Double Speak: writing that has 2 layers of meaning—a “surface level

Double Speak: writing that has 2 layers of meaning—a “surface level” meaning and a deeper meaning that is
not understood by everyone in the story
Imagery: the use of details and descriptive words or phrases that help a reader experience the writing with
his/her 5 senses
Unreliable Narrator: the reader cannot trust or believe the narrator because of a major character flaw
Theme: the underlying message or truth in a story
Anaphora: a rhetorical device that uses repetition of a word or phrase for emphasis and to catch the reader’s
attention (for argument and persuasion)
Mood: the general feeling of the story
Tone: the attitude the author has in his words
Characterization: description of the character (physical and personality)
1) Direct Characterization - directly describes a character
2) Indirect Characterization - the reader must infer by a character’s actions and/or words
Syntax: sentence structure
Diction: word choice
Symbolism: a physical object representing a larger idea
Irony: when there is a difference between the expected and reality
1) Verbal - someone says the unexpected
2) Situational - the opposite of we expect occurs
3) Dramatic - the reader knows more than the characters
Epiphany: a sudden realization or change in thinking
Plot Structure:
A = Exposition - introduction to the story; setting, characters, initial conflict, etc.
B = Rising Action - building on the conflict through a series of events
C = Climax - the turning point and the point of highest emotion
D = Falling Action - the pieces of the story come together
E = Denouement (Conclusion) - the final ending
Rhetoric: an argument or persuasion
Parallelism: an aspect of syntax when parts of a sentence have the same grammar repeated
Allusion: a reference back to another piece of literature, event, or a historic moment/person
Interior Monologue: a transcription of a character’s thoughts
Allegory: when an author writes a story where all parts are symbolic to convey a key message
Extended Metaphor: a metaphor stretched over a large piece of writing
Tragic Hero: when the main character (usually male) has a character flaw that leads to his own destruction and
Monologue: a long speech made by one speaker, either to others or as if alone
Soliloquy: when a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a
Foils: characters who are perfect opposites of each other and who enhance each other when they are in a scene
together (ex. Tybalt to Benvolio)
Alliteration: the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in
stressed syllables of the word (ex. She sells sea shells by the sea shore)
Conflict: a struggle between opposing forces which is the driving force of a story
1) Man vs. Man
2) Man vs. Self
3) Man vs. Nature
4) Man vs. Society
Foreshadowing: where future events in a story are suggested by the author before they happen
Hyperbole: a description which exaggerates, usually employing extremes and/or superlatives to convey a
positive or negative attribute
Metaphor: a direct comparison between two unlike things without using the word “like” or “as”
Oxymoron: a contradiction in terms
Personification: where inanimate objects or abstract concepts perform human-like actions
Point of View: the identity of the narrative voice
Simile: an indirect relationship where one thing or idea is described as being similar to another using the words
“like” or “as”
Aside: an actor’s speech, directed to the audience, that is not supposed to be heard by other actors on stage
Flashback: action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time
Pun: a figure of speech which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words or phrases for a rhetorical
effect, whether humorous or serious
Concrete Poetry: a poem that visually resembles something found in the physical world (ex. A poem written
about a snake written so that the words form the shape of a snake
Blank Verse: a poem written in iambic pentameter that has no rhyme, but has a very specific rhythm that
higher-class characters would use
Couplet: a stanza of two lines that rhyme (AA) and have a rhythm structure
Foot: the basic unit of measurement in a line of poetry
Free Verse: unrhymed poetry with lines of varying lengths and no specific pattern
Iamb: a poetic pattern in a foot of poetry consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable
(ex. tră/péze)
Quatrain: four lines of poetry that have a rhyme (ABAB) and rhythm structure
Sonnet: a lyric poem of fourteen lines whose rhyme scheme is fixed
Prose: common language with no rhyme or rhythm (used by lower-class characters or servants)
Shakespearean Sonnet: a fourteen line poem made up of 3 quatrains and 1 couplet written in iambic pentameter
Pentameter: containing 5 feet per line
(Arranged by Seth)