Battle Boston Massacre Major Riots and Military Engagements of the American Revolution Date & Location Basic Summary March 5, 1770 Colonists threw rocks and insults at British troops stationed Boston, MA at the customs house; Troops fired leaving 5 Americans dead, incl. Crispus Attucks (a black freeman) Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773 Boston, MA A group disguised as Mohawk Indians stormed ships in Boston Harbor and dumped 340 chests of tea worth L10,000 in Boston Harbor Battle of Lexington and Concord April 18-19, 1775 Lexington & Concord, MA British tried to capture Concord militia’s arms supply but were fired on in Lexington by colonial militia—British killed 8; Minutemen responded by confronting British at Concord and firing volleys at them all the way back to Boston Battle of Bunker Hill June 17, 1775 Boston, MA Colonial militiamen held Breed’s Hill bravely until British finally took it Battle of Long Island August 27, 1776 Long Island, NY Washington moved on General Howe’s army to prevent them from occupying New York City but suffered a blistering defeat Battles of Trenton and Princeton December 25, 1776 and January 3, 1777 Trenton & Princeton, NJ Washington’s forces secretly crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night from PA into NJ and surprise attacked 900 Hessian mercenaries; Another sneak attack allowed them to take the British outpost at Princeton Outcome Incident was used as propaganda to fuel tension between colonists and Britain; Showed first evidence of a mass armed movement; Paul Revere’s famous engraving Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts passed, which closed Boston Harbor, restricted town meetings, troops quartered in Boston; further escalation of tensions Famously called the “Shots Heard Around the World”; First official battle of the American Revolution; British win Lexington / Colonists win Concord British suffered 40% casualties against a much smaller force; British victory Howe forced Washington to retreat into New Jersey but did not take advantage of the opportunity to destroy the Continental Army; British victory Two much-needed colonial victories after a year of many defeats bolstered colonial spirits before the winter Battles of Bennington and Saratoga August 16, 1777 Bennington, NH October 17, 1777 Saratoga, NY Gen. Burgoyne led forces south from Canada in hopes Gen. Howe would lead his forces up from NY and cut the colonies off from each other; Howe did not get the communication in time and the NH militia defeated Burgoyne at Bennington, NH: Burgoyne regrouped and tried to head south into NY but was forced to surrender to General Horatio Gates Two colonial victories bolstered spirits again before winter; Victory convinced France that rebels were fortified and serious enough for them to join on the colonial side Washington and the Continental Army lost Philadelphia and dejectedly set up camp at Valley Forge where 2,500 men died from starvation and disease; Turning point in Washington’s future strategy Cornwallis surrendered his army of 6,000 men; proved to be the last major battle of the war and led to the peace treaty with Britain ending the war in 1783 Battles of Brandywine Creek, Paoli, and Germantown September 11, 1777 Paoli, PA September 20, 1777 Brandywine, PA October 4, 1777 Germantown, PA After Gates’ win at Saratoga, Washington felt pressured to score a major victory before the winter and prevent British troops from occupying Philadelphia; all three battles showed colonial inexperience and the inferior size of the colonial force Battle of Yorktown October 9. 1781 Yorktown, VA Gen. Cornwallis sought to establish a base on the Virginia coast to play out his southern strategy at Yorktown; Washington’s familiarity with the region played into his hands and in coordination with the French fleet surrounded Cornwallis’s army How were they able to pull this off? British supply lines and communication lines were too far to resupply and communicate effectively Conventional military methods were not effective in capturing vast American land Depth of American commitment to ideological cause The French Alliance turned the conflict into a global war and distracted Britain Washington realized that he could not win a conventional war, so he resolved to maintain his army and only engage on terms that were most favorable to the colonial cause. He also sought to control the countryside where a majority of the people lived. Civil war broke out and wreaked more havoc than British had planned.