8th grade Study guide answers CH 13 and CH11 Ch 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. A change in position A place or an object used to determine change in position or motion of another object S=d/t Distance v. time ________ no movement, stopped Sloped line upward Total distance / total time S=d/t=285+65= 350=87.5 km/hr 4 4 9. Speed with direction 10. Rate is distance changed over time 11. Speed up, slow down or change directions 12. 10 m/s – 5 m/s = 5=1.5 m/s2 3 3 13. Constant speed 14. 280+60 =340 = 85km/hr 4 4 Ch 10 1. A push or pull 2. Newtons (N) 3. If they are in the same direction then add the forces together 4. If they are in the opposite directions then subtract the forces 5. When they are balanced 6. Balanced forces cause no motion 7. Inertia increases with mass 8. Weight is gravity’s pull on an object’s mass 9. Free fall 10. Fluid friction or air resistance 11. Force of two object’s rubbing against each other 12. Fluid, sliding, static, rolling 13. An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest until and outside force acts upon it 14. The law of Inertia 15. Mass of force 16. Gives equal but opposite force back on your hand 17. A characteristic of a moving object related to the objects mass and velocity 18. Increase mass or velocity 19. Momentum is conserved Ch 13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The ability to do work Energy is transformed Watt Joule Joule Kinetic 7. Potential 8. Stored energy as a result of the height and the pull of gravity 9. Mechanical – motion and position THERMAL – motion of particles 10. KE =1/2 m v² KE =1/2(5)(6) ² = 180/2 =90Joules 11. Mass and velocity – changes in velocity will increase the KE more dramatically 12.Mechanical 13.Changes form one type of energy to another 14.PE to KE 15.Power 16.Energy cannot be created or destroyed 17. Kinetic 18. Einstein 19.ME = KE + PE 20.Mechanical to thermal 21.See vocab and notes Ch 11 1. 2. 3. 4. Increases the surface area that the force is distributed Pa – pascal All directions equally according to Pascal’s principle As you increase elevation pressure will decrease but as you increase depth of water then the pressure will increase. 5. Our body’s internal blood and other fluids exert enough pressure to equalize air pressure. 6. Pressure that is the same externally and internally. 7. The speed of a fluid will decrease the amount of pressure applied by the fluid. 8. The amount of fluid displaced is equal to the weight of the object. Density!! Mass/volume Know the units g/ cm² or g/ml 9. Fluids exert pressure equally in all directions when enclosed in a system. 10. The upward force of a fluid (water) 11.The upward force of air 12.Any liquid or gas 13.D=m/v 15.8/14.5 = 1.08 g/cm² 14.It multiplies force by using a fluid enclosed within a system that uses two different size pistons. 15.If it is more dense then it will sink. If it is less then it will float.