Applied (or practical) anthropologists separate their work from academic anthropology. Why do you think they do this? Is the basis of their work really that different? How so… and do they have to prepare differently before beginning their projects? Applied anthropology studies how to solve practical problems in the world, whereas academic anthropology serves to study and understand different cultures without a focus on solving problems found in the culture(s) of study. Anyone of the sub-fields of anthropology can be dubbed applied if the purpose of the study is practical instead of purely scholarly. Applied anthropologists are usually employed by government, interest groups, businesses, and non-profits, while academic anthropology is primarily funded and supported by Universities and Colleges. Applied anthropologists use many of the same methods as all other types of anthropology including participant observation and ethnography, but they also focus more on textual analysis and policy research than traditional anthropology. Applied anthropologists also prepare differently than academic anthropologists because applied studies start with research question(s) that dictate the scope of the study. These research questions are specific and often dictated by the agency that is funding the research. An example of a research question for applied anthropology is “How can public health agencies in Haiti decrease the rate of HIV/AIDS infection?” What is the ethnoscientific approach to fieldwork? Ethnoscience is the way that a culture classifies its material and social universe. Ethnoscience became popular in the 1950’s and 1960’s, and ethnoscientific research studies use methods including participant observation, linguistics, terminological studies, and taxonomy to discover how a culture places material into categories, and how the society classifies everything from color to plant life. Now ethnoscientific fieldwork is considered a part of cognitive anthropology, which is the study of what people know and how it affects the way people see and interact with the world. This type of fieldwork relies heavily on techniques in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. How would an anthropologist use the emic/etic approaches when studying a culture? The emic and etic approaches to anthropology research originally come from the terms “phonemic” and “phonetic”, which were first described by the linguistic anthropologist Kenneth Pike in 1954. The origins of emic and etic are found in the study of spoken and written language, which Pike believed could be adapted to explain any human behavior not just language. The emic approach is a description or an analysis of a behavior from the point of view of the culture. An example of this can be seen when talking about tattoos in the Maori cultures as a cultural rite of passage. On the other hand the etic approach is considered culturally neutral because it describes an action or behavior from the point of view of an outsider. The etic approach is considered to be a more scientific view than the emic approach, and it is used when comparing phenomena across cultures. An example of this can be seen when comparing Maori tattoos to American tattoos. Both approaches are integral to the study of anthropology How do anthropologists conduct their research and what are the limits on such research? Anthropologists study unfamiliar societies using a variety of methods, but the most common qualitative method is participant observation. Participant observation is a set of research strategies that aim to gain an understanding of a cultural group and their practices through direct contact with the people in their native habitat. The method requires that an anthropologist become immersed in a particular people’s way of life for extended period of time. This type of field work should be done for longer than a year, and many times it can last for a couple of year’s total. Participant observation field work is a long, intense process, but it is rewarding because it allows the anthropologist to observe seasonal activities, learn to use the language as a native, and it allows anthropologists to blend in to the society, so that activities are not affected by the presence of an outsider. Over time the anthropologist learns to balance observation and note taking with participating in activities, which allows them to gain first hand understanding while remaining unbiased enough to report on the society’s culture. This method is the primary approach to cultural anthropology and is used as the basis of ethnographic works. Because the anthropologist is an outsider, there is the possibility that informants will not tell the truth and/or the culture will change rituals based on the presence of the researcher, which is why anthropologists conduct this fieldwork for such a long period of time. Explain how the process of adaptation to an arboreal existence enhanced primate, and consequently human, evolution. Include the senses, skeleton, and brain in your answer. Arboreal evolution of primates is one of three theories about the origins of primates, and it is considered to be the predominant explanation. Arboreal means “relating to or resembling trees” and in this case it means that primates evolved after its ancestors adapted to living in trees. This change from a terrestrial lifestyle to one in the trees accounts for many of the physical and mental adaptations that led to primate and later human evolution. One such change occurred in the occipital region of the brain as primates evolved to have stereoscopic vision, which allowed the primates to see a three-dimensional world, which is important when you traveling through the complex world of tree branches and leaves. This along with other adaptations led to the evolution of a larger brain and brain case, which is a precursor to Hominid evolution. Primates also developed skeletal adaptations including grasping tails and hands, as well as claws on their feet so as to be able to hang on to trees and swing from branches. The complexity and danger associated with moving from the land to the trees caused increased evolutionary adaptation in primates. Many of these adaptations made the human species possible. After entering a new cultural situation an individual can often find himself/herself undergoing very negative emotions. What is happening in this instance and how can an individual prepare in advance to avoid this happening? When a person enters a culture different from their own it can often cause culture shock, which causes the person to be uncomfortable in their new situation. The reason for culture shock is that a person has lived and learned their own culture for their entire lives, and he/she has been taught and socialized that their cultural structure is the correct one. This is reinforced constantly through community interaction, media, families, and friends, so when a person is forced into a new culture that has a different set of rules, he/she will oftentimes not have a positive reaction. Although culture shock is something that cannot be completely avoided, it is possible to prepare for a new culture. A person can do research on the new customs and rituals of the place that they are going to join or visit. Watching television or movies about the culture and reading newspapers and books, a person can start to become familiar with the new culture. By learning about these institutions, the person will not be surprised by the differences and this may make the transition easier. How do specialized vocabularies differ from dialects? Using your own experience, explain how you use specialized vocabulary among your peers which you would not use in general social settings. Explain how a dialect differs from a “standard” language use. A specialized vocabulary is based on a particular field of study or skill set that imparts its own terminology and word meanings. Specialized vocabularies are learned within context of a job or a class, and the vocabulary is only understood when speaking to others that have the same specialized vocabulary. On the other hand a dialect is a form of a language that is characteristic of a regional or socioeconomic group within the same language. Dialects are learned from birth, and do not require special skill set. A dialect is simply the way that a group of people speak that includes special phrases and/or meanings of words that are not commonly used in other dialects. A person would use a dialect when talking to a peer group regardless of skill or training, while a specialized vocabulary is only appropriate when speaking to people that have the same training and understanding. Standard language is a strict form of a dialect that has been given legal status, and it is usually seen as the correct form of the language. Standard language is often used when teaching the language to non-speakers. I have experienced the difference in use of specialized vocabulary and dialect when discussing anthropology in this class. I can use terms like socialization and participant observation when speaking to my classmates, and they will understand the specialized meaning of these terms, but I cannot do the same when speaking with my family. This opposite of this can be seen when I use dialect when talking to my family because I can then turn around and talk to my classmates using the same dialect and they will understand most if not all of what I am saying.