrepreneurs to influence and mainstream their concerns into the annual plan and
regular programs of the local government mechanisms. Similarly, Trainer/Social mobilisers
should help create conducive environment to have greater business linkages between/among
enterprises through initiating Value Chain Development approach.
POURAKHI, organization of WMWs should take a lead role to create a membership based
relationship with entrepreneurs who will mostly be the returnees from various countries of
employment with a view to mobilize them in an organized manner for lobbying and advocacy
for the rights of WMWs. POURAKHI needs to dialogue with financial institutions for further
financial assistance and support for a special support package under Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) scheme of these institutions as migrant workers is sustaining the
sprouting financial institutions that entirely depends on remittance transfers. Development
partners, other NGOs should also support POURAKHI to advocate and lobby with the banks
and financial institutions to materialize the concept of CSR for the benefit of returnee WMWs
(target group) and the migrant’s families.
3.2.8 Value Chain Development
Value Chain (VC) is an analytical as well as an operational model. The model takes up the
fact that a product is rarely directly consumed at the place of its production. It is transformed,
combined with other products, transported, packaged, displayed etc. until it reaches the final
consumer. In this process the raw materials, intermediate products and final products are
owned by various actors who are linked by trade and services, and each add value to the
product. Various types of public and private services, like business development services,
electricity, transport, financial services, etc., are as important as favorable framework
conditions, i.e. laws, regulations and their enforcement.
“A value chain is a chain of activities. Products pass through all activities of the chain in order
and at each activity the product gains some value. The chain of activities gives the products
more added value than the sum of added values of all activities. It is important not to mix the
concept of the value chain with the costs occurring throughout the activities.
As an example, a chicken may cost quite low if, bought live in poultry firm or shop however,
the processed frozen chicken with nice packaging may cost significantly high price if, bought
in departmental shop.
Another example; a diamond cutter can be used as an example of the difference. The cutting
activity may have a low cost, but the activity adds to much of the value of the end product,
since a rough diamond is a lot less valuable than a cut diamond”.
The Value Chain model supposes that by understanding these interactions, it is possible for
private and public agencies (including development agencies) to identify points of
intervention to ;
(1) increase efficiency and thereby increase total generated value, and
(2) improve the competence of intended actors to increase their share of the total generated
Why is value chain development important?
1. Some people need support for becoming actors in existing value chains.
2. More important than belonging to a value chain is the role people play in it, i.e.
3. their negotiation power in the value chain.
4. Some actors are stuck in value chains that exploit low income possibilities. They
require support to explore new opportunities.
5. By strengthening one actor in a value chain there is the possibility of creating
competitive advantages for the whole system. In such a case a large number of people
competing in local, regional or global markets can benefit from these advantages.
Value Chain Analysis
The Flow Chart given above is believed to help better understand about the concept and
modality of Value Chain.
3.2.9 Monitoring and Evaluation
The support organization should have inbuilt M&E system and framework in the program and
organize field visit regularly to monitor the process and results of planned activities. Which
will help support organization assess the effectiveness of the ongoing program and take
necessary steps to correct process if, some deviation observed. Similarly, the monitoring and
evaluation will also provide space for support organization to communicate feedback to other
stakeholders for the improvement of their service delivery.
The support organization should also carry out mid-term and final evaluation study through
the external evaluators to assess the impact of the enterprise promotion and development
program in creating jobs, mobilizing remittance as productive investment, increasing income
of WMWs, and decreasing the degree of attraction of returnees WMWs to abroad
employment. The evaluation study should also look into the rate of survival of the newly
created enterprise. Because potential entrepreneurs start establishing enterprises after EDP
training and start sinking within one or two year because of inadequate skills in driving their
enterprises. So, success of the program should be measured based on the percentage of
enterprise survival after establishment.
3.2.10 Exit strategies
It is obvious that a Program cannot continue its support services for a long period of time
because it has a time bound. However, a Program must be in a position to achieve the
objective set before it is phased out. So, support organization has to fix a demarcation line as
when the involvement of Program in providing extensive service to entrepreneur has to be
terminated. In current context, the support organization should at least continue its support for
a period of 3 years. So, the support organization should have clear view on the exit strategies
keeping in mid the time frame set for termination of its involvement.
In this case, the support organization, should gradually plan and execute capacity
strengthening of the entrepreneur groups formed after the training on the Group mobilization
and management. (Annex 10 contains the Curriculum of the group mobilization training
conducted by NIDS/POURAKHI).So that these entrepreneur groups can also work as an
community level extension of the organization of WMWs that is engaged in running
enterprises at the community and district level and also form Association of returnee women’s
entrepreneurs association at the district level and later linked with Federation of Association
of WMWs run entrepreneurs at the central level. They will be active in handling issues of its
members if, the capacity of the members is well developed over the time. This would be an
exit strategy as mentioned above and should initiate its efforts in this direction from the very
beginning of service delivery.
Annex 6: Format for Follow up
SN Activities
Expected How
to (responsibility) result
Financial Remarks
Annex 8
Follow up Form
Personal profile
1. Name of the person
2. Full address:
3. Marital status:
4. Academic qualification
5. Training and experience
6. Family occupation
Enterprise Profile
7. Name of proposed enterprise
8. Address
9. Name and date of training attended
10. Status of potential entreprenuers
SN Activities planned
If not, reason
What next
11. What are the key problems in the process of establishing enterprise
12. What support services needed to address the problem mentioned above
13. What was the conclusion in the previous meeting
14. Plan for next meeting
15. Date and venue for next meeting
16. Name of resource person
17. Date of visit and venue
Annex 9
Baseline Form for Counselling
Personal Profile
1. Name of the entrepreneur
2. Full address:
3. Marital status:
4. Academic qualification
5. Training and experience
6. Family occupation
Enterprise Profile
7. Name of enterprise
8. Address
9. Name of partners if, any
Marketing information
10. Main products or services
SN Name of product/service
Main market
11. Sales volume increasing or decreasing
12. If, decreasing
Main problems
Reasons of the problem
Unit of sales
per month
13. Other marketing efforts and their cost per month, if any
Production information
14. Fixed assets purchased:
SN Name of fixed assets
Rate per unit
Total amount
15. Main raw material purchased
SN Name of raw materials
16. Staff/workers
SN Type of worker
17. Overhead cost
SN Particulars
Unit purchased
in a month
Total raw
materials cost
Monthly cost
Monthly expenses
18. Any problems in production (quality-wise, number-wise, workers' skill-wise
SN Problem areas
Main problem
19. What are the support needed
Finance information
20. Total capital Investment
Fixed capital:
Working capital:
21. Loan
22. Equity
23. Loan payment chart
24. Cost of production
25. Sales price per product
26. Calculation of profit & loss statement
27. Cash flow
28. Balance sheet
29. BEP
30. ROI
Information on Service Needs
31. Identification of main problems and analysis of root causes
32. Support needed in general
Observation of consultant on the enterprise
Note: A Trainer/Social mobilser could find out a broader area where problems do exist after
having this form filled up. However, the Trainer/Social mobilser must use consultancy based
analysis and process to help entrepreneur make decision to choose and implement a right
solution of the problem
1. Ojha Ganapati, 2010, Economic Security of Women Migrant Workers: Evaluation Report,
2. CEBUD ,KATHMANDU Adapted from Original SIYB, International Labour
Organization 2002, Start and Improve Your Own Business, Guide for Trainer (Nepali
3. Bhatia Kiran, Thapa Rita and team, 1996, Grassroots Women’s Enterprise Training,
Issues and Problems.
4. Mueller R. Dixon & Anker Richard, Assessing Women’s Economic Contributions to
Development, World Employment program, ILO Geneva
5. Technonet Asia, Singapore, April 1985, Industrial Extension Manual for Small and
Medium Industries in Developing Countries, ISBN: 9971-993-08-2, Hoong Fatt Press,
6. International Labour Organization/ Industrial Enterprise Development Institute, Start and
Improve Your Business (SIYB) Counseling Guide, 2002, Format Printing Press,
7. Targeting the Ultra Poor: The BRAC Model
8. Materials received from NIDS
Project location and staff-1
NIDS_UNIFEM Baseline survey Questionnaire
Guide line for direct support
Copy of Demand and Received Sheet for direct support 1
Entrepreneurship Development Schedule
Implementing Strategy-122709-2
Participant Selection criteria UIFEM-NIDS [1]
Scale up training criteria 5 days training
EDP manual including Safe Migration