STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABEŞ-BOLYAI, PHYSICA, SPECIAL ISSUE, 2003 MICROWAVE ASSISTED SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF SOME BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS L. LEAVES Simona Cobzac1 , Olah Neli3, Carmen Batiu1, S. Gocan1, E. Surducan2 Univ.Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Chimie şi Inginerie Chimica,Cluj-Napoca 2 Nat.Inst.of R&D for Isotopic and Molec. Techn, POB 700, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 3 SC PlantExtrakt SRL, Radaia, Romania 1 Abstract The Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves are useful in curing different diseases due to its hipoglycemiant, diuretic and antibacterial action. This paper presents the identification and quantification of arbutine and flavonoids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and hyperoside) from leaves extracts obtained in different conditions. Microwave extraction procedure was realised with different power, time and solvents compositions. The obtained results were compared to identify the changes in number of extracted compounds or the degradation of compounds. The quantitative content of arbutine and flavonoids were determined by TLC – photodensitometry using the calibration curve method. The results were compared to evaluating the extraction performance. The quality and quantity of bioactive compound is varying with extraction condition. Introduction Extraction of bioactive compound from plant tissue is the most important step in the preparation of plant material for chromatographic analysis. The technique and solvents involved must assure a good (total) transfer of compounds from solid matrix to liquid matrix to obtain a representative, selective and pure extract. The main techniques used today are the Soxhlet extraction and the maceration. The last few years were introduced some modern techniques e.g. sonication, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), pressurized solvent extraction (PSE), microwave-assisted extraction(MAE), and superfluid extraction(SFE) [1, 2]. The obtained extract can be analyzed using chromatographic techniques gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) for volatile compounds and HPLC and thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the other of compounds. Generally, because the drawbacks of HPLC, for routine plant extracts TLC is widely used. The condition of TLC analysis for plants extracts are established considering the contained active compounds [3-8]. SIMONA COBZAC, OLAH NELI, CARMEN BATIU, S. GOCAN, E. SURDUCAN Experimental The plant extracts was obtained using three different extraction techniques: Soxhlet extraction, hot solvent extraction and microwave assisted extraction. Bioactive compound extraction The dryed Vaccinium myrtillus (Fares Bio Vital, Bucureşti) leaves were grinded using a blender and seaved using the seave no. 2. The lipophilic compounds and chlorophile were Soxhlet-extracted with CCl4. Flavonoids and arbutin were extracted in three different ways with methanol. For each type of extraction techniques a quantity (2 gr) of epuised plant material were weigthed. Extract A – obtained after concentration the Soxhlet extract with a rotavapor and adjusting the final volume to 10 mL. Extract B – were obtained by refluxing the plant material 30 min. with 25 mL methanol. After centrifugation the volume were reduced by rotavapor and than the final volume was bring up to 10 ml. Extract C – the plant material was subjected two times to microwave extraction with 10 mL methanol (table 1). The unified methanolic extracts were evaporated using a rotavapor and than bring up to a final volume of 10 mL. Table 1. Condition for microwave assisted extraction of Vaccinium myrtillus leaves. Power factor Time (sec) Temperature range (0C) 9x80 240 32-50 9x80 240 50-75,3 Metanolic solutions (1mL) of arbutine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and hyperoside were also subjected to a microwave treatment to determine if the microwave radiations induce changing in molecular structure. TLC separation, identification and quantitation conditions TLC separation was performed using Kiselgel 60 F254 plates (Merck) and a solvent mixture of ethyl acetat - methanol – water (77:13:10, v/v) as mobile phase. The migration distance was 12 cm. The samples ( A, B and C Extracts) and the reference solutions (caffeic acid-1.05 mg/mL, chlorogenic acid-0.97 mg/mL, arbutin-5 mg/mL and hyperosid1.03 mg/mL) were manual aplied as bands (20L) and respective as spots (10L) using a Hamilton microseringe. For quantitation were applied 20 L spots from reference solution with different concentration. After development the plates were dried in a gentile air stream and the obtained chromatograms were inspected in UV light (254 nm) and after spraying with NTS + PEG 400 at 366 nm. The photodensitograms were obtained by scanning the plates at 254 nm in reflection mode with a Desaga CD 60 apparatus. The in-situ UV-Vis spectra were obtained in the 200 – 500 nm range. The total flavonoids was also determined using the aluminum chloride spectrophotometric method. The absorbance were determined after 15 min. at 430nm. The calibration curve was achieved using rutin as reference compound. MICROWAVE ASSISTED SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF SOME BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS … Results and discussion In figure 1 are presented the chromatograms of A, B and C Extracts near the reference solution at 254 and 366 nm and in figure 2 the photodensitograms at 245nm. In the table 2 are presented the equations for calibration curve for the analised compounds and for rutin. The analysis of the reference solution subjected to microwave treatment show no change in molecular structure. The results obtained after quantitative TLC determination for the analysed bioactive compound and for the flavonic total content are presented in table 3. Figure 1. The chromatograms for Soxhlet extract - A, refluxing extract –B, microwave extract -C and reference solution of chlorogenic acid (1), arbutin (2), hyperosid (3), caffeic acid (4) at 254 nm and 366 nm. Figure 2. The photodensitograms for A, B and C extracts overlapped on the reference solution (1, 2, 3,4) at 254 nm. SIMONA COBZAC, OLAH NELI, CARMEN BATIU, S. GOCAN, E. SURDUCAN Tabele.2. Rf values and calibration curve equation for the analyzed compound and rutin . Compound Rf Calibration curve equation Chlorogenic acid 0.18 Y=924.98(±780.14)+6466.71(±1772.41)X Caffeic acid 0.82 Y=345.4(±1445.11)+8290.98(±3032.97)X Hyperosid 0.57 Y=59.5 (±1224.09)+991.12(±295.26)X Arbutin 0.49 Y=676.65 (±1624.29)+12398.42(±3490.08)X Rutin --Y = 0.06(±0.12)+1.92(±1.1) X r2 0.989 0.981 0.987 0.988 0.982 Table 3. The determinate bioactive components concentration in the three different types of extracts. Sample Concentration (mg/mL) Chlorogenic acid Caffeic acid Hyperosid Arbutin Total Flavonoids A 0.42 --0.26 --0.48 B 0.44 --0.24 --0.39 C 0.07 0.02 0.09 0.89 0.16 Conclusions The chromatograms presented in figure 1 and the results from table 4 show a great similarity between extract A (Soxhlet) and B (refluxing). The microwave extract differs very much from the previous two and can be observed a change in the quantity of extracted compounds (caffeic acid and arbutin). 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