Kosovo-Emergency Rehabilitation Project
Project Name Kosovo-Emergency Transport Rehab. Project
Region Europe and Central Asia Region
Sector Other Transportation
Project ID KOPE70295
Implementing Agency
Central Government Building,
Rr.Nënë Tereza, Prishtina, Kosovo
Contact Person: Michel Gontier
Tel: 381 38 500 223
Fax: 1 212 963 8442
Environment Category C
Date PID Prepared March 31, 2000
Projected Appraisal Date May 15, 2000
Projected Board Date October 9, 2000
1. Country and Sector Background
1. The road network of Kosovo consists of about 3,800 kilometers. of roads, including
623km of main roads (all paved), and 1,300km of regional roads, of which 920km are
paved. Most of the roads have been built or rebuilt in the sixties. Road design
standards are usually adequate, with the exception of the width of the roadways and
shoulders, which are usually very narrow. Network density is relatively low, at about
0.35km/km2. Adequate development and maintenance of the road network in Kosovo
has been an issue since the 1970s. While the road network has been developed, road
maintenance has been persistently under-funded. This has resulted in a continuous
deterioration of the road network. The Spring 1999 conflict has had limited impact on
the road network. However, the network is in very poor shape primarily because of a
pervasive lack of adequate maintenance since the seventies (aggravated by rather
rigorous winters), virtually no maintenance over the last 10 years, as well as heavy
military and civilian traffic since last year. Damage observed include disparition of
the asphalt layers on localised sections, landslides, numerous potholes and cracks, as
well as water running on the road surface.
2. Thirteen bridges were damaged during the conflict. However, bypasses/temporary
bridge structures are in place on all bridges seriously damaged. All bridges on the
main and regional road networks which have not suffered direct conflict-related
damage seem to be in fair condition, despite the lack of maintenance. Finally, over the
years, most of the horizontal and vertical signalization has disappeared. In summary,
about 25 percent of the main and regional road networks, with a part which needs to
be seriously rehabilitated and in some cases reconstructed, while most sections need
to be urgently maintained, to avoid further damage which: (i) could rapidly lead to the
closure of certain road sections to civilian traffic; and (ii) would require, in the near
future, the complete reconstruction of the damaged sections, an investment that
Kosovo cannot afford to undertake at this point.
Road Management Set Up3. Until 1989, planning and administration of the main
and regional road networks were handled principally by a provincial Road
Organization, staffed with about 550 employees, and headed by a Board whose
members represented various groups having an interest in roads. Following the end of
provincial autonomy in 1989, and until June 1999, the management of the Road
Organization reverted mostly Serb Kosovar staff. During this period, resources
allocated to the rehabilitation and maintenance were limited, and, most probably, nonexistent during the conflict. Following the departure of Serb Kosovar staff, the Road
Organization was re-staffed spontaneously in June 1999 by Kosovar Albanians, some
of whom were part of the staff prior to 1989.
Traffic 4. Since the beginning of the conflict, shifts in traffic composition and
frequency have been observed. For example, the road network has been used by
heavier vehicles than in the past, including KFOR vehicles and transit traffic-- most of
which have an axle load above the standard 10-tons axle load limit used in road
design in Kosovo. In addition, there has been a jump in vehicle ownership following,
inter alia, refugees' return. The new traffic composition and volume put an extra
burden on already exhausted road structures, as well as on networks under the roads
such as water and sewerage systems. In addition, there has been much more traffic on
certain local roads due to persons having sought shelter in mountainous areas. A
number of gravel and dirt roads have been over-used and as a result, have numerous
potholes. At this stage, it is not yet clear whether the main road network capacity will
need to be increased in the medium-term, as it seems that current traffic levels on the
main network do not generally exceed 6,000 to 8,000 vehicles per day. However,
there are a number of congestion spots which would need immediate attention, (such
as the border crossing with Macedonia and some of the road sections surrounding
Pristina), and shoulders should be widened in specific locations to increase traffic
fluidity. A first structured traffic count will be organized by the Road Administration
for the Spring/Summer of 2000. The results of the counts will provide important input
to plan further road maintenance/rehabilitation programs.
2. Objectives
The primary objective of the Project is to contribute to the reconstruction and
development of Kosovo, through the reestablishment of a road maintenance
administration and financing mechanisms, as well as urgent repairs to the network. In
addition, the Project could look at ways of supporting activities in priority areas such
as: (i) funding mechanisms for road maintenance activities; (ii) decrease traffic
congestions at some specific locations; and (iii) increase road safety.
3. Rationale for Bank's Involvement
The proposed project supports a key objective in the reconstruction strategy of
Kosovo prepared by the European Commission and the Bank, namely the
rehabilitation of the road network, a pre-requisite for economic recovery. In addition,
the Bank has been seen as a reliable partner able to build a consensus among the
different actors involved in the sector on the content of the road rehabilitation
program and the role of the different actors. Finally, the Bank activities will
complement those of the other donors, as donors will essentially focus on heavy road
rehabilitation on teh most deteriorated road sections, while the Bank will support road
maintenance activities on about half of the main network, to prevent further
deterioration and delay as long as possible reconstruction activities which would
mobilize a significant part of the scarce resources likely to be available for road
maintenance in the near-term.
4. Description
The proposed Project will: (i) support the set up of and strengthen a road management
capacity in Kosovo; (ii) restore local contracting capacity for road/bridge
rehabilitation and summer/winter maintenance; (iii) support emergency maintenance
and rehabilitation works on the main network over a two to three years period; (iv)
support the establishment of a sustainable financing mechanism for road maintenance
activities; and (v) provide assistance in priority areas which could include treatment of
traffic congestions and road safety issues.
5. Financing
Total ( US$m)
Total Project Cost
6. Implementation
It is proposed that implementation be undertaken by the Road Administration, under
the supervision of UNMIK. This implementation structure would be available to assist
any donor. It is advised to support the Road Administration with international project
implementation expertise, at least during the first year of implementation.
7. Sustainability
Rehabilitation works will be carried out according to high quality standard, and it is
expected that the rehabilitation contracts laid with local contractors will essentially
help restoring maintenance capacity. In addition, the project will support the
reestablishment of a lean and efficient Road Administration. However, it is underlined
that an adequate level of funding to road maintenance will be key to ensure long-term
sustainability of the activities funded under the project. While the project will focus
on identifying and implementing adequate funding mechanisms for road maintenance
(e.g. introduction of user charges), the size of the Kosovo budget is expected, at least
in the short-term, to significantly constrain the actual level of road maintenance
8. Lessons learned from past operations in the country/sector
The recent events in Kosovo have resulted in such major changes in the
organizational and operational structures of Kosovo that lessons learned previously in
the former Republic of Yugoslavia have little relevance. However, experience from
emergency road rehabilitation projects in other post-conflict situations in the region
shows that: (i) the scope of emergency operations and related procurement rules
should be kept as simple as possible; (ii) involve as much as possible local structure
and knowledge in project preparation; (iii) provide local structure and involve foreign
assistance only when required; and (iv) ensure a continuous dialogue between donors
and local structures to build trust and transparency and ensure efficient project
9. Program of Targeted Intervention (PTI) N
10. Environment Aspects (including any public consultation)
Issues: The project will focus exclusively on road and bridge rehabilitation activities.
As such, it is expected that the project will have a positive impact on environment, as
it will allow for the removal of bridge parts felt into rivers, cleaning of road shoulders
and restoration of drainage systems. However, any subcomponent which present an
opportunity for environmental enhancement will be designed accordingly, and the
implementation of the project will be monitored to ensure that there is no degradation
to the environment.
11. Contact Point:
Aymeric-Albin Meyer
Transport Specialist
The World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington D.C. 20433
Telephone: (202) 473 7101
Fax: (202) 614 0900
12. For information on other project related documents contact:
The InfoShop
The World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20433
Telephone: (202) 458-5454
Fax: (202) 522-1500
Web: http:// www.worldbank.org/infoshop
Note: This is information on an evolving project. Certain components may not be
necessarily included in the final project.
Processed by the InfoShop week ending April 14, 2000.