1 Syllabus for PSY 394U: Cognitive Psychology Concepts in Clinical and Social Psychology Instructor: Gordon Bower Meetings: Wednesdays, 10 am – 1 pm I have been interested in the way concepts and ideas from the cognitive psychology of human memory make their way into, and influence, related areas of psychology, in particular into clinical and social psychology. In this seminar I plan to cover several such influences of memory-research that have been significant. The course will be structured around a set of readings that will be presented and discussed in the class for that week. I have selected reasonable texts that we will use to sequence and organize the topics throughout the semester. The first text is by Janet Jones, “The psychotherapist’s guide to human memory”. This is an accessible, good review of many of the issues I wish to touch on. The book has recently gone out of print, but the author has given me permission to photocopy a limited number of copies for this class that I will sell to you at cost (currently $15.00). The second book is "Social Cognition" by Ziva Kunda, a 1999 text from MIT Press. I've ordered paperback copies of the Kunda book to be available at the UT bookstore. In addition to these books, many articles and book chapters are to be read. A copy of the articles for the seminar can be accessed in the UT Psychology Homepage website or from a CD that I can make available to students without web access. As indicated, the seminar will consist of the summarizing and discussion of articles and chapters from the Jones and Kunda books. I will be in charge of the discussion for the first week, but by the second session subgroups of students should be prepared to lead the discussion on the papers within a given topic. Attendance at class meetings is required and active participation in class discussion is encouraged. REQUIREMENTS: Discussion Questions over the Main Readings: Each week there will be three main readings for the class. Your assignment is to do all the assigned readings and come to class prepared to discuss them. You are required to come to each class with a writtenout discussion question ---a query, puzzle, or issue about the readings you’d like to have discussed in class. At the beginning of each class, I will ask you to turn in to me those written questions (with your name attached) for use during the class discussion. Class Participation: Your active contributions to the discussions, questions, and comments in class will account for one-sixth of your grade and academic credit. Please arrive on time. Late arrivals and/or absence from class are considered lapses in participation. Class Presentations: At the initial meeting, I plan to form the students into subgroups of three or four students who will work together in advance to prepare class presentations. The seminar will consist of students within such subgroups briefly presenting the gist and main points of the required readings for that week, and then leading a discussion of the articles. Each subgroup should meet with me privately the preceding week (e.g., Thursday or Friday) to plan their presentations for the coming 2 week. You and your subgroup will be asked to do 3 or so of these presentations throughout the semester, and volunteers will be sought for specific topics. Your group’s assignment is to present the readings clearly and creatively and explain their main ideas. I recommend that you prepare handouts (or PowerPoint slides) for your in-class presentations (e.g., bring a laptop computer for use with the LED projector). The overall quality of your group’s presentations will be judged and this will comprise one-third (2/6ths) of your grade. Mid Term and Final Term Papers. Students are required to turn in one paper at midterm (on October 12th), approximately 7 double spaced pages in length; and a second, final 10-page term paper at the last class (December 7th). Your papers should be on seminar-related topics of special interest to you. The papers should present a novel analysis of some issue of the class, a novel idea or hypothesis, a research proposal or a hypothetical research report. It should not simply regurgitate the contents of some reading(s). To stimulate your thinking, you might dig into some of the OPTIONAL READINGS listed throughout the syllabus and available on the website. The written paper should be typed in APA style and no longer than the 7 or 10-page limit including your bibliography. The midterm and final papers will comprise one-sixth and two-sixths, respectively, of your course grade. Consent of instructor is required to attend and the seminar is limited to 16 students, with preference given to psychology PhD students. You may opt to have two or three units of credit. You may elect to receive a letter grade or select the Credit/ No Credit option. No auditors are allowed. The first organizational class meeting will be Wednesday, August 31st at 10:00 am in seminar room 2.224 on the second floor of the Psychology Dept building (Seay Building). I prefer that the class communicate via e-mail, so I will set up a class list for messages and announcements on the departmental website. My email address is [email protected] when you want or need to contact me. I am usually available for office appointments (Seay bldg, room 5.238) that can be arranged either in person or over email. The schedule of topics and readings is given below. Meeting Date Topic & Readings 1 Aug 31 Organizational meeting: preview of topics. Overview of Theory 1. Jones Chap. 1: Memory and the self; p 1-10. 2. Jones Chap. 2; Remembrance then and Now; p. 11-26. OPTIONAL READING_______________________ Bower, G. H. (1978). Contacts of cognitive psychology with social learning theory. Cognitive Research and Therapy, 2, 123-146. 3 2 Sept. 7 Memories from the Cradle: Infantile amnesia and the development of autobiographic memory. 1. Jones - Chap. 3: Memories from the cradle. p. 27-44 2. Bauer, P. (2002). Long-term recall memory: Behavioral and neuro-developmental changes in the first two years of life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 137141. 3. Nelson, K. & Fivush, R. (2000) Socialization of memory. In E. Tulving & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of memory. (p. 283-295). New York: Oxford University Press. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 4. Simcock, G. & Hayne, H. (2002). Breaking the barrier? Children fail to translate their preverbal memories into language. Psychological Science, 13, 225-231. 5. Nelson, K. & Fivush, R. (2004). The emergence of autobiographical memory. Psychological Review, 111, 480511. 6. Harley, K. & Reese, E. (1999). Origins of autobiographic memory. Developmental Psychology, 35( 5), p. 1338-1348. 7. Howe, M.L. (2003). Memories from the cradle. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(2), p. 6265. 8. Conway, M.A. & Pleydell-Pearce, C.W. (2000) The construction of autobiographical memories. Psychological Review, 107, 261-288. 3. Sept 14 Emotion, Trauma, and Memory 1. Jones Chap. 6: Memory and mood; p.79 - 96 2. Bower, G.H. “How might emotions affect learning?” In S.A. Christianson (Ed.) The Handbook of Emotion and Memory. 1992. (P. 3- 32). Erlbaum. 3. Jones Chap. 7; Memories for trauma; p. 97 - 116. OPTIONAL_READINGS__________________________ 4. Conway, M. (1998). Flashbulb Memories. Chapters 1 & 2, pgs 1-42. 5. Mineka, S., & Nugent: “Mood congruent memory” In D. Schacter et al. (Eds.) Memory Distortion. (P. 173-196). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. 6. Bechara et al. (1995). “Double dissociation of conditioning ….” Science, 269, Aug. 25, 1115-1118. 4 7. van der Kolk, B., (1994). The body keeps the score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 1, 253-265. 8. Shobe, K., & Kihlstrom, J.F., (1997). Is traumatic memory special? Current Directions in Psychological Science. 6, 70-74. 9. van der Kolk, B., & Fisler, R., (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 505-525. 10. Terr, L., (1991). “Childhood traumas: An outline and overview” Am. J. Psychiatry, 148, 10-20. 11. McNally, R.J., (1998). Experimental approaches to cognitive abnormality in posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 971-982. 12. Scarf, Maggie. “Secrets, Lies, Betrayals: How the body holds the secrets of a life and how to unlock them.” (2004). 345 pages. Random House. A semi-popular and wellinformed account by a responsible author. 13. Bower, G. H.(1994). Emotion and social judgments. Paper given at Federation of Behavioral & Social Sciences. 4. Sept 21 The Theory of Repressed Memory Readings: 1. Bower, G.H: “Awareness, the unconscious, & repression” pgs 209-231 in J. L. Singer (1990) Repression & Dissociation . Univ. of Chicago Press. 2. Holmes, D.; “The evidence for repression” pgs 85-102. In Singer, J.L. (Ed.) (1990) Repression & Dissociation. Univ. of Chicago Press 3. Levy, B., & Anderson, M. (2002). Inhibitory processes and the control of memory retrieval. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 299-306. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 4. Wegner, D.: "You can't always think what you want." Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1992, 25, p. 193-225. New York: Academic Press. 5. Anderson, M., & Green, C., (2001). Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control. Nature, 410, 366-369. 6. Smith, S.M. et al. (submitted). Forgetting (and recovering) the seemingly unforgettable. 7. Smith, S.M., Gleaves, G., et al. (2003). Eliciting and comparing false and recovered memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 251-279. 5 8. Kihlstrom, J.F., (1985). Posthypnotic amnesia and the dissociation of memory. In G. H. Bower (1985). The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 10, (Pp 131176). Academic Press. 5. Sept 28 Construction and Distortion of Memories 1. Jones Chap. 4: Accuracy and confidence; p. 45 - 60 2. Jones Chap. 5: Construction and distortion of memories; p. 61 - 78. 3. Kunda Chap. 5: Memory: Reconstructing the past p. 161-209. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 4. Roediger, H. & McDermott, K.; Tricks of memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2000, 9(4), p. 123-127. 5. Owens, J., Bower, G. & Black, J. The “Soap Opera” effect in story recall. Memory & Cognition, 1979, 7, p. 185191. 6. Roediger, H. L. & McDermott, K. B. (2000). Distortions of memory. In E. Tulving & F. Craik (eds.). Handbook of memory research. (p. 149-164). New York: Oxford Univ. Press. 7. Mather, M., Shafir, E. , & Johnston, M. (2000): “Misremembrance of options past: Source monitoring and choice.” Psychological Science, 11( 2), p. 132-138. 6. Oct. 5 Recovery of Memories of Childhood Abuse 1. Loftus, E. F. (1993). “The reality of repressed memories”. Amer. Psychologist, 48, 518-537. 2. Scheflin, A.W & Brown, D. (1996). "Repressed memory of dissociative amnesia: What the science says." Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 143-188. 3. Piper, A., (1997). “What science says -- or doesn’t say-about repressed memories: A critique of Scheflin & Brown”. Journal of Psychiatry and the Law, , 25, 615-638. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 4. Spanos, N. P., (1996). "Child sexual abuse and the fate of abuse memories”. In Spanos, N.P., Multiple identities and false memories. (Chap. 7, p. 77-89). Amer. Psychol. Assoc. 5. Piper, A., Pope, H., & Borowiecki, J., (2000). “Custer’s Last Stand: Scheflin’ and Whitfield’s latest attempt to 6 salvage dissociative amnesia.”. Journal of Psychiatry and the Law, vol. 28, , pp 149-213. 6. Harvey, M.R. , & Herman, J. L. (1994). “Amnesia, partial amnesia, and delayed recall among survivors of childhood trauma.” Consciousness & Cognition, 3, 295306. 7. Briere, J. & Conte, J. (1993): Self-reported amnesia for abuse in adults molested as children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6(1), 21-31. 8. Roth, S., Friedman, M. J. ,et. al. (Eds.) Childhood Trauma Remembered – A report on the current scientific knowledge base and its application. Committee of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Flint, MI: Mallery Press. (year?) 9. Kihlstrom, J. F. (2005). An unbalanced balancing act: Blocked, recovered, and false memories in the laboratory and clinic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice In press. 10. Freud, S. (1896): The aetiology of hysteria. In Freud’s Collected Works 11. Hooper, J. (2002). Recovered Memories of Sexual Abuse: Scientific Research and Scholarly Resources. This is a 50-page Review Paper from his Website. 12. APA Working Group (1998). Final conclusions of the American Psychological Association Working Group on Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, 933-940. 7. Oct 12 False Memories [Mid-term Paper- Due in Class Today] 1. Jones Chap. 10; False memories. p. 155 - 176. 2. Loftus, E. (2003). Make-believe memories. American Psychologist, 58, 864-873. 3. Leo, R. A. (2001). “False confessions: Causes, consequences, and solutions”. In S.D. Westervelt & J.A. Humphrey (Eds.) Wrongly Convicted. (Chap. 2, p. 32-54), Rutgers University Press. Piscataway, NJ. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 4. Loftus, E., (1996) Memory distortions and false memory creation. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 24(3), 281-295. 5. Kassin, S.M. & Kiechel, K.L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions. Psychological Science, 7(3), p. 125-128. 7 6. Conti, R. P. (1999). “The psychology of false confessions.” The Journal of Credibility Assessment and Witness Psychology, 2(1), p 14-36. 7. S. Ceci et al. (1994). Repeatedly thinking about a nonevent: Source misattributions among preschoolers. Consciousness & Cognition, 3, p. 388-407 8. . Loftus, E. (1997). Memory for a past that never was. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 6(3), p. 6065. 9. Hyman, I. & Pentland, J. (1996). The role of mental imagery in the creation of false childhood memories. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 101-117. 10. Mazzoni, G. & Loftus, E. (1998). Dreaming, believing, and remembering. In J. de Rivera & T.R. Sarbin (Eds.) Believed in Imaginings. (p. 145-156). Washington, D. C.: APA Publishers. 11. McNally, R. (2001). The cognitive psychology of repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. Psychiatric Annals, 31(8), p. 509-514. 12. : Kassin, S.M. (2005). On the psychology of confessions. The American Psychologist, 60, 215-228. 8. Oct 19 Hypnosis and Memory 1. Jones, J. Chap. 11: Enhancing Retrieval; p. 177 - 202. 2. Kihlstrom, J.F. (2001) Hypnosis and Memory. Chap. in J.H. Byrne (Ed.) Learning and Memory, 2nd ed. New York: MacMillan. 3. Spanos, N.P. (1996) Chapters 2, 3, and 4. p. 17-56. The socio-cognitive interpretation of hypnosis, In Spanos, N.P. Multiple Identities and False Memories. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. OPTIONAL READING___________________________ 4. Dywan, J. & Bowers, K., (1983). The use of hypnosis to enhance recall. Science, 222, 184-185. 9. Oct 26 Stereotypes and the Social Psychology of Memory 1. Kunda, Chap. 8: Stereotypes, p. 314-393. 2. Kunda Chap. 2: Concepts & Social Knowledge, pp. 15 – 25 and 42-52. 3. Greenwald, A.G. (1980) The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35(7), p 603-618. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 8 4. Wegner, D.M, (1995). A computer network model of human transactive memory. Social Cognition, 3, 319-339. 5. Roediger, H. et al. (2001). Social contagion of memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, p. 365-371. 6. Ross, M. (1989). Relation of implicit theories to the construction of personal histories. Psychological Review, vol. 96( 2), p. 341-357. 7. Kunda, part of Chap. 6: Hot Cognition, p. 223-263. 8. Wegner, D.M., Erber, R., & Raymond, P., (1991). Transactive memory in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 923-929. 10. Nov. 2 Automatic Processes & Memory in Social Cognition 1. Jones, Chap. 8; Implicit recollection; p. 117 - 134. 2. Kunda, Chap. 7: Automatic Processes, 265-309. 3. Bargh, J., & Chartrand, T., (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462-479. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 4. Blair, I.V., Ma, J.E., & Lenton, A.P. (2001) Imagining stereotypes away. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 828-841. 5. Devine, P.G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled component. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5-18. 6. . Eberhardt, J.L., et al. (2004). Seeing black: Race, crime, and visual processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 876-893. 7. Rudman, L. A. et al. (1999). Measuring the automatic component of prejudice, Social Cognition, 17(4), 437-465. 8. R. Fazio & M. Olson (2003). Implicit measures in social cognition research. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297327. 11. Nov 9 Social Cognitive Views of Personality 1. Mischel, S., Shoda, E., & Smith, R.E., (2004). Introduction to Personality 7ed. New York: Wiley. Chap. 11: Analyzing and modifying behavior, 244-267. 2. Mischel, W., et al., (2004). Chap. 12: Social cognitive conceptions, 269-290. 3. Mischel, W., et al., (2004). Chap. 13: Social cognitive processes, 291-319. OPTIONAL READINGS___________________________ 9 4. Mischel, W & Shoda, E. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality. Psychological Review, 102, 246-268. 5. Andersen, S. & Chen S. (2002). The Relational Self: An Interpersonal Social Cognitive Theory Psychological Review, 109, 619-645. 6. Andersen, S.M., & Cole, S.W., (1990). "Do I know you”: The role of significant others in general social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 384-399. 7. Andersen, S.M., & Berk, M.S., (1998). Transference in everyday experience. Review of General Psychology, 2, 81-120. 8. McAdams, D.P. (2001) The psychology of life stories. The Review of General Psychology, 5, 100-122. 9. Pillemer, D.B. (2001) "Momentous events and the life story," The Review of General Psychology, 5, 123-134. 10. Pasupathi, M. (2001) "The social construction of the personal past," Psychological Bulletin, 5, 651-672. 12. Nov. 16 Anxiety Disorders including PTSD (4 Papers) 1. Clark, D. M. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social phobia. In Crozier, W. R. & Alden, L.E. (Eds.) International Handbook of Social Anxiety. (Chap. 18, p. 405-430). New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2. Mathews, A. & MacLeod, C. (2002). Induced processing biases have causal effects on anxiety. Cognition and Emotion, 12 (3), 331-354. 3. Brewin, C.R., Dalgleish, T., & Joseph, S. (1996). A dual representation theory of PTSD. Psychological Review, 103 (4), p. 670-686. 4. Ehlers, A. & Clark, D.M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345. OPTIONAL READINGS_ON ANXIETY DISORDERS 5. Clark, D. M. (1999). Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, (Supplement #1), p. S5-S27. 6. Mathews, A. & Mackintosh, B. (1998). A cognitive model of selective processing in anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 539-560. 10 7. Mathews, A. & Mackintosh, B. (2000). Induced emotional interpretation bias and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 602-615. 8. Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: Current status and future directions. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 101-108. 9. Mogg, K. et al. (2004). Selective attention to angry faces in clinical social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113 (1), 160-165. 10. Derryberry, D. & Reed, M. A. (2002). Anxiety-related attentional biases and their regulation by attentional control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111 (2), 225236. OPTIONAL READINGS ON PTSD_______________ 11. Ehlers, A., Hackmann, A., & Michael, T. (2004). Intrusive re-experiencing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory, 12, 403-415. 12. McNally, R. (1998). Experimental approaches to cognitive abnormality in PTSD. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 971-982. 13. Foa, E. B., et al. (1999). The posttraumatic cognitions inventory. Psychological Assessment, 11, 303-314. 14. van der Kolk, B. (1994). The body keeps the score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 1, 253-265. 13. Nov 23 NO CLASS – Thanksgiving Break BUT OPTIONAL READING on Multiple Personality 1. Spanos, N.P. (1996). The experimental creation of multiplicity. (Chap. 11, p. 131-144) In his book Multiple Identities and False Memories. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. 2. Spanos, N.P. (1996). Multiple personality disorder and social learning. (Chap. 18, p 231-246). In his book Multiple Identities and False Memories. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. 3. Cleaves, D.H., (1996). The sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 42-59. 11 14. Nov 30 Cognitive Theories of Depression 1. Beck, A. (1963). Thinking and depression: I: Ideosyncratic content and cognitive distortions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 9, 324-334. 2. Beck, A. (1964). Thinking and Depression: II: Theory and Therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 561-571. 3. Abramson, L.Y., Alloy, L.B., & Metalsky, G.I. (1989) Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358-372. 4. Gotlib, I.H. & Neubauer, D., (2001). Information processing approaches to the study of cognitive biases in depression. In Johnson, S.L. et al. Stress, coping, and depression. Pp 117-143. Erlbaum Publishers; Mahwah, NJ OPTIONAL READINGS________________________ Joorman, U. et al. (in press). Is this happiness I see? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 15. Dec 7 Last Class [FINAL TERM PAPER IS DUE TODAY] 1. Jones, Chap. 12: Bridging the canyon; p. 203 - 226. 2. Wright, R.G. (2005) Introduction. In Wright, R.H. & Cummings, N.A. (Eds.), Destructive Trends in Mental Health: The Well-Intentioned Path to Harm. (p. Xxiiixxxiv --11 pages). New York: Rutledge Publishers, 3. Lilienfeld, et al. (2005) Pseudoscience, nonscience and nonsense in clinical psychology: Dangers and remedies. In Wright, R.H., & Cummings, N.A. (Eds.), Destructive Trends in Mental Health: The Well-Intentioned Path to Harm. (p. 187-218). New York: Rutledge Publishers.