# 8.4 Integration by Partial Fractions Math 152: 8.4 Integration of Rational Functions by Partial Fractions Warm-Up 1.

a) ∫ ⎛ ⎝ 2 x 1 − 3 + x 1 + 4 ⎞ ⎠ dx = b) 2 x 1 − 3 + x 1 + 4 = c) ∫ 2 x 2 3 x + 5 + 1 x − 12 dx = 2.

A quadratic expression ax 2 + bx + c has non-real zeroes if _______________. Such a quadratic is called _________________. 3.

Factoring and Special Products: a) A quadratic expression ax 2 + bx + c factors over the rational numbers if _______________. b) Rational Root Theorem: Find a rational root “ ( ) = a Example: List the possible rational roots of ” of a polynomial 0 , then divide/repeat until p is a product of irreducible factors. x 3 + 3 x 2 − 4 , identify an actual root è an actual factor, perform long division and lastly factor fully. ( ) , such that c) Difference of Squares: a 2 − b 2 = − b ( ) . Example: Factor x 8 − 1 d) Sum of Squares: a 2 + b 2 = a 2 − ( ) 2 = − bi a ( ) . Ex: Factor 25 x 4 + 1 over  © Raelene Dufresne 2013 1 of 4

Math 152: 8.4 Integration of Rational Functions by Partial Fractions e) Sum/Difference of Cubes: a 3 ± b 3 = a ( ) ( a 2  ab + b 2 ) Ex: Factor 8x 6 4.

f) Substitution: Let u = x 2 . Ex: Factor x 4 − 5 x 2 − 36 over  − 27 y 9 The LCM (least common multiple) of 2 or more numbers is the ______________ number that ______________ evenly into each of the numbers. 5.

The LCD (lowest common denominator) is the ______ of the ________________ of 2 or more _______________ that are being __________ or ______________. 6.

Determine the LCM/LCD (if these expressions are denominators) of the following: a) 2, 2 2 , 2 5 b) 72, 36, 48 c) x 3 + 8 , x 3 + 3 x 2 − 4 , 4x + 8 7.

Add: x 2 2 x − 9 + x 2 x − 1 + 6 x + 9 + x 2 + 4 x − 6 8.

The division algorithm states that n d = q + r d . The fraction is proper if the numerator is smaller than the denominator, and improper otherwise. Convert 9.

a) 7 3 = to proper form, and b) 5 4 = to improper form. Section 8.4 deals with the integration of rational functions (functions that are ratios or quotients of polynomials) that can be expressed in either improper fraction form, = = ( ) d x ( ) + where ( ) deg where deg ⎡ ⎣⎢ ⎡ ⎣⎢ ( ) ( ) ⎤ ⎦⎥ ≥ ⎤ ⎦⎥ < deg ⎡ ⎣⎢ deg ( ) ⎤ ⎦⎥ or proper fraction form, ⎤ ⎦⎥ . Express: a) ( ) = x 3 − 5 x 7 x − 2 + 1 in proper form ⎡ ⎣⎢ ( ) b) ( ) = 3 x + 1 − 2 x 5 − 3 in improper form © Raelene Dufresne 2013 2 of 4

Math 152: 8.4 Integration of Rational Functions by Partial Fractions 10.

Integrate ∫ x 3 5 − x 7 − x 2 + 1 dx . 8.4 -The Method of Integration of Rational Functions by Partial Fraction Decomposition: The process of working backwards to break apart (decompose) a fraction as the sum and/or difference of its “partial” fractions (whose denominators are linear or irreducible quadratic polynomials) is called Partial Fraction Decomposition. There are FOUR CASES of partial fraction decomposition that we will focus on. Let the rational function whose denominator is ( ) be given in proper fraction form. Case I: The denominator is a product of linear factors with no repeats. Exercise 1: Given ( ) = 2 x 2 3 x + 1 + 5 x − 12 , a) decompose b) determine ∫ ( ) ( ) . dx . Case II: The denominator is a product of linear factors with some repeats. Exercise 2: Given a) Decompose 7 8 ( ) = x ( ) 2 1 − x ( ) 2 . into a sum of two different fractions in reduced form, in three different combinations. What do you notice about all of the denominators and their numerators? b) c) decompose determine ∫ ( ) ( ) . dx . © Raelene Dufresne 2013 3 of 4

Math 152: 8.4 Integration of Rational Functions by Partial Fractions Case III: The denominator includes irreducible quadratic factors with no repeats. Exercise 3: Given a) decompose b) determine ∫ ( ) ( ) . dx = . x 3 x 2 − + 1 4 x 2 + 2 ( ) , Case IV: The denominator includes irreducible quadratic factors with some repeats. Exercise 4: Write out the partial fraction decomposition in terms of its unsolved numerators for the rational function = − 1 ( x 3 x 2 + + x 2 x + 1 + 1 ) ( ) 1 3 . Exercise 5: (a) ∫ x x − 1 + 2 dx Exercise 6: (a) ∫ x 2 1 − a 2 dx , where a > 0 (b) ∫ sin x cos 2 5 + cos 2 x x dx (b) ∫ x 2 + 1 2 x − 3 dx © Raelene Dufresne 2013 4 of 4