Recording Measurements

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Unit 5 Question Packet
Bonding
Name …………………KEY………………………
Period ………….
SKILLS
1.
2.
3.
4.
identifying CHANGES IN ENERGY & STABILITY
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES: ATOMS
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES: IONS
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES:
IONIC COMPOUNDS
5. drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES:
MOLECULES (COVALENT)
6. drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES:
POLYATOMIC IONS
7. identifying TYPES OF BONDS
8. identifying TYPES OF SUBSTANCES & PROPERTIES
9. identifying MOLECULAR POLARITY & SHAPE
10. explaining INTERMOLECULAR FORCES OF
ATTRACTION
SKILL #1:
Identifying CHANGES IN
- refer to your notes & RB p. 55-56
ENERGY & STABILITY
1. For each phrase, check either “bond breaking” or “bond forming”.
Bond Breaking Bond Forming
a. Stability of the chemical system increases

b. Energy is released

b. Cl + Cl  Cl2

c. exothermic

d. endothermic

e. N2  N + N

f.
Energy is absorbed

g. Stability of the chemical system decreases

SKILL #2:
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES: ATOMS
2. Complete the table below.
Electron-dot
Atom in…
structure
Atom in…
i.
Group 1, Period 5
b. Group 16, Period 3
j.
Group 16, Period 4
c. Group 18, Period 5
k.
Group 18, Period 6
d. Group 2, Period 2
l.
Group 2, Period 5
a.
Group 1, Period 3
- refer to your notes, RB p. 41, and
the P.T.
e. Group 17, Period 4
m. Group 17, Period 5
Group 15, Period 3
n.
Group 15, Period 6
g. Group 13, Period 3
o.
Group 13, Period 4
Group 14, Period 3
p.
Group 14, Period 2
f.
h.
Electron-dot
structure
SKILL #3:
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES: IONS
3. Complete the table below.
ElectronElectron
Ion
dot
Configuration
structure
- refer to your notes & the P.T.
Electrondot
structure
Ion
Electron
Configuration
a.
sodium
Na+
2-8
h.
oxide
O2
2-8
b.
aluminum
Al3+
2-8
i.
bromide
Br
2-8-18-8
c.
calcium
Ca2+
2-8-8
j.
phosphide
P3
2-8-8
d.
magnesium
Mg2+
2-8
k.
sulfide
S2
2-8-8
e.
strontium
Sr2+
2-8-18-8
l.
iodide
I
2-8-18-18-8
f.
rubidium
Rb+
2-8-18-8
m.
fluoride
F
2-8
g.
gallium
Ga3+
2-8-18
n.
chloride
Cl
2-8-8
SKILL #4:
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES: IONIC COMPOUNDS
– use your notes & the P.T.
4. Complete the following table.
Ionic
Electron-dot
Total
Ionic
Electron-dot
Total
compound
structure
# of
compound
structure
# of
(name & formula)
ions
(name & formula)
ions
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
sodium fluoride
2
NaF
potassium chloride
2
KCl
2
calcium iodide
CaI2
magnesium oxide
MgO
rubidium oxide
Ru2O
2
AlCl3
g
h.
2
i.
3
j.
2
sodium sulfide
Na2S
.
3
3
aluminum chloride
f.
3
lithium hydride
2
LiH
aluminum oxide
Al2O3
calcium phosphide
5. What is the overall (net) charge of ionic compounds?
Ca3P2
2
3
5
3
2
5
zero (neutral)
6. In your own words (without looking at your notes), summarize the rules for drawing electron-dot
structures for ionic compounds:
4
SKILL #5:
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES:
MOLECULES (COVALENT)
7. Complete the following table.
Total # of Electron-dot
Molecule
valence
structure
(name & formula)
e-’s
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
methane
N2
Molecule
(name & formula)
8
g.
10
h.
CH4
nitrogen
– use your notes & the P.T.
ammonia
8
NH3
carbon
tetrachloride
CCl4
carbon dioxide
CO2
phosphorus
trichloride
i.
PCl3
8
water
dihydrogen
monosulfide
j.
H2O
12
oxygen
H2S
Electron-dot
structure
32
16
26
8
carbon monoxide
CO
k.
O2
14
fluorine
Total # of
valence
e-‘s
hydrogen
l.
F2
SKILL #6:
drawing ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES:
POLYATOMIC IONS
8. Complete the following table
H2
10
2
– refer to your notes, the P.T., & Table E
Polyatomic
ion name
Polyatomic
ion formula
Total # of
valence
e-’s
a.
hydroxide
OH
8
b.
hydronium
H3O+
8
c.
ammonium
NH4+
8
d.
peroxide
O22
14
Electron-dot structure
SKILL #7:
Identifying TYPES OF BONDS
– refer to your notes, the P.T., & RB p. 57-60
9. Identify which bond type is described by each statement below.
Choices:
ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent, coordinate covalent, metallic
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
two atoms share electrons unequally
positive nuclei are immersed in a sea of mobile electrons
two atoms share electrons equally
a bond between a metal atom and a nonmetal atom
one atom transfers an electron to another atom
one atom in this bond provides both shared electrons
a bond between different nonmetal atoms
a bond resulting from electrostatic attractions between
opposite charges
one atom loses electrons and another atom gains electrons
Bond type
polar covalent
metallic
nonpolar covalent
ionic
ionic
coordinate covalent
polar covalent
ionic
ionic
10. Identify which type(s) of bonds are found between the atoms in the formula given.
Choices:
ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent, coordinate covalent, metallic
a.
Formula
Li2O
Bond type
Formula
Bond type
ionic
j.
CCl4
(1)
polar covalent
ionic
k.
MgF2
(1)
ionic
nonpolar covalent
l.
PCl3
(1)
polar covalent
polar covalent
m.
Ag
(1)
metallic
(1 type of bond)
b.
AlCl3
c.
N2
d.
CH3Br
e.
HCl
(1)
polar covalent
n.
Na2SO4
f.
Cu
(1)
metallic
o.
F2
g.
H2
(1)
nonpolar covalent
p.
LiNO3
h.
NH4+
polar covalent
q.
NH4Cl
(2)
ionic & polar covalent
i.
O3
nonpolar covalent
r.
CH3OH
(1)
polar covalent
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(2)
ionic &
polar covalent
nonpolar covalent
(1)
(2)
ionic &
polar covalent
11. In your own words, summarize what you look for in the formula when identifying the following
bond types:

ionic:

nonpolar covalent:

polar covalent:

coordinate covalent:

metallic:

BOTH ionic & covalent
SKILL #8:
Identifying TYPES OF SUBSTANCES
& PROPERTIES
– refer to your notes, the P.T., & RB p. 57-60
12. Indicate which type of substance is described by each statement.
Choices:
molecular, ionic, metallic, network solid
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Can conduct electricity in the solid and liquid phases
A soft substance whose atoms are held together by
covalent bonds
Low melting point and poor electrical conductor
Can conduct electricity when aqueous or molten (liquid)
Can be polar or nonpolar
Can dissolve in water to produce mobile ions
Extremely hard substance that is insoluble in water
Type of substance
Metallic
Molecular
Molecular
Ionic
Molecular
Ionic
Network solid
13. Classify which type of substance the formulas represent, which type(s) of bonds are
found in the substance, and whether the substance conducts electricity.
Type of
Type of Bonds
Conducts Electricity?
Substance
(metallic, ionic, polar covalent,
(metallic, ionic,
nonpolar covalent, or
Formula
Yes
No
molecular,
ionic AND covalent)
l
s
aq
or network solid)


Li2O
ionic
ionic
a.


AlCl3
ionic
ionic
b.

F2
molecular
nonpolar covalent
c.

CH4
molecular
polar covalent
d.

HI
molecular
polar covalent
e.


Fe
metallic
metallic
f.
g.
Na3PO4
ionic
h.
CaO
Ionic
i.
C (diamond)
network solid
j.
C (graphite)
molecular
k.
H2
molecular
ionic AND covalent
ionic
nonpolar covalent
nonpolar covalent
nonpolar covalent
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.
Na
NH4Br
KNO3
O3
SiO2
NH3
FeBr2
Hg
CO2
metallic
ionic
Ionic
molecular
network solid
molecular
ionic
metallic
molecular
metallic
ionic AND covalent
ionic AND covalent
nonpolar covalent
polar covalent
polar covalent
ionic
metallic
polar covalent





















14. Explain the following in terms of electronegativity:
a. the P–Cl bond in a molecule of PCl5 is more polar than a P–S bond in a molecule of P2S5
Cl has a higher electronegativity value than S.
b. the H–F bond is expected to be more polar than the H–I bond
H–F is more polar because F is more electronegative than I.
c. the bond between potassium and oxygen has greater ionic character than the bond
between potassium and chlorine
there is a greater difference in EN values of K and O
15. Write a paragraph to explain the following. The first sentence is started for you.
a. liquid mercury is a good electrical conductor
b. molten NaCl conducts electricity while solid NaCl does not
c. an aqueous solution of KBr conducts electricity while solid KBr does not
d. CH4 is a poor electrical conductor
In order to conduct electricity, there must be…
Moving charges
The electrons in metals (like mercury) are mobile and can conduct electricity
The ions in ionic compounds, when liquid or dissolved in water (aqueous), can move around
and conduct electricity. When solid, however, ions can’t move around and therefore do not
conduct electricity.
Molecular substances (like CH4) don’t conduct electricity well because they don’t have mobile
electrons or ions
SKILL #9:
Identifying MOLECULAR POLARITY & SHAPE
16. Complete the table below.
Distribution of
charge?
Molecule
(symmetrical or
asymmetrical)
– refer to your notes & RB p. 62 & 66
Molecular Polarity
(polar or nonpolar)
Molecular Shape
(linear, pyramidal,
tetrahedral, or bent)
Bond
Polarity
(polar or
nonpolar)
a.
A
P
pyramidal
P
b.
S
NP
linear
P
c.
A
P
pyramidal
P
d.
S
NP
Linear
NP
e.
A
P
linear
P
f.
A
P
bent
P
g.
S
NP
tetrahedral
P
SKILL #10:
explaining INTERMOLECULAR FORCES OF ATTRACTION
– refer to your notes & RB p. 63-64
17. Given the balanced equation for dissolving NaCl(s) in water:
NaCl (s)  Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
a. Draw at least four water molecules in the box, showing the correct orientation of
each water molecule when it is near the Na+ ion and Cl– ion in the aqueous solution.
Na+
Cl-
H atoms near Cl- and O atoms near Na+
b. Identify the type of intermolecular attraction that occurs between the sodium ions
and the water molecules.
ion-molecule attractions
18. Explain the following in terms of intermolecular forces:
a. Hydrogen has a lower boiling point than hydrogen bromide.
hydrogen has weaker intermolecular forces of attraction
b. At STP, iodine (I2) is a solid and bromine (Br2) is a liquid.
Iodine has stronger IMF
19. Circle the compounds below that exhibit hydrogen bonding:
a. NH3
d. CH3F
g. H2O
j. CF4
b. CO2
e. HF
h. LiH
k. HCl
c.
f.
i.
l. CaH2
20. Which compound has the strongest intermolecular forces?
(1) HF(l)
(2) CH3Cl(l)
(3) CH3F(l)
(4) HCl(l)
21. The relatively high boiling point of water is due to
(1) ionic bonds
(3) hydrogen bonds
(2) covalent bonds
(4) metallic bonds
22.
Have you ever seen an insect called a water strider “skating” across the surface of a
calm pond? Have you ever “floated” a sewing needle on the water in a glass? If you
have, then you’ve observed one of water’s many amazing properties.
Water’s surface tension keeps the water strider and the sewing needle from sinking into
the water. Simply stated, the surface tension is due to the forces that hold the water
molecules together. Without these intermolecular forces, the water strider and the
sewing needle would sink below the surface of the water. The surface tension of water at
various temperatures is given in the data table below.
a. On the grid below, plot the data from the data table. Circle and connect the five
points.
b. According to your graph, what is the surface tension of water at 60.°C?
66.1 mN/m ± 0.3 mN/m
c. State the relationship between the surface tension and the temperature of water.
Surface tension will decrease as temperature increases
Note: Do not allow credit for “inverse relationship.”
d. The surface tension of liquid tetrachloromethane, CCl4, at 25°C is 26.3
millinewtons/meter (mN/m). Compare the intermolecular forces between
molecules of CCl4 to the intermolecular forces between molecules of water, H2O, at
25°C.
CCl4 has weaker intermolecular forces than water, H2O.
e. Identify the type of intermolecular force that gives H2O a relatively high surface
tension.
hydrogen bonds between water molecules
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