Science Chapter 6 Study Guide I. Inside Earth Be able to label the layers of the Earth (crust, mantle, inner core, outer core) Which layer is the thinnest?___crust____________________ II. Earthquakes What causes earthquakes? Rubbing together of plates creates energy that builds until it is released as vibrations or seismic waves. How do earthquakes help scientist find out about what is deep inside Earth? Certain types of seismic waves travel through liquid, solids, or both. So scientists have been able to use earthquakes to help figure out the make up of Earth’s interior. III. Volcanoes Label six volcano parts (lava, magma chamber, vent, ash cloud, crust, side vent) What causes volcanoes to erupt? The separation of the crusts plates create openings for magma to escape. How have volcanoes shaped Earth’s surface? Mountains and islands. IV. Glaciers How does a glacier form? When more snow falls in the winter than melts in the summer. How does a glacier move? The weight of the snow and force of gravity causes the glaciers to move downhill. How can glaciers change the land? Give examples of two features left by glaciers. Glaciers act as a bulldozer, pushing and scraping the land. Rounding and flattening leaves behind hills and U-shaped valleys V. Weathering and Erosion Name the four agents of erosion. Water, wind, gravity, glaciers How can wind cause erosion? Wind can move loose soil or sand, but it can also act like sandpaper or a sandblaster as it blows these loose particles against rock. What forces coastline changes? Waves beating against the coast. How can gravity and water change Earth’s surface? Causes landslides and mudslides What happens to form a delta? Running water drops particles picked up along its journey at a river’s mouth and these particles settle there. VI. Review questions Name the five steps of the scientific method. Observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion Expain the ways the Earth, Moon, and Sun move around each other. The sun does not move, earth rotates on its axis as it revolves around the sun, the moon revolves around earth.