Cladidium bolanderi - USDA Forest Service

Common Name: Bolander's cladidium lichen
Scientific Name: Cladidium bolanderi
Recent synonyms: Lecanora bolanderi, Lecanora thamnitis
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Lecanoromycetes
Order: Lecanorales
Family: Lecanoraceae
Technical Description: Thalli variously described as crustose,
subfruticose, "dwarf fruticose" (Ryan 1989), or fruticose. Photosynthetic
partner (photobiont, phycobiont) is a green alga (Trebouxia). Thallus
grayish olive to grayish greenish yellow, a compact mass of granules
producing densely-packed, blunt, stiff, solid and cartilaginous, simple or
dichotomous coralloid branches 0.5-1 mm wide and 5-10 (15) mm tall,
the surfaces roughened (scabrid) but not granular, covered toward the
tips with chalky white or yellowish surficial deposits (pruina). Algae of
the thallus scattered in the medulla, not forming a definite layer.
Apothecia frequent, on tips of the branches, adnate to sessile, the thick
(to 0.5 mm) white rim contrasting with the pinkish, yellow, or yellowbrown disk, the disk with white pruina. Filaments surrounding the asci
(paraphyses) unbranched, straight, distinct. Spores unicellular, (8) 10-14
(16) x (5) 6-8 µm. Older herbarium specimens turn orange, brown, or
Chemistry: Thallus K+ yellow, KC+ yellowish, with usnic and isousnic
acids. Reports of arthothelin and thiophanic acid were errors based on
Lecanora phryganitis (Ryan 1989).
Distinctive characters: (1) Subfruticose thallus of short, white, densely
packed coralloid branches, (2) apothecia with pink or yellow-brown disks,
on (3) rocks of coastal bluffs. Similar species: Ochrolechia is white but
(1) is crustose and lacks the subfruticose to fruticose branches, (2) has
branched paraphyses, and (3) is usually C+ red. Lecanora phryganitis is
(1) greenish-yellow to yellowish, has (2) branches soft, crumbly, and with
a granular surface, (3) algae of the thallus in a definite layer, (4)
apothecia lateral along the stems, and (5) the thallus KC+ red-orange, C+
orange, with thiophanic acid, zeorin, and usnic acid. Other descriptions
and illustrations: Ryan 1989: 701-705; Tucker and Thiers 1998; Brodo
et al. 2001: 385; McCune 2006; California Lichen Society 2007.
Life History: Details for Cladidium bolanderi are not documented.
Habitats are exposed to high winds and the subfruticose thallus may
enable vegetative dispersal by fragmentation in addition to dispersal of
the fungal partner (mycobiont) by spores.
Range, Distribution, and Abundance: Currently known from along the
immediate coast of Alaska, Oregon, and California. Probably with a North
Pacific or Amphi-Beringian distribution. Originally known only from
California and Oregon (Ryan 1989; McCune et al. 1997). Ryan (1989)
discounted an 1899 report from Alaska, although he did not examine the
specimen. A recent report from the Bering Sea (Talbot et al. 2001), if
correctly identified, confirms its occurrence in Alaska and potentially
extends its range to the Russian Far East.
National Forests: documented on the Siuslaw NF. BLM Districts:
suspected on the Coos Bay and Salem districts.
Rare, probably undercollected.
Habitat: Forming small patches on a variety of rock types (sandstone,
chert, granite, serpentine) on coastal bluffs and coastal grasslands (Ryan
1989; Robertson and Robertson (no date)). Presumably nitrophilous
because of its occurrence where birds roost. Elevations from sea level to
1000 feet. In the Pacific Northwest, forest types are Quercus Umbellularia californica, Festuca ammobia (= F. rubra ssp. arenicola), and
Picea sitchensis associations. Associated lichens include Arthonia
phaeobaea, Buellia spp., Caloplaca coralloides, C. rosei, Collema spp.,
Lecanora muralis, L. pinguis, L. phryganitis, Lecidella asema, Niebla spp.,
Phaeophyscia spp., Physcia spp., Punctelia stictica, and Xanthoria
candelaria (Ryan 1989).
Threats: Rock climbing, trail or road work, mountain biking, and hiking
are possible threats to Cladidium bolanderi locally but probably not over
large areas of habitat. Some coastal bluffs receive heavy recreational use
but others are inaccessible or seldom visited. Because of its subfruticose
or fruticose thallus, air pollution may be a long-term threat. Its habitat is
subject to fog interception and accumulation of aerosols. Long-term air
quality monitoring could identify possible threats and impacts.
Conservation Considerations: Consider revisiting all known localities
and monitoring the status of populations. Search for new populations on
federal lands. Protection of known sites from recreational activities,
particularly trail or road work, hiking, mountain biking, and rock
climbing, will minimize risk to populations.
Conservation rankings: Global: G3; National: NNR. Oregon Natural
Heritage Information Center: List 2 (S1).
Preparer: John A. Christy, with edits by Daphne Stone and Rob Huff
Date Completed: May 2008; updated April 2009 with the addition of Attachment 2
(Map of Oregon and Washington locations).
List of References
Map of locations of Cladidium bolanderi in Oregon and
Attachment 1 – List of References
Links are provided below to guide you to additional information that may
be helpful in understanding this species.
Included are links to
illustrations, photographs, maps and ranking information used to
determine threats and status by State Heritage Programs.
Brodo, I. M., S. D. Sharnoff and S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North
America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 795 pp.
California Lichen Society. 2007. Photo of Cladidium bolanderi, Rocky
Point field trip, Marin County.
Kristinsson, H., E.S. Hansen & E. Zhurbenko. 2006. Panarctic lichen
checklist. CAFF-Flora Group. 53 pp.
McCune, B. 2006. Key to the lichen genera of the Pacific Northwest.
Online version, Oregon State University.
_______, R. Rosentreter & A. Debolt. 1997. Biogeography of rare lichens
from the coast of Oregon. Pp. 234-241 in: T.N. Kaye, A. Liston, R.M.
Love, D.L. Luoma, R.J. Meinke & M.V. Wilson (eds.). Conservation and
management of native plants and fungi. Native Plant Society of
Oregon, Corvallis. 296 pp.
McDonald, L. 2001. Heritage rank status factors for Cladidium bolanderi.
NatureServe Explorer.
Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center. 2007. Rare, threatened and
endangered species of Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information
Center, Oregon State University. Portland. 100 pp.
Robertson, J. & R. Robertson. (no date). Lichens of Bodega Marine
Reserve and Bodega Bay area. University of California-Davis.
Ryan, B.D. 1989. The genus Cladidium (Lichenized Ascomycotina)
Mycotaxon 34: 697-712
Talbot, S.S., S.L. Talbot, J.W. Thomson & W.B. Schofield. 2001. Lichens
from St. Matthew and St. Paul Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska. Bryologist
104: 47-58.
Tucker, S. & H. Thiers. 1998. Key to crustose lichen genera of California.
Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 5 (1).
_______ & B.D. Ryan. 2006. Revised catalog of lichens, lichenicoles, and
allied fungi in California. Constancea 84. University and Jepson
Herbaria, University of California, Berkeley.
USDA Forest Service National Lichens and Air Quality Database and
Attachment 2 - Map of locations of Cladidium bolanderi in Oregon
and Washington