Services Marketing: Concepts, Cases and Strategies
Hoffman, Bateson, Wood & Kenyon
ISBN: 9781844808137
Chapter 10: Managing the Firm’s Physical Evidence
1. One of the primary roles of a service firm's physical evidence is to package the service. Explain
the managerial implications of "packaging the service".
 Since services are intangible, they cannot be evaluated objectively. Customers look to the
physical evidence that surrounds the service for quality cues. In turn, quality cues provide
the building blocks for image development. Successful image development reduces the
amount of customer perceived risk associated with the purchase as well as the amount of
cognitive dissonance after the purchase. In addition, the firm's physical evidence is
important as the service package in that it conveys expectations to consumers.
2. The appearance of personnel often have a direct impact on how consumers perceive that the
firm will handle the service aspects of its business. Discuss the findings of numerous studies that
have focused on well-dressed versus unkempt personnel.
 In short, well-dressed personnel are often perceived as more intelligent, better workers, and
more open to interactions.
3. Discuss how a service firm's physical evidence facilitates the flow of the service
delivery process.
 The firm's physical evidence can facilitate the flow of the service delivery process through
the information it provides to customers. Information educates the customers so that they
can asked more-informed questions and prepares the customer for the ensuing service
encounter making the whole service delivery process more efficient. In addition, the firm's
physical evidence also assists in managing customers. For example, physical dividers that
separate smokers from nonsmokers, and waiting customers from customers who are
currently being served are typical.
4. Discuss the design considerations of remote, self-service, and interpersonal services.
 In short, remote services see little direct customer contact. Hence, facilities should be
designed to facilitate employee's efforts. In contrast, self-service facilities should be
designed to enhance customer attraction and satisfaction. Interpersonal services should be
developed with the needs of both parties involved and should facilitate the social
interaction between and among customers and employees.
Services Marketing: Concepts, Cases and Strategies
Hoffman, Bateson, Wood & Kenyon
ISBN: 9781844808137
5. Discuss the physical environmental dimensions of "The Servicescapes Model".
 The three major components of the firm's environment include ambient conditions,
space/function, and signs, symbols and artifacts. Ambient conditions include temperature,
air quality, noise, odor, and music. Space/function includes layout, equipment, and
furnishings. Signs, symbols and artifacts include signage, personal artifacts, and style of
6. Discuss the stages of an atmospheric development plan
 Step 1: Who is the firm's target market?
 Step 2: What does the target market seek from the service experience?
 Step 3: What atmospheric elements can reinforce the beliefs and emotional reactions that
buyers seek.
 Step 4: How do these same atmospheric elements affect employee satisfaction and the
firm's operations?
 Step 5: Does the suggested atmosphere development plan compete effectively with
competitors' atmospheres?