Organic Material Synthesis

Organic Material Synthesis
Contributions by W. Oh, M. Otto, S. Kwak, M. Hilby, A. Lee
Problem Question. Will amount of heat applied to althaea officinalis affect the composition of the perfect s’more?
Alternating applications of heat and cooling can change the physical states of
matter. Organic material is particularly sensitive to heat due to the low melting
point of carbon. In conjunction with physical changes, the interaction of edible
organic material can result in change of a chemical nature which may change such
things as ‘taste’. Heat or direct flame can be the catalyst that can affect the
physical as well as the chemical characteristics of organic materials. In this
experiment you will be using the listed materials to create a fun, edible, and
creative science product. The purpose of this laboratory experiment is to
ascertain if heat, when applied to ordinary organic material, can cause a change in
physical or chemical appearance of ordinary organic material, and in the process,
effect a bond between such material.
Material, Procedure, and Experiment:
-- Corn syrup, glucose, hydrogen hydroxide, tartar hydrogenate, xanthan gum
{marshmallow} predetermined gram amount.
-- theobroma cacao, lecithin, saturated cacao hydrogenate, lactose, glucose
{chocolate} predetermined gram amount.
-- wheat, niacin, iron, thiamin mononitrate, folic acid, graham flour, fructose,
sodium hydrogen carbonate, calcium phosphate {graham cracker}
predetermined gram amount.
-- bunsen burner w/striker
-- aluminum foil (unspecified amount)
-- skewer or eating utensil
-- scale or balance
-- tongs
-- ring stand with platform
-- paper plate/resting material
-- weighing paper or substitute
Note: This laboratory experiment may present a danger from direct flame and
conducted heat. Appropriate safety precautions should be taken.
Break one Graham cracker into halves and place onto a square of foil. Place two
pieces of chocolate (Hersey’s candy bar type) and a selected amount of marshmallow on
top of the Graham cracker. Prior to placing in heat determine the mass of the cracker,
chocolate, and marshmallow mixture and record in column #1. Construct a three-ring
stand with ceramic screen. Ignite Bunsen burner (Caution: Open flame and heated
material may present burn hazard) and place the burner beneath the ceramic screen.
page two – Its ‘S’more Lab
Apply heat to foil holding the mixture for 2 minute 30 seconds. Determine a second
mass determination and record in column #2. Observe any unusual smells or change in
physical appearance and record as Observations in appropriate paragraph. After second
mass determination as recorded in column #2, record the time that the sample is replaced
onto the screen and record the time in column #3. Apply heat until desired physical
change occurs in the prepared sample. Record time that sample is taken from the flame
and record in column #4. Determine a final mass of the mixture/substance and record in
column #5. If there are any unique observations, record them in appropriate paragraph.
The final product should visually illustrate a bonding of the organic material of
the mixture/substance by application of indirect heat. Marshmallow may be bonded to
chocolate or cracker. An alternate method of using a fork to directly place the
marshmallow in flame is acceptable however the marshmallow mass has to be included
with the Graham cracker and chocolate mix. The ‘heated’ marshmallow may be placed
on the cracker/chocolate from the fork but note if any marshmallow remains on the
utensil. If the latter unorthodox method is used, the longest procedure time must be
recorded as data. Ensure the marshmallow turns “golden brown” and not charcoal black.
(HINT: If a marshmallow on a metal fork is used, determine the mass of the fork without
the marshmallow and with the marshmallow to determine the amount left on the fork).
Allow the substance to cool and dispose of as directed by instructor.
During the process record all initial characteristics of materials involved. Record
the visible changes of each as energy is applied. Record all the initial physical properties
of each and note if there are any indications of a chemical change. The lab resulted in
certain questions:
What is the raw mass of each substance?
What is the resulting mass, pre-heat?
What is the resulting mass, post heat?
Are there similarities between a burnt marshmallow and charcoal?
Were there any noticeable reactions when heat was applied?
What was the time disparity between heat applied and any noticeable
Was there any noticeable response by the graham wafer when heat was
Which elements are the ‘reactants’ and which are the ‘products’?
What are ‘physical characteristic of a s’more: what are ‘chemical
characteristics of a s’more?
NOTE: To avoid any contaminated waste and/or residue, it may be best if all organic material was
consumed on premises to avoid possible contamination throughout the building except in those cases
where samples are disseminated to appropriate test subjects to ensure the product is safe to
distribute to the general population.
page three – Its ‘S’more Lab
Data/Calculations/ and Analysis:
1. Clean area where the lab will be conducted. Ensure all safety precaution are
observed for the duration of the experiment. Note and record the mass of the
samples of the Graham cracker, chocolate and marshmallow.
2. Combine all samples, note, and record mass on combined samples.
3. Note and Record the mass’s after specified increments.
4. Record the time the experiment is completed.
5. Record the final mass.
NOTE: If the sample transmutes to a ‘charcoal’ appearing mass, it has been
exposed to excessive heat energy and could possibly become hazardous besides
looking ‘nasty”.
(sample data table)
Mass #1
Attempt #1
Mass #2
Final Mass
Attempt #2
Attempt #3
Is there any reason why the mass may change after heat is applied?
Does the data reflect a chemical or physical change?
Is the sense of smell a determining factor in the experiment?
Is the change in the marshmallow, graham cracker, or the chocolate a
visible process?
page four – Its ‘S’more Lab
1. Does the time the substance remains untouched prior to disposal determine the
‘quality’ of the material?
2. Is the product mass greater or less than the reactant mass? Explain why the product is
greater or less than the reactant.
3. Do all substances begin to change their physical states at the same time? If not,
explain your answer.
4. Is the resultant substance a heterogeneous or homogenous mixture? Does the length
of time that heat is applied contribute to the nature substance?
5. Is the time required for the material to change state determined by the manner in
which the heat was applied?
6. If the heat is applied for an excessive amount of time, is there a “blackish” substance
that is formed? If so, what is the substance?
7. Does the bond that is formed change the identity of any of the materials?
8. Does the exercise have a limit on how many times the experiment may be performed
assuming the materials were always present?