review/essay questions

Final Exam, AH 206
AH 206, Spring 2008 – possible final exam questions to use for study and review of material
Shorter Essays:
1) There have been many laws and acts in place for Native Americans in the past century. Please indicate which one
you think is the most beneficial and which one is the worst.
2) What are the three “cults” around which Mississippian culture was organized? Give an example of a piece of art from
two of the three cults and explain how it exemplifies the purpose or beliefs of that organization.
3) How does Haudenosaunee art reflect their governmental system and the alliances they made with other states?
4) What kinds of belief/value system of Native people in Innu region can be found by observing their clothing and
ceremonial robes?
5) Many artworks reference a person or culture’s connectedness to the spiritual world. Please choose one example of
such a relationship discuss it in regards to art and ceremony or spirituality. Be sure to fully identify the piece (culture,
time period, type of object).
6) How does the art of Oscar Howe represent the struggle for inventiveness and individuality as well as the influence of
European modes of expression in the art of Native Americans?
7) We have examined many pieces of artwork that reference indigenous origin stories. Choose one and discuss how
the artist has illustrated or referenced their people’s origin story.
Longer Essays:
8) Compare and contrast the Gaswenta and Ya’ya Chuck Heit’s Oka piece. Be sure to fully explain the historical
references in each piece and then examine how the artworks reflect or comment on that historical situation.
9) How does contemporary art reflect evolving issues of identity? Choose two specific artworks to illustrate different
methods of addressing identity. Be sure to fully identify each piece and compare and contrast them.
10) Berlo and Phillips say that there were a number of “modernisms” for Native artists. Pick two artists who have different
ways of developing a modern style. Your discussion should center on a specific artwork for each artist (give title,
cultural affiliation, and date). Is there a message in their work, if so, what is it and how have they chosen to convey
that message? Discuss form, iconography and intended audience: Edgar Heap of Birds; Carl Beam; Lawrence Paul
Yuxweluptun; Jimmie Durham, Larry McNeil.
11) Native Americans have been viewed as a romantic, ideal figure to the mainstream American culture. Which artworks
portray this viewpoint and which ones change this ideal? How have contemporary artists confronted the stereotypes
of Native Americans?
12) In essence, NAGPRA legislates the conflict between two cultural belief systems and tries to redress past situations
that Native American see as having been abuses. Is NAGPRA a good idea? Is legislation the appropriate means to
heal the rift between Native Americans and museums/academia or is does it replace a voluntary dialog with a
mandated process? (Your answer should show that you understand the goals of this legislation.)
The exam will have three short essays and two long essays. There will also be some very short answer questions of basic