Syllabus for PSY 394U: Cognitive Psychology Concepts in Social

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Syllabus for PSY 394U: Cognitive Psychology Concepts in
Clinical and Social Psychology
Instructor: Gordon Bower
Meetings: Wednesdays, 10 am – 1 pm
I have been interested in the way concepts and ideas from the cognitive psychology of
human memory make their way into, and influence, related areas of psychology, in
particular into clinical and social psychology. In this seminar I plan to cover several such
influences of memory-research that have been significant. The course will be structured
around a set of readings that will be presented and discussed in the class for that week. I
have selected reasonable texts that we will use to sequence and organize the topics
throughout the semester. The first text is by Janet Jones, “The psychotherapist’s guide to
human memory”. This is an accessible, good review of many of the issues I wish to touch
on. The book has recently gone out of print, but the author has given me permission to
photocopy a limited number of copies for this class that I will sell to you at cost
(currently $15.00). The second book is "Social Cognition" by Ziva Kunda, a 1999 text
from MIT Press. I've ordered paperback copies of the Kunda book to be available at the
UT bookstore. In addition to these books, many articles and book chapters are to be read.
A copy of the articles for the seminar can be accessed in the UT Psychology Homepage
website or from a CD that I can make available to students without web access.
As indicated, the seminar will consist of the summarizing and discussion of articles and
chapters from the Jones and Kunda books. I will be in charge of the discussion for the
first week, but by the second session subgroups of students should be prepared to lead the
discussion on the papers within a given topic. Attendance at class meetings is required
and active participation in class discussion is encouraged.
REQUIREMENTS:
Discussion Questions over the Main Readings: Each week there will be three
main readings for the class. Your assignment is to do all the assigned readings and come
to class prepared to discuss them. You are required to come to each class with a writtenout discussion question ---a query, puzzle, or issue about the readings you’d like to have
discussed in class. At the beginning of each class, I will ask you to turn in to me those
written questions (with your name attached) for use during the class discussion.
Class Participation: Your active contributions to the discussions, questions, and
comments in class will account for one-sixth of your grade and academic credit. Please
arrive on time. Late arrivals and/or absence from class are considered lapses in
participation.
Class Presentations: At the initial meeting, I plan to form the students into
subgroups of three or four students who will work together in advance to prepare class
presentations. The seminar will consist of students within such subgroups briefly
presenting the gist and main points of the required readings for that week, and then
leading a discussion of the articles. Each subgroup should meet with me privately the
preceding week (e.g., Thursday or Friday) to plan their presentations for the coming
2
week. You and your subgroup will be asked to do 3 or so of these presentations
throughout the semester, and volunteers will be sought for specific topics. Your group’s
assignment is to present the readings clearly and creatively and explain their main ideas. I
recommend that you prepare handouts (or PowerPoint slides) for your in-class
presentations (e.g., bring a laptop computer for use with the LED projector). The overall
quality of your group’s presentations will be judged and this will comprise one-third
(2/6ths) of your grade.
Mid Term and Final Term Papers. Students are required to turn in one paper at
midterm (on October 12th), approximately 7 double spaced pages in length; and a
second, final 10-page term paper at the last class (December 7th). Your papers should be
on seminar-related topics of special interest to you. The papers should present a novel
analysis of some issue of the class, a novel idea or hypothesis, a research proposal or a
hypothetical research report. It should not simply regurgitate the contents of some
reading(s). To stimulate your thinking, you might dig into some of the OPTIONAL
READINGS listed throughout the syllabus and available on the website. The written
paper should be typed in APA style and no longer than the 7 or 10-page limit including
your bibliography. The midterm and final papers will comprise one-sixth and two-sixths,
respectively, of your course grade.
Consent of instructor is required to attend and the seminar is limited to 16 students, with
preference given to psychology PhD students. You may opt to have two or three units of
credit. You may elect to receive a letter grade or select the Credit/ No Credit option. No
auditors are allowed. The first organizational class meeting will be Wednesday, August
31st at 10:00 am in seminar room 2.224 on the second floor of the Psychology Dept
building (Seay Building). I prefer that the class communicate via e-mail, so I will set up a
class list for messages and announcements on the departmental website. My email
address is [email protected] when you want or need to contact me. I am usually
available for office appointments (Seay bldg, room 5.238) that can be arranged either in
person or over email.
The schedule of topics and readings is given below.
Meeting
Date
Topic & Readings
1
Aug 31
Organizational meeting: preview of topics.
Overview of Theory
1. Jones Chap. 1: Memory and the self; p 1-10.
2. Jones Chap. 2; Remembrance then and Now; p. 11-26.
OPTIONAL READING_______________________
Bower, G. H. (1978). Contacts of cognitive psychology
with social learning theory. Cognitive Research and
Therapy, 2, 123-146.
3
2
Sept. 7
Memories from the Cradle: Infantile amnesia and the
development of autobiographic memory.
1. Jones - Chap. 3: Memories from the cradle. p. 27-44
2. Bauer, P. (2002). Long-term recall memory: Behavioral
and neuro-developmental changes in the first two years of
life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 137141.
3. Nelson, K. & Fivush, R. (2000) Socialization of
memory. In E. Tulving & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.) The Oxford
Handbook of memory. (p. 283-295). New York: Oxford
University Press.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
4. Simcock, G. & Hayne, H. (2002). Breaking the barrier?
Children fail to translate their preverbal memories into
language. Psychological Science, 13, 225-231.
5. Nelson, K. & Fivush, R. (2004). The emergence of
autobiographical memory. Psychological Review, 111, 480511.
6. Harley, K. & Reese, E. (1999). Origins of
autobiographic memory. Developmental Psychology, 35(
5), p. 1338-1348.
7. Howe, M.L. (2003). Memories from the cradle.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(2), p. 6265.
8. Conway, M.A. & Pleydell-Pearce, C.W. (2000) The
construction of autobiographical memories. Psychological
Review, 107, 261-288.
3.
Sept 14
Emotion, Trauma, and Memory
1. Jones Chap. 6: Memory and mood; p.79 - 96
2. Bower, G.H. “How might emotions affect learning?” In
S.A. Christianson (Ed.) The Handbook of Emotion and
Memory. 1992. (P. 3- 32). Erlbaum.
3. Jones Chap. 7; Memories for trauma; p. 97 - 116.
OPTIONAL_READINGS__________________________
4. Conway, M. (1998). Flashbulb Memories. Chapters 1 &
2, pgs 1-42.
5. Mineka, S., & Nugent: “Mood congruent memory” In
D. Schacter et al. (Eds.) Memory Distortion. (P. 173-196).
Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.
6. Bechara et al. (1995). “Double dissociation of
conditioning ….” Science, 269, Aug. 25, 1115-1118.
4
7. van der Kolk, B., (1994). The body keeps the score:
Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic
stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 1, 253-265.
8. Shobe, K., & Kihlstrom, J.F., (1997). Is traumatic
memory special? Current Directions in Psychological
Science. 6, 70-74.
9. van der Kolk, B., & Fisler, R., (1995). Dissociation and
the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories. Journal of
Traumatic Stress, 8, 505-525.
10. Terr, L., (1991). “Childhood traumas: An outline and
overview” Am. J. Psychiatry, 148, 10-20.
11. McNally, R.J., (1998). Experimental approaches to
cognitive abnormality in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 971-982.
12. Scarf, Maggie. “Secrets, Lies, Betrayals: How the body
holds the secrets of a life and how to unlock them.” (2004).
345 pages. Random House. A semi-popular and wellinformed account by a responsible author.
13. Bower, G. H.(1994). Emotion and social judgments.
Paper given at Federation of Behavioral & Social Sciences.
4.
Sept 21
The Theory of Repressed Memory
Readings:
1. Bower, G.H: “Awareness, the unconscious, &
repression” pgs 209-231 in J. L. Singer (1990) Repression
& Dissociation . Univ. of Chicago Press.
2. Holmes, D.; “The evidence for repression” pgs 85-102.
In Singer, J.L. (Ed.) (1990) Repression & Dissociation.
Univ. of Chicago Press
3. Levy, B., & Anderson, M. (2002). Inhibitory processes
and the control of memory retrieval. Trends in Cognitive
Sciences, 6, 299-306.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
4. Wegner, D.: "You can't always think what you want."
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1992, 25, p.
193-225. New York: Academic Press.
5. Anderson, M., & Green, C., (2001). Suppressing
unwanted memories by executive control. Nature, 410,
366-369.
6. Smith, S.M. et al. (submitted). Forgetting (and
recovering) the seemingly unforgettable.
7. Smith, S.M., Gleaves, G., et al. (2003). Eliciting and
comparing false and recovered memories. Applied
Cognitive Psychology, 17, 251-279.
5
8. Kihlstrom, J.F., (1985). Posthypnotic amnesia and the
dissociation of memory. In G. H. Bower (1985). The
psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 10, (Pp 131176). Academic Press.
5.
Sept 28
Construction and Distortion of Memories
1. Jones Chap. 4: Accuracy and confidence; p. 45 - 60
2. Jones Chap. 5: Construction and distortion of
memories; p. 61 - 78.
3. Kunda Chap. 5: Memory: Reconstructing the past
p. 161-209.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
4. Roediger, H. & McDermott, K.; Tricks of memory.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2000, 9(4), p.
123-127.
5. Owens, J., Bower, G. & Black, J. The “Soap Opera”
effect in story recall. Memory & Cognition, 1979, 7, p. 185191.
6. Roediger, H. L. & McDermott, K. B. (2000).
Distortions of memory. In E. Tulving & F. Craik (eds.).
Handbook of memory research. (p. 149-164). New York:
Oxford Univ. Press.
7. Mather, M., Shafir, E. , & Johnston, M. (2000):
“Misremembrance of options past: Source monitoring and
choice.” Psychological Science, 11( 2), p. 132-138.
6.
Oct. 5
Recovery of Memories of Childhood Abuse
1. Loftus, E. F. (1993). “The reality of repressed
memories”. Amer. Psychologist, 48, 518-537.
2. Scheflin, A.W & Brown, D. (1996). "Repressed memory
of dissociative amnesia: What the science says." Journal of
Psychiatry and Law, 143-188.
3. Piper, A., (1997). “What science says -- or doesn’t say-about repressed memories: A critique of Scheflin &
Brown”. Journal of Psychiatry and the Law, , 25, 615-638.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
4. Spanos, N. P., (1996). "Child sexual abuse and the fate
of abuse memories”. In Spanos, N.P., Multiple identities
and false memories. (Chap. 7, p. 77-89). Amer. Psychol.
Assoc.
5. Piper, A., Pope, H., & Borowiecki, J., (2000). “Custer’s
Last Stand: Scheflin’ and Whitfield’s latest attempt to
6
salvage dissociative amnesia.”. Journal of Psychiatry and
the Law, vol. 28, , pp 149-213.
6. Harvey, M.R. , & Herman, J. L. (1994). “Amnesia,
partial amnesia, and delayed recall among survivors of
childhood trauma.” Consciousness & Cognition, 3, 295306.
7. Briere, J. & Conte, J. (1993): Self-reported amnesia for
abuse in adults molested as children. Journal of Traumatic
Stress, 6(1), 21-31.
8. Roth, S., Friedman, M. J. ,et. al. (Eds.) Childhood
Trauma Remembered – A report on the current scientific
knowledge base and its application. Committee of the
International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Flint,
MI: Mallery Press. (year?)
9. Kihlstrom, J. F. (2005). An unbalanced balancing act:
Blocked, recovered, and false memories in the laboratory
and clinic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice
In press.
10. Freud, S. (1896): The aetiology of hysteria. In Freud’s
Collected Works
11. Hooper, J. (2002). Recovered Memories of Sexual
Abuse: Scientific Research and Scholarly Resources. This
is a 50-page Review Paper from his Website.
12. APA Working Group (1998). Final conclusions of the
American Psychological Association Working Group on
Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse.
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, 933-940.
7.
Oct 12
False Memories [Mid-term Paper- Due in Class Today]
1. Jones Chap. 10; False memories. p. 155 - 176.
2. Loftus, E. (2003). Make-believe memories. American
Psychologist, 58, 864-873.
3. Leo, R. A. (2001). “False confessions: Causes,
consequences, and solutions”. In S.D. Westervelt & J.A.
Humphrey (Eds.) Wrongly Convicted. (Chap. 2, p. 32-54),
Rutgers University Press. Piscataway, NJ.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
4. Loftus, E., (1996) Memory distortions and false memory
creation. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry
and the Law, 24(3), 281-295.
5. Kassin, S.M. & Kiechel, K.L. (1996). The social
psychology of false confessions. Psychological Science,
7(3), p. 125-128.
7
6. Conti, R. P. (1999). “The psychology of false
confessions.” The Journal of Credibility Assessment and
Witness Psychology, 2(1), p 14-36.
7. S. Ceci et al. (1994). Repeatedly thinking about a nonevent: Source misattributions among preschoolers.
Consciousness & Cognition, 3, p. 388-407
8. . Loftus, E. (1997). Memory for a past that never was.
Current Directions in Psychological Science. 6(3), p. 6065.
9. Hyman, I. & Pentland, J. (1996). The role of mental
imagery in the creation of false childhood memories.
Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 101-117.
10. Mazzoni, G. & Loftus, E. (1998). Dreaming, believing,
and remembering. In J. de Rivera & T.R. Sarbin (Eds.)
Believed in Imaginings. (p. 145-156). Washington, D. C.:
APA Publishers.
11. McNally, R. (2001). The cognitive psychology of
repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexual
abuse. Psychiatric Annals, 31(8), p. 509-514.
12. : Kassin, S.M. (2005). On the psychology of
confessions. The American Psychologist, 60, 215-228.
8.
Oct 19
Hypnosis and Memory
1. Jones, J. Chap. 11: Enhancing Retrieval; p. 177 - 202.
2. Kihlstrom, J.F. (2001) Hypnosis and Memory. Chap.
in J.H. Byrne (Ed.) Learning and Memory, 2nd ed. New
York: MacMillan.
3. Spanos, N.P. (1996) Chapters 2, 3, and 4. p. 17-56. The
socio-cognitive interpretation of hypnosis, In Spanos, N.P.
Multiple Identities and False Memories. Washington DC:
American Psychological Association.
OPTIONAL READING___________________________
4. Dywan, J. & Bowers, K., (1983). The use of hypnosis
to enhance recall. Science, 222, 184-185.
9.
Oct 26
Stereotypes and the Social Psychology of Memory
1. Kunda, Chap. 8: Stereotypes, p. 314-393.
2. Kunda Chap. 2: Concepts & Social Knowledge,
pp. 15 – 25 and 42-52.
3. Greenwald, A.G. (1980) The totalitarian ego: Fabrication
and revision of personal history. American Psychologist,
35(7), p 603-618.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
8
4. Wegner, D.M, (1995). A computer network model of
human transactive memory. Social Cognition, 3, 319-339.
5. Roediger, H. et al. (2001). Social contagion of memory.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, p. 365-371.
6. Ross, M. (1989). Relation of implicit theories to the
construction of personal histories. Psychological Review,
vol. 96( 2), p. 341-357.
7. Kunda, part of Chap. 6: Hot Cognition, p. 223-263.
8. Wegner, D.M., Erber, R., & Raymond, P., (1991).
Transactive memory in close relationships. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 923-929.
10.
Nov. 2
Automatic Processes & Memory in Social Cognition
1. Jones, Chap. 8; Implicit recollection; p. 117 - 134.
2. Kunda, Chap. 7: Automatic Processes, 265-309.
3. Bargh, J., & Chartrand, T., (1999). The unbearable
automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462-479.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
4. Blair, I.V., Ma, J.E., & Lenton, A.P. (2001) Imagining
stereotypes away. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 81, 828-841.
5. Devine, P.G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their
automatic and controlled component. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5-18.
6. . Eberhardt, J.L., et al. (2004). Seeing black: Race, crime,
and visual processing. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 87(6), 876-893.
7. Rudman, L. A. et al. (1999). Measuring the automatic
component of prejudice, Social Cognition, 17(4), 437-465.
8. R. Fazio & M. Olson (2003). Implicit measures in social
cognition research. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297327.
11.
Nov 9
Social Cognitive Views of Personality
1. Mischel, S., Shoda, E., & Smith, R.E., (2004).
Introduction to Personality 7ed. New York: Wiley.
Chap. 11: Analyzing and modifying behavior, 244-267.
2. Mischel, W., et al., (2004). Chap. 12: Social cognitive
conceptions, 269-290.
3. Mischel, W., et al., (2004). Chap. 13: Social cognitive
processes, 291-319.
OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________
9
4. Mischel, W & Shoda, E. (1995). A cognitive-affective
system theory of personality. Psychological Review, 102,
246-268.
5. Andersen, S. & Chen S. (2002). The Relational Self:
An Interpersonal Social Cognitive Theory Psychological
Review, 109, 619-645.
6. Andersen, S.M., & Cole, S.W., (1990). "Do I know
you”: The role of significant others in general social
perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
59, 384-399.
7. Andersen, S.M., & Berk, M.S., (1998). Transference in
everyday experience. Review of General Psychology, 2,
81-120.
8. McAdams, D.P. (2001) The psychology of life stories.
The Review of General Psychology, 5, 100-122.
9. Pillemer, D.B. (2001) "Momentous events and the life
story," The Review of General Psychology, 5, 123-134.
10. Pasupathi, M. (2001) "The social construction of the
personal past," Psychological Bulletin, 5, 651-672.
12.
Nov. 16
Anxiety Disorders including PTSD (4 Papers)
1. Clark, D. M. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social
phobia. In Crozier, W. R. & Alden, L.E. (Eds.)
International Handbook of Social Anxiety. (Chap. 18, p.
405-430). New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
2. Mathews, A. & MacLeod, C. (2002). Induced processing
biases have causal effects on anxiety. Cognition and
Emotion, 12 (3), 331-354.
3. Brewin, C.R., Dalgleish, T., & Joseph, S. (1996). A dual
representation theory of PTSD. Psychological Review, 103
(4), p. 670-686.
4. Ehlers, A. & Clark, D.M. (2000). A cognitive model of
posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and
Therapy, 38, 319-345.
OPTIONAL READINGS_ON ANXIETY DISORDERS
5. Clark, D. M. (1999). Anxiety disorders: why they persist
and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy,
37, (Supplement #1), p. S5-S27.
6. Mathews, A. & Mackintosh, B. (1998). A cognitive
model of selective processing in anxiety. Cognitive
Therapy and Research, 22, 539-560.
10
7. Mathews, A. & Mackintosh, B. (2000). Induced
emotional interpretation bias and anxiety. Journal of
Abnormal Psychology, 109, 602-615.
8. Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral therapy
for social anxiety disorder: Current status and future
directions. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 101-108.
9. Mogg, K. et al. (2004). Selective attention to angry faces
in clinical social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
113 (1), 160-165.
10. Derryberry, D. & Reed, M. A. (2002). Anxiety-related
attentional biases and their regulation by attentional
control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111 (2), 225236.
OPTIONAL READINGS ON PTSD_______________
11. Ehlers, A., Hackmann, A., & Michael, T. (2004).
Intrusive re-experiencing in post-traumatic stress disorder.
Memory, 12, 403-415.
12. McNally, R. (1998). Experimental approaches to
cognitive abnormality in PTSD. Clinical Psychology
Review, 8, 971-982.
13. Foa, E. B., et al. (1999). The posttraumatic cognitions
inventory. Psychological Assessment, 11, 303-314.
14. van der Kolk, B. (1994). The body keeps the score:
Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic
stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 1, 253-265.
13.
Nov 23
NO CLASS – Thanksgiving Break
BUT OPTIONAL READING on
Multiple Personality
1. Spanos, N.P. (1996). The experimental creation of
multiplicity. (Chap. 11, p. 131-144) In his book Multiple
Identities and False Memories. Washington DC: American
Psychological Association.
2. Spanos, N.P. (1996). Multiple personality disorder and
social learning. (Chap. 18, p 231-246). In his book Multiple
Identities and False Memories. Washington DC: American
Psychological Association.
3. Cleaves, D.H., (1996). The sociocognitive model of
dissociative identity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 120,
42-59.
11
14.
Nov 30
Cognitive Theories of Depression
1. Beck, A. (1963). Thinking and depression: I:
Ideosyncratic content and cognitive distortions. Archives of
General Psychiatry, 9, 324-334.
2. Beck, A. (1964). Thinking and Depression: II: Theory
and Therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 561-571.
3. Abramson, L.Y., Alloy, L.B., & Metalsky, G.I. (1989)
Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of
depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358-372.
4. Gotlib, I.H. & Neubauer, D., (2001). Information
processing approaches to the study of cognitive biases in
depression. In Johnson, S.L. et al. Stress, coping, and
depression. Pp 117-143. Erlbaum Publishers; Mahwah, NJ
OPTIONAL READINGS________________________
Joorman, U. et al. (in press). Is this happiness I see?
Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
15.
Dec 7
Last Class [FINAL TERM PAPER IS DUE TODAY]
1. Jones, Chap. 12: Bridging the canyon; p. 203 - 226.
2. Wright, R.G. (2005) Introduction. In Wright, R.H. &
Cummings, N.A. (Eds.), Destructive Trends in Mental
Health: The Well-Intentioned Path to Harm. (p. Xxiiixxxiv --11 pages). New York: Rutledge Publishers,
3. Lilienfeld, et al. (2005) Pseudoscience, nonscience and
nonsense in clinical psychology: Dangers and remedies. In
Wright, R.H., & Cummings, N.A. (Eds.), Destructive
Trends in Mental Health: The Well-Intentioned Path to
Harm. (p. 187-218). New York: Rutledge Publishers.
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