Wytham publications pre 1997

Wytham publications
From 1990, publications have been included that are based on work carried out at the
Wytham Field Station and farmland, and work that uses species from these areas. For
theses see the Wytham theses list.
References are listed in alphabetical order by name.
ACKLAND,M. (1961). Fannia gotlandica Ringd. (Dipt., Muscidae) in Berkshire.
Ent.Mon.Mag. 97:200.
AINSWORTH,G.C. (1950). The Oxford foray. 12-19 September 1949.
Trans.Brit.mycol.Soc. 33:372-377.
ALLANSON,B.R. (1973). The fine structure of the periphyton of Chara sp. and
Potamogeton natans from Wytham Pond, Oxford, and its significance to the macrophyteperiphyton metabolic model of R.G.Wetzel and H.L.Allen. Freshw.Biol. 3:535-542.
ANDERSON,S. (1993). Receiving hares. A radio-telemetry study of the brown hare, Lepus
europaeus Pallas. Unpublished undergraduate's project.
ANON (1918). [Excursion to Wytham Woods]. Proc.Rep.Ashmol.Nat.Hist.Soc.Oxford,
1917, 19.
ANON (1943) Wytham: A record issued by the Oxford Preservation Trust on the
acquisition of Wytham Abbey and Estate by the University of Oxford. Oxford Preservation
Trust, Oxford.
ANON (1976) Wytham Woods Atlas. (Privately circulated, Oxford Forestry Institution 38
(1981) 2nd ed. edited by Hockin, R.L.
(1986-7)3rd ed. edited by Smith P.G.
APPS, P (1977). The fate of beech mast and acorms in Wytham woods. Ecology option
AREVALO, J.E. (1994). The behaviour of treecreepers Certhia familiaris in mixed-species
flocks in winter. Bird Study 41:1-6
ARKELL,W.J. (c.1945). The geology of Wytham Hills. [In: Osmaston,F.C. (1959) Appendix
ARKELL,W.J. (1947). The geology of Oxford. Oxford.(Clarendon Press)
[ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM] (1979). Romano-British pewter dish... found on the University
Farm at Wytham. Ann.Rep.Ashmol.Mus. 1977-8, Pl.3, p.22.
ASKEW,R.R. (1958). Harpiphorus lepidus Klug (Hym., Tenthredinidae) in Berkshire.
Ent.Mon.Mag. 94:203.
ASKEW,R.R. (1959). A revision of the British species of the genus Olynx Forster (Hym.,
Eulophidae). Ent.Mon.Mag. 95:49-57.
ASKEW,R.R. (1959). A new species of Hobbya (Hym.,Pteromalidae) from Britain.
Ent.Mon.Mag. 95:69-70.
ASKEW,R.R. (1959). A note on Callirhytis glandium (Giraud) (Hym.,Cynipidae).
Ent.Mon.Mag. 95:79.
ASKEW,R.R. (1960). The six-belted clearwing moth, Dipsosphecia scopigera (Scopoli)
(Lep.,Sesiidae), in Berkshire. Ent.Mon.Mag. 96:53.
ASKEW,R.R. (1960). On the Palaearctic species of Syntomaspis Forster (Hym.,
Chalcidoidea, Torymidae). Ent.Mon.Mag. 96:184-191.
ASKEW,R.R. (1961). Ormocerus latus Walker and O.vernalis Walker (Hym.,
Pteromalidae). Parasites in Cynipid oak galls. Entomologist, 94:193-195.
ASKEW,R.R. (1961). Eupelmus urozonus Dalman (Hym., Chalcidoidea) as a parasite in
Cynipid oak galls. Entomologist, 94:196-201.
ASKEW,R.R. (1961). On the biology of the inhabitants of oak galls of Cynipidae
(Hymenoptera) in Britain. Trans.Soc.Brit.Ent. 14:237-268.
ASKEW,R.R. (1961). Some biological notes on the Pteromalid (Hym., Chalcidoidea)
genera Caenacis Forster, Cecidostiba Thomson and Hobbya Delucchi. Entomophaga,
ASKEW,R.R. (1961). A study of the biology of species of the genus Mesopolobus
Westwood (Hym., Pteromalidae) associated with Cynipid galls on oak.Trans.R.Ent.Soc.
Lond. 113:155-173.
ASKEW,R.R. (1961). The biology of the British spp. of the genus Olynx Forster (Hym.,
Eulophidae) with a note on seasonal colour forms in Chalcidoidea.
Proc.R.Ent.Soc.Lond.(A), 36:103-112.
ASKEW,R.R. (1962). The distribution of galls of Neuroterus (Hym., Cynipidae) on oak.
J.Anim.Ecol. 31:439-455.
ASKEW,R.R. (1962). Some species of Pediobius Walker (Hym., Eulophidae) inhabiting
Cynipid oak galls. Entomophaga, 7:337-342.
ASKEW,R.R. (1970). Observations on the hosts and host food plants of some
Pteromalidae [Hym. Chalcidoidea]. Entomophaga, 15:379-85.
ASKEW,R.R. (1970). Encyrtidae (Hym., Chalcidoidea) new to Britain. Entomologist,
ATKINSON, R.P.D., MACDONALD D.W. & JOHNSON P.J. (1994). The status of the
European mole Talpa europaea L. as an agricultural pest and its management. Mammal
Review 24(2):73-90.
ATKINSON, R.P.D., MACDONALD, D.W. (1994). Can repellents function as a non-lethal
means of controlling moles (Talpa europa). Journal of Applied Ecology 31:731-736
BAKER,J.R., CHITTY,D. & PHIPPS,E. (1963). Blood parasites of wild voles, Microtus
agrestis, in England. Parasitology, 53:297-301.
BARRETT,D.K. & PEARCE,R.B. (1981). Giant leaf blotch disease of sycamore (Acer
pseudoplatanus) in Britain. Trans.Brit.Mycol.Soc. 76:317-345.
BATESON, M. & KACELNIK A. (1995). Preferences for fixed and variable food sources :
variability in amount and delay. J.Expt.Analysis Behav., 63:313-329
BATESON, M. & KACELNIK A. (1995). Accuracy of memory for amount in the foraging
starling, Sturnus vulagris. Anim.Behav., 50:431-443
BAZELY, D.R. (1990). Rules and clues used by sheep foraging in monocultures. In: NATO
ASI Series Vol G20. Behavioural Mechanisms of Food Selection, ed. R.N. Hughs. SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg.
BAZELY, D.R. et al (1991) The response of bramble prickles to herbivory and depressed
resource availability. Oikos, 61(3): 327-336
BEAVER,R.A. (1965). Some mortality factors affecting a population of Scolytus scolytus
(F.) (Coleoptera; Scolytidae). Proc.XII Int.Congr.Ent.London, 1964(1965): 694.
BEAVER,R.A. (1965). Two Braconids and a Pteromalid (Hymenoptera) new to Britain.
Entomologist, 98:238-240.
BEAVER,R.A. (1966). The development and expression of population tables for the bark
beetle Scolytus scolytus (F.). J.Anim.Ecol. 35:27-41.
BEAVER,R.A. (1966). The biology and immature stages of Entedon leucogramma
(Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasite of bark beetles. Proc.R.Ent.Soc.Lond.
(A), 41:37-41.
BEAVER,R.A. (1966). The biology and immature stages of two species of Medetera
(Diptera: Dolichopodidae) associated with the bark beetle Scolytus scolytus (F.).
Proc.R.Ent.Soc.Lond. (A), 41:145-154.
BEAVER,R.A. (1966). Notes on the biology of the bark beetles attacking elm in Wytham
Wood, Berks. Ent.Mon.Mag. 102:156-162.
BEAVER,R.A. (1966). Notes on the fauna associated with elm bark beetles in Wytham
Wood, Berks. - I. Coleoptera. Ent.Mon.Mag. 102:163-170.
BEAVER,R.A. (1967). Notes on the biology of the parasitic mite Pyemotes scolyti Oud.
(Acari: Pyemotidae). Entomologist, 100:9-12.
BEAVER,R.A. (1967). The regulation of population density in the bark beetle Scolytus
scolytus (F.). J.Anim.Ecol. 36:435-451.
BEAVER,R.A. (1967). Hymenoptera associated with elm bark beetles in Wytham Wood,
Berks. Trans.Soc.Brit.Ent. 17:141-150.
BEAVER,R.A. (1967). Hymenopteran parasites of Lonchaea fugax Becker (Diptera:
Lonchaeidae). Entomologist, 100:304-6.
BEAVER,R.A. (1969). Natality, mortality and control of the elm bark beetle Scolytus
scolytus (F.) (Col., Scolytidae). Bull.ent.Res. (1968), 59:537-540.
BECKETT,P.H.T. (1982). History and soils of the University Field Station, Wytham.
Oxford, Dept.Agricultural Science, University of Oxford, 16pp.
BECKETT,P.H.T. & REYNOLDS,E.R.C. (1985). History and soils of the University Field
Station and Wytham Wood. Oxford, Dept.Agricultural Science, University of Oxford, 15pp.
BEDNEKOFF, P., BIEBACH, H. & KREBS, J. (1994). Great tit fat reserves under
unpredictable temperatures. Journal of Avian Biology 25:156-160
BENNETT, A.T.D. (1993). Spatial memory in a food storing corvid I. Near tall landmarks
are primarily used. J.Comp.Physiol. A 173:193-207
BENNETT, A.T.D. (1993). Remembering landmarks. Nature 364:293-294
BENNETT, A.T.D. (1993). A framework of spatial memory models. A Proceedings of
navigation in humans, birds and other animals, Royal Inst. Of Navigation.
BERDOY, M. & MACDONALD, D.W. (1991). Factors affecting feeding in wild rats. Acta
Ecologica, 12(2):261-279
BERDOY, M. & SMITH, P. (1993). Arms race and rat race : adaptions against poisoning in
the brown rat. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie) 48:215-228
BERDOY, M. (1993). Defining bouts of behaviour : a three-process model. Animal Behav.
BERDOY, M. (1994). Making decisions in the wild : constraints, conflicts and
communications in foraging rats. In: Behavioural aspects of feeding, Galef B.G., Mainardi
m., Valsechhi P. (Eds), Ettore Maj
BERDOY, M., WEBSTER, J.P. & MACDONALD, D.W. (1995). The manipulation of rat
behaviour by Toxplasma gondii. Mammalia, 59(4):605-613
BERNSTEIN, C., KREBS, J.R. & KACELNIK, A. (1991). Distribution of birds amongst
habitats: theory and relevance to conservation. In: Bird population studies : relevance to
conservation and management. Oxford Ornithology Series. Eds. C.M. Perrins, J-D.
Lebreton & G.J.M. Hirons. Chapter 15 pp.317-345.
BETTS,M.M. (1955). The food of titmice in oak woodland. J.Anim.Ecol. 24:282-323.
BLAKEY,J.K. (1994). Genetic evidence for extra-pair fertilizations in a monogamous
passerine, the great tit Parus major IBIS 136:457-462
BLAKEY,J.K. & NORRIS K. (1994). Do female great tits avoid extra-pair copulations ? A
comment on Bjorklund et al. Anim. Behav. 47:1227-1229.
BLOOM,G. (1993). The bryophites of Wytham Wood. MS: 19pp.
BLOWER,J.G. (1957). Some new and little-known British millipedes.
Ann.Mag.Nat.Hist.Ser.12, 10:497-508.
BOCOCK,K.L., HEATH,J. & BLOWER,J.G. (1973). Some observations on the biology of the
millipede Geoglomeris jurassica Verhoeff, 1915. J.Nat.Hist. 7:691-697.
BOUCEK,Z. (1965). Some interesting records of chalcid flies from Great Britain, with the
description of Bugacia classeyi n.sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Ent.Gaz.16:83-86.
BOUCEK,Z. (1970). On some British Megastigmus (Hym. Torymidae) with a revised key
to the west European species. Ent.Gaz. 21:265-275.
BOWEN,H.J.M. (1968). The flora of Berkshire. Oxford. (Privately published)
BOWLER,D. & ROBINSON,M. (1980). Three round barrows at King's Weir Wytham, Oxon.
Oxoniensia, 45:1-8.
BOYCE,M.S. & PERRINS,C.M. (1987). Optimizing great tit clutch size in a fluctuating
environment. Ecology, 68:142-153.
BRADBURY, R.B., COTTON, P.A., WRIGHT, J., GRIFFITHS, R. (1997). Nestling sexratio in
the European starling Sturnus vulgaris. Journal of avian biology 28: 255-258
BRAITHWAITE, V.A. & GULFORD, T. (1991). Viewing familiar landscapes affects pigeon
homing. Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B, 245:183-186
[BRENAN,J.P.M.] (1946). List of plants observed on Wytham Hill on 7th September,
1946. Rep.Bot.(Soc.)Exch.Cl.Manchr. 13:pt.3
BRERETON,J.Le G. (1957). The distribution of woodland Isopods. Oikos, 8:85-106.
BRETHERTON,R.F. (1940). A list of the Macro-lepidoptera of the Oxford district.
Proc.Rep.Ashmol.nat.Hist.Soc.Oxf. 1939, pp.25-70.
BRETHERTON,R.F. (1941). Additions to the list of Macro-lepidoptera of the Oxford district.
Proc.Rep.Ashmol.nat.Hist.Soc.Oxf. 1940, pp.22-23.
BROWN, E.D., MACDONALD, D.W., TEW, T.E. & TODD, I.A. (1994). Apodemus sylvaticus
infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Nematoda) in an arable ecosystem:
epidemiology and effects of infection on the movements of male mice. J.Nat.History
London, 234:623-640
BROWN, E.D., TEW, T.E., TODD, I.A. & MACDONALD, D.W. (1994). Rhythmicity of egg
production by Heligmosomoides polygyrus in wild wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus.
J.Helminth., 68:105-108
BROWN, V.K., GANGE, A.C. & GIBSON, C.W.D. (1988). Ubsect herbivory & vegetational
structure. IN: Plant form and vegetation structure ed. by M.J.A.Werger, P.J.van der Aart,
H.J.During & J.A.A.Verhoeven. SPB Academie Pub. The Hague, Netherlands. 263-279 pp.
BROWN, V.K. & GANGE, A.C. (1989) Differential effects of above- and below- ground
insect herbivory during early plant succession. Oikos, 54: 67-76
BROWN, V.K., GIBSON C.W.D. & KATHIRITHAMBY, J. (1992). Community organisation in
leaf hoppers. Oikos, 65: 97-106
BROWN, V.K., GIBSON, C.W.D. & STERLING, P.H. (1990). The mechanisms controlling
insect diversity in calcareous grasslands, in : Calcareous grasslands-ecology &
management. Proceedings of a join British Ecological Society/Nature Conservancy council
symposium, 14-16 September, 1987 at University of Sheffield. ed. by S.H.Hillier,
D.W.H.Walton & D.A.Wells. Huntingdon: Bluntisham Books, pp 79-87
BROWN, V.K., JEPSON, M. & GIBSON, C.W.D. (1988) Insect herbivory: effects on early
old field succession demonstrated by chemical exclusion methods. Oikos 52: 293-302.
BUCKNER,C.H. (1969). The common shrew (Sorex araneus) as a predator of the winter
moth (Operophtera brumata) near Oxford, England. Can.Ent. 101:370-375.
BUCKNER,C.H. (1969). Some aspects of the population ecology of the common shrew,
Sorex araneus, near Oxford, England. J.Mammal. 50:326-332.
BULMER,M.G. (1973). Inbreeding in the great tit. Heredity, 30:313-325.
BULMER,M.G. & PERRINS,C.M. (1973). Mortality in the great tit, Parus major. Ibis,
BURGESS,J.M. (1957). Damage to bark of sycamore by grey squirrels.
CAIN,A.J. & SHEPPARD,P.M. (1950). Selection in the polymorphic land snail Cepaea
nemoralis. Heredity, 4:275-294.
CAIN,A.J. & SHEPPARD,P.M. (1952). The effects of natural selection on body colour in the
land snail, Cepaea nemoralis. Heredity, 6:217-231.
CAIN,A.J. & SHEPPARD,P.M. (1954). Natural selection in Cepaea. Genetics, 39:89-116.
CHEKE,A.S. (1969). Mechanism and consequences of hybridization in sparrows Passer.
Nature, 222:179-180.
CHEKE,A.S. (1972). Movements and dispersal among House sparrows, Passer domesticus
(L.), at Oxford, England. Productivity, population dynamics and systematics of
granivorous birds. (ed.S.C. Kendeigh, J.Pinowski),Proc.General Meeting of the Working
Group of Granivorous Birds IBP, PT section, held in the Hague, Sept.6-8, 1970, pp.211-2,
Warzaw: Polish Scientific Publishers.
CHENG,L. (1967). Notes on three species of Actia (Dipt., Tachinidae), parasites of oakfeeding caterpillars. Entomologist, 100:265-268.
CHENG,L. (1969). The life history and development of Lypha dubia Fall. (Dipt.,
Tachinidae). Entomologist, 101:25-32.
CHENG,L. (1970). Timing of attack by Lypha dubia Fall. (Diptera: Tachinidae) on the
winter moth Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) as a factor affecting
parasite success. J.Anim.Ecol. 39:313-320.
CHITTY,D. (1996). Do lemmings commit suicide? Beautiful hypotheses and ugly facts.
Oxford University Press, Oxford. 268 pp.
CHITTY,D. & PHIPPS,E. (1966). Seasonal changes in survival in mixed populations of two
species of vole. J.Anim.Ecol. 35:313-331.
CHITTY,D., PIMENTEL,D. & KREBS,C.J. (1968). Food supply of overwintered voles.
J.Anim.Ecol. 37:113-120.
CLARIDGE,M.F. (1961). A contribution to the biology and taxonomy of some Palaearctic
species of Tetramesa Walker (= Isosoma Walk.;= Harmolita
Motsch.)(Hym.,Eurytomidae),enoptera: with particular reference to the British fauna.
Trans.R.ent.Soc.Lond. 113:175-216.
CLARIDGE,M.F. & ASKEW,R.R. (1960). Sibling species in the Eurytoma rosae group
(Hym., Eurytomidae). Entomophaga, 5:141-53.
CLARKE,J.R. (1955). Influence of numbers on reproduction and survival in two
experimental vole populations. Proc.R.Soc.,B, 144:68-85.
CLARKE,J.R. & FORSYTH,I.A. (1962). The causation of breeding seasons: differences
between the adenohypophysis of breeding and non-breeding field mice. Acta
Endocr.(Kbh.) Suppl. 67(1962): 141.
CLARKE,J.R. & FORSYTH,I.A. (1964). Seasonal changes in the gonads and accessory
reproductive organs of the vole (Microtus agrestis). Gen.Comp.Endocr. 4:233-242.
CLAYTON, N.S. (1992). The ontogeny of food-storing and retrieval in marsh tits.
Behaviour 61:781-795
CLAYTON, N. (1993). Lateralization and unilateral transfer of spatial memory in marsh
tits. J.Comp.Physiol. A 171:799-806
CLAYTON, N.S. & KREBS, J.R. (1993). Lateralization in Paridae: comparison of a storing
and a non-storing species on a one-trial associative memory task. J.Comp.Physiol. A
CLAYTON, N.S., GRIFFITHS, D. & BENNETT, A.T.D. (1994). Storage of stones by jays
Garrulus glandarius. IBIS 136:331-334
CLOBERT,J.R., PERRINS,C.M., McCLEERY,R.H. & GOSLER,A.G. (1988) Survival rate in the
Great tit Parus major in relation to sex, age, and immigration status. J.Anim.Ecol. 57:
COLE,L.R. (1957). The biology of four species of Ichneumonidae parasitic on Tortrix
viridana L.. Proc.R.Ent.Soc.Lond. c, 22:48-49.
COLE,L.R. (1959). On the defences of Lepidopterous pupae in relation to the oviposition
behaviour of certain Ichneumonidae. J.Lepid.Soc. 13:1-10.
COLE,L.R. (1959). On a new species of Syntretus Forster (Hym., Braconid') parasitic on
an adult Ichneumonid, with a description of the larva and notes on its life history and that
of its host, Phaeogenes invisor (Thunberg). Ent.Mon.Mag 95:18-21.
COLE,L.R. (1967). A study of the life-cycles and hosts of some Ichneumonidae attacking
pupae of the green oak-leaf roller moth, Tortrix viridana (L.)(Lepidoptera.: Tortricidae) in
England. Trans.R.ent.Soc.Lond., 119:267-281.
COLE,L.R. (1970). Observations on the finding of mates by male Phaeogenes invisor and
Apanteles medicaginis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidea). Anim.Behav. 18:184-189.
COLE, L.R. (1979) Notes on the biology of Ischnus inquisitorius (M!ll.)
(Hym.,Ichneumonidae), an ectoparasitoid of tortricid pupae. Ent.Mon.Mag.for 1978,
COLLIN,J.E. (1967). Notes on some British species of Pegohylemyia (Dipt., Anthomyiidae)
with descriptions of four new species. Ent.Mon.Mag. for 1966, 102:181-191.
CONNOR, E.F. (1984). The causes of overwintering mortality of Phyllonorycter on
Quercus robur. Ecol.Ent. 9:23-28.
COOKE,J.A.L. (1965). Beobachtungen an der Spinnengattung Dysdera. Natur und
Museum, 95:179-184.
COOKE,J.A.L. (1965). A contribution to the biology of the British spiders of the genus
Dysdera. Oikos, 16:20-25.
COOKE,J.A.L. (1967). New and rare British spiders. J.Nat.Hist. 1:135-148.
COOKE,J.A.L. (1967). Factors affecting the distribution of some spiders of the genus
Dysdera (Araneae, Dysderidae). Ent.Mon.Mag. 103:221-225.
COOKE,J.A.L. (1967). Additions to the county records of spiders. Ent.Mon.Mag. 103:234236.
COOKE,J.A.L. & LAMPEL,G.P. (1953). Pirata uliginosus Thor. in Shropshire and some
further additions to the county records of spiders. J.Soc.Brit.Ent. 4:186-7.
COTTON,M.J. (1969). The reproductive biology of Megabothris turbidus (Roths.)
(Siphonaptera). Entomologist, 102:286-289.
COTTON,M.J. (1970). The reproductive biology of Ctenophthalmus nobilis
(Rothschild)(Siphonaptera). Proc.R.Ent.Soc.Lond.(A), 45:141-8.
COTTON,M.J. & WATTS,C.H.S. (1967). The ecology of the tick Ixodes trianguliceps Birula
(Arachnida; Acarina; Ixodoidea). Parasitology, 57:525-531.
COTTON, P.A., KACELNIK, A. & WRIGHT, J. (1996). Chick begging as a signal: are
nestlings honest ? Behav.Ecol., 7:178-182
COWIE,R.H. & JONES,J.S. (1987). Ecological interactions between Cepaea nemoralis and
Cepaea hortensis: competition, invasion but no niche displacement. Functional Ecology,
COWIE, R.J., KREBS, J.R. & SHERRY, D.F. (1981). Food storing by marsh tits.
Anim.Behav. 29:1252-1259.
CRAWLEY, M.J. & KREBS, J.R. (1992). Foraging theory. In : "Natural enemies: the pop.
biol. of predators, parasites & diseases", ed. M.J. Crawley.
CROWCROFT,P. (1951). Keeping British shrews in captivity. J.Mammal. 32:354-355.
CROWCROFT,P. (1951). Live-trapping British shrews. J.Mammal. 32:355-356.
CROWCROFT,P. (1955). Notes on the behaviour of shrews. Behaviour, 8:63-80.
CROWCROFT,P. (1955). Remarks on the pelage of the common shrew (Sorex araneus
L.). Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond. 125:309-315.
CROWCROFT,P. (1956). On the life span of the common shrew (Sorex araneus L.).
Proc.Zool.Soc.Lond. 127:285-292.
CROWCROFT,P. (1991). Elton's ecologists: a history of the Bureau of Animal Population.
London, University of Chicago Press, pp.177.
CUENDET,G. (1984). A comparative study of the earthworm population of four different
woodland types in Wytham Woods, Oxford. Pedobiologia, 26:421-439.
CUTHILL, I.C., KACELNIK, A., KREBS, J.R., HACCOU, P. & IWASA, Y. (1990). Starlings
exploiting patches: the effect of recent experiences on foraging decisions. Anim.Behav.,
CUTHILL, I. & KACELNIK, A. (1990). Central place foraging: a reappraisal of the 'loading
effect'. Anim.Behav., 40:1087-1101
CUTHILL, I., WITTER, M. & CLARKE, L. (1992). The function of bill-wiping. Anim.Behav.
CUTHILL, I.C., HACCOU, P. & KACELNIK, A. (1994). Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)
exploiting patches : response to long-term changes in travel time. Behavioral Ecology
DA SILVA,J. & MACDONALD,D.W. (1989) Limitation to the use of tooth wear as a means
to ageing eurasian badgers, Meles meles. Rev.Ecol. (Terre et Vie) 44: 275-278.
DA SILVA,J. & WOODROFFE,R. (1993). Habitat, food availability and group territoriality in
the European badger, Meles meles. Oecologia 95: 558-564.
DA SILVA,J.A., MACDONALD,D.W. & EVANS,P.G.H. (1994). Net costs of group living in a
solitary forager, the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Behavioral Ecology 5 (2):151-158
DAVIES,M. (1959). A contribution to the ecology of species of Notiophilus and allied
genera (Col., Carabidae). Ent.Mon.Mag. 95:25-8.
DAVIES,N.B. (1978). Territorial defence in the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria):
the resident always wins. Anim.Behav. 26:138-147.
DAWKINS,H.C. & FIELD,D.R.B. (1978). A long-term surveillance system for British
woodland vegetation. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford, Occasional Paper no.1,
DEN BOER,P.J. (1986).Density dependence and the stabilization of animal numbers. I.
The winter moth. Oecologia, 69:507-512.
DEN BOER, P.J. & REDDINGIUS, J. (1996). 5.3 Winter moth at Wytham Wood IN:
Regulation and stabilization paradigms in population ecology. Chapman & Hall.
DE RUITER,L. (1952). Some experiments on the camouflage of stick caterpillars.
Behaviour, 4:222-232.
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