Using DITA learning topics for information modeling and learning

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Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with HAICTA 2008
1
Using DITA learning topics for information modeling and learning
content development for disaster risk preparedness in the agricultural
sector
Thomas Zschocke1, Jan Beniest2, and Juan Carlos Villagrán de León1
1
United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security, Bonn, Germany
2
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya
Different kinds of technical and learning content are created for training and education on agricultural topics as global public goods by
various international agencies, such as the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) or the United Nations University (UNU). The provision of research-based
knowledge through technical and policy communications, training and education is critical to develop the capacity of researchers,
policymakers, practitioners, and other actors involved with international agricultural research and development. In this proof-ofconcept study, we examine the feasibility of using the Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) for learning content
development on disaster risk preparedness in the agricultural sector to enhance the reuse of existing content components for different
audiences, purposes and formats. DITA is a modular, structured, XML framework for authoring topic-oriented, information-typed
content that can be reused and single-sourced in a variety of ways. DITA is also an architecture for creating new information types and
describing new information domains based on existing types and domains through a process called specialization. Just recently, a
specialization for learning and training content has been proposed as a general top-level design for structured, intent-based authoring
of learning content with good learning architecture.
Index Terms—Documentation, educational technology, knowledge representation, learning systems
Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with HAICTA 2008
I. INTRODUCTION
T
Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) was
released by IBM in 2001 as an XML-based information
architecture for authoring and delivering modular technical
information [1]. DITA was developed to address challenges in
managing technical communication caused by the advent and
growth of the World Wide Web by offering an alternative
method for better handling the increased demand for
multichannel publishing, shorter software documentation
development cycles, increased demand for customized and
modularized content delivery, and increased linking and crossreferencing of information through hyperlinks. Since 2004 the
Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information
Standards (OASIS) maintains DITA as an open standard. It
released the most recent architectural [2] and language
specifications [3] (version 1.1) in August 2007.
When new kinds of information types or new domains are
needed, DITA can be extended through a process called
specialization [4]. This process permits users to adapt standard
structures through domain-specific semantic and structural
specializations within a specific domain, such as learning
materials or policy and procedure documents, while reusing as
much of the existing design. Currently, OASIS is preparing the
release of version 1.2, which will also include a DITA
specialization for learning and training content in the formal
design plan. DITA learning content is based on the topicbased, modular approach of the DITA information typing
architecture suitable for creating reusable learning objects
(RLOs) [5].
The modular approach to managing content permits authors
to create consistent information and maintain a standardsbased architecture that supports interchange with other teams
but also with other organizations [4], [6]. Content can be
created in one part of an organization or by one kind of
organization can be reused elsewhere, with minimal, and
possibly automated, preprocessing. This flexibility also helps
organizations for reaching a global audience. Organizations
with a need to globalize their products or services that require
substantial supporting content, can benefit from reuse and
repurposing capabilities of DITA. It supports processes of
managing information that can be applied to translation and
localization of content in a similar fashion [7], [8].
This paper presents a proof-of-concept study of the potential
for using DITA in preparing learning content on disaster risk
reduction in order to enable reuse of this material by
international development organizations in the agricultural
sector.
HE
II. BACKGROUND
The increasing number and scale of natural disasters, which
have resulted in massive losses of life and long-term negative
consequences for vulnerable societies worldwide, has called
upon interventions from the international community. In its
continued effort to address this issue, the United Nations
2
General Assembly agreed to implement the International
Strategy for Disaster reduction (ISDR), a multi-stakeholder
platform as a follow-up of the International Decade for Natural
Disaster Reduction of the 1990s [9]. With this decision the UN
also called for renewed efforts to contribute to capacity
building for disaster preparedness. In the Hyogo Framework
for Action 2005-2015 as the essential guide for implementing
the ISDR, the use of knowledge, innovation and education is
one of the priorities for action to address gaps and challenges
in knowledge management and education on disaster risk
reduction (DRR) [10]. Key activities in this area include the
promotion of including disaster risk reduction knowledge and
implementing disaster preparedness programs in schools and
institutions of higher education, and the development of
training and learning programs in DDR targeted at specific
sectors. The framework also highlights the importance of using
information and communication technologies (ICTs) in
particular for training and for sharing and dissemination of
information among different categories of users.
Disaster risk reduction is also an intrinsic element of the
United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable
Development (UNDESD) from 2005–2015. The Framework
for the UNDESD International Implementation Scheme [11]
highlights the positive effects of education for DRR to help
affected communities to strengthen their preparedness and
improve their strategies for disaster prevention and mitigation.
For instance, the United Nations University (UNU)
contributes to the International Flood Initiative (IFI) under the
leadership of the United Nations Education, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World
Meteorological Organization (WMO) to build the capacity in
countries to understand and better respond to floods [12],
which is seen as a contribution to both ISDR and UNDESD.
One of the authors of the UNU Institute for Environment and
Human Security (UNU-EHS) is a also a member of a regional
working group of the UNESCO Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission (IOC), which shares components
of interests of the ISDR, notably risk reduction against marine
hazards [13].
In the agricultural sector DRR is also of major importance
to ensure food security by helping communities to prevent and
be prepared for natural disasters through human capacity
strengthening activities [14], [15]. The important role of
education to strengthen disaster risk preparedness was further
highlighted in the joint UNESCO and FAO flagship
partnership on education for rural development [16]. This
applies equally to the Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which provides its content
knowledge as global public goods to its partners working in
the agricultural sector in developing countries to strengthen
their human capacities. For instance, one of the research
priorities of the CGIAR [17] is concerned with the promotion
of options to reduce poverty and vulnerability of poor farming
communities and those in marginal areas that are often
disproportionately affected by natural and human-induced
Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with HAICTA 2008
disasters. The United Nations University Institute for
Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) is conducting
policy-related research to develop knowledge-based
approaches for reducing vulnerability and environmental risks
[18]. For instance, UNU-EHS explores the linkages between
environmental change, hazards, risks and vulnerability, and
develops prevention and response strategies with the context
of sustainable development. This knowledge can be prepared
and made available in such a way that it can be reused by
organizations such as the CGIAR, but also by universities and
regional training centers to strengthen their curricula in
integrated disaster and risk management. Here, a learning
content strategy based on DITA would be advantageous to
promote reuse not only within an organization, but also
between different organizations.
As stated in the 2008 World Development Report of the
World Bank on agriculture for development [19], content and
education alongside with
infrastructure improvements
information and communication technology (ICT) for access
in rural areas in developing countries are critical for rural
development and increased agricultural production. Content
and education are key factors affecting the return to ICTs in
agricultural production. More importantly the content created
locally should be linked to institutional innovations to provide
extension services that are responsive to farmers’ needs. A
background paper for the 2008 World Development Report
commissioned by the Science Council of the CGIAR states
that the level of skills and education of farmer communities is
also affecting the impact of scientific and technological
progress in improving agricultural production in developing
countries [20]. This applies to farmers, information providers
(extension agencies) and agricultural researchers alike. The
report states that content creation at the local level should be
linked to institutional innovations to provide extension
services that are responsive to farmer’s needs. Finally,
developing countries need strong programs to train agricultural
scientists and engineers who are critical for effective
agricultural research programs that are relevant for their home
countries.
This snapshot of activities addressing DRR shows the scope
of collaboration between various international organizations
and their national partners. The sharing of knowledge about
DRR across different domains and among various
organizations could be greatly enhanced by taking advantage
of open technology standards that facilitate the exchange of
information. UNU-EHS is currently exploring the ability of
DITA to enhance the reusability of its content materials on
disaster risk reduction so that it can be incorporated by other
international organizations in the agricultural sector. Together
with the CGIAR it has investigated how DITA can be used to
develop learning content on risk management based on the
research of UNU-EHS that can be reused as an additional
component by the CGIAR in its agricultural training and
education.
3
III. INFORMATION MODELING WITH DITA
A. Basic features of DITA
DITA is based on the four basic principles of topic
orientation, information typing, specialization, and inheritance
process [3], [20]. DITA treats the topic as the smallest
maintainable unit of reuse. Topics are defined as a unit of
information with a title and some kind of content, which is
short enough to be specific to a single subject or answer a
single question, but long enough to make sense on its own and
be created as a unit. DITA provides a generic or unspecialized
topic from which the three basic specialized topics are derived,
that is, task, concept and reference (see Fig. 1). The topicoriented approach to authoring conceptual and task
information has been adapted from the instructional design
technique of Carroll’s minimalism, which focuses on
identifying the smallest amount of instruction needed to
successfully completing a task or providing the basic
knowledge of a concept [22].
[Insert Fig. 1. DITA topic, concept, task, and reference information types]
Information typing relates to the mechanism of describing
content independent of how that content is delivered. It deals
with identifying types of topics that contain distinct kids of
information, such as concept, task or reference. Content is
authored based on these structures and semantics that remain
valid regardless of how the information is presented to the end
user. The notion of information typing is derived from the
work on Horn’s approach of structured writing called
information mapping [23], [24]. Structured writing refers to a
method to enhance the accessibility and comprehension of text
through a set of principles and criteria to guide the writing,
chunking and labeling of information into cognizable, modular
units and aggregate them into groups of information blocks
that form maps. Horn has devised a set of seven basic
information types consisting of procedure, process, structure,
concept, fact, classification, and principle. The topic-oriented
paradigm is incorporated in DITA through the use of so called
ditamaps based on Horn’s notion of information maps and
information blocks, which represent how topics should be
organized for particular information deliverables.
Specialization in DITA refers to the extension of the two
main authoring units of DITA, that is, topics and maps, by
creating of more specialized information types, while reusing
as much of the existing design as possible [4]. Specialization
allows authors to create new information types with structures
and semantics that are specific to the needs of a particular
audience. DITA supports to specialization hierarchies, that is
one for information types (with topic at the root) and one for
domains (with elements in topic at their root). The three basic
topic types of fact, concept and reference are specialized topic
types of DITA’s generic, unspecified topic type, which define
particular information structures. DITA for learning content
[5] is a specialization for a particular information domain or
subject area, in this case, training and education.
Finally, DITA has adopted the notion of object-oriented
inheritance [25] to the data- and document-centric world of
Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with HAICTA 2008
XML and technical documentation [21]. This means that
DITA-aware processes, such as publishing and translation, can
define and implement automatically more specialized
information types, and can also be specialized themselves.
B. Reusing content with DITA
The major strength of the topic-oriented, modular approach
of DITA is the facility to reuse content (see Fig. 2).
Reusability refers to the ability to deliver the same content in
different output formats or target media (repurposing, cross- or
multi-channel publishing) and to re-organize modules for
different audiences and targets (re-assembly) [26]. Reuse is a
process of linking to an element of reusable content, that is, the
resuable content is displayed in the document, but does not
physically reside in it. When the reusable element is updated,
it is update wherever it has been linked with. This leads to
increased consistency of content, reduced development and
maintenance costs, and faster reconfiguration through the
modular structure of the content. Also, reusing content can
also reduce translation costs.
[Insert Fig. 2. Modularity and reusability of DITA content]
Reuse in DITA is implemented through references, in the
dimensions of content, design, and process [21]. The DITA
information architecture divides content into stand-alone
topics, independent from delivery-specific elements. The same
topics can be reused in many different contexts. The
specialization feature of DITA allows authors to reuse the
design of a more general information type by reference. The
same applies to specialized processes by which authors can
reuse the code from a more general process by reference.
The method of reusing content information is called single
sourcing, that is, content is written once, stored in a single
location, and then reused as many times as needed [27]. Single
source publishing is characterized by the same aspects that
DITA supports, that is, content-based documentation that can
be re-used in different formats; modular (element- or topicbased) writing that can be re-used in different document
formats; and assembling different documents from the same
content.
C. Modeling information with DITA
In order to fully benefit from reuse and single sourcing, a
consistent approach for writing and structuring content must be
established through modeling information to the needs of the
organization [26], [28]. Information modeling is the process to
determine the elements of each information product (that is,
any output consisting of content), and how each information
product will be designed to achieve optimum usability and
reuse. The goal of information modeling is to specify how
content is used—and reused—throughout an entire
organization. The process results in an information
architecture that serves as a blueprint to define how the content
will be organized and structured that make up the different
information products, and two types of information models,
4
that is, the information product model and the information
element model. The former defines what is included in the
information product (for instance, training manual, user
guides, annual reports, technical specifications); the latter
describes further the components (or elements) that are
assembled to create the information product. These models
need to be implemented across the entire organization. Content
authors used the information models to determine what
information needs to be included in which information
product. Content reviewers use the models to compare authors’
drafts against the models to ensure that they contain all the
necessary elements and that the models contain all the
necessary elements for each information product. Finally,
information technologists use the models to create authoring
templates, implementing the content management system, and
develop delivery style sheets.
Information models enable organizations that are interested
in exchanging information with other organizations to establish
open communication. In the case of the CGIAR and UNU they
could benefit from reusing content about disaster risk
management to strengthen the disaster risk preparedness of
communities.
There are information models available for different
industries, for instance, software, aerospace, and so on, and for
specific solutions, for instance, training materials, software
guides, financial guides, and so on. For example, SCORM
(Shareable Content Object Reference Model) 2004 content
aggregation [29] is an XML-method for representing course
resources, metadata, and processing instructions. SCORM is a
model for the delivery of content, it focuses on distributing
packaged learning objects for reuse; it does not provide any
structure to resources as they are not typed. The SCORM
model is not intended to replace the instructional design
model. Or, the S1000D standard [30] designed for the creation
of technical manuals in the aviation industry.
DITA on the other hand is not really a model that can be
implemented directly. Rather, it defines how to construct an
information model based on the needs of an organization. The
DITA information typing architecture defines only a base
model based on which topic types can be created to meet the
particular specifications of an organization. To date,
specializations are considered or under development to service
particular domains, for example, DITA learning and training
content for education and training or DITA enterprise business
documents for the business sector.
In the case of reusing content about disaster risk
management as proposed in this paper, DITA topics can be
used to capture concepts, facts, processes, procedures and
principles about risk, risk management, vulnerability, and
related topics. As shown in Fig. 3 a DITA concept topic is
written using Adobe FrameMaker. Fig. 4 shows the XML
structure of the file. The file can be exported in different
formats, for instance, as a PDF file as shown in Fig. 5. The
content author can now continue to collect other components
relevant to the disaster risk management. Once collected, all
Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with HAICTA 2008
the files can be combined using a DITA map, which can be
used to generate a complete document. At the same time, the
XML files can also be made available for further processing in
a repository along with the appropriate metadata. Here, a
content author of the CGIAR can search and retrieve the
required files to include them in related materials within the
agricultural sector that may lack the necessary detailed as
provided by the UNU.
[insert Fig. 3. DITA topic in FrameMaker]
[Insert Fig. 4. DITA topic XML structure]
[Insert Fig. 5. DITA topic in a PDF document]
For instance, in the context of a toolkit on tree seeds
published by the CGIAR [31], additional components could be
integrated from external sources. Using the DITA standard,
this can be achieved without copying and pasting, but rather by
referencing the related components. For instance, the toolkit
discusses the use of “seed zones” for selecting and managing
of seed sources in the context of research. The text refers to a
different chapter where seed zones are further defined (see Fig.
6). Using DITA this can be referenced, and the accompanying
text could be made available within the context. At the same
time the same paragraph discusses the role of seed zone to
reduce the risk of failures caused by planting material that is
not well adapted to an area. Here, additional content could be
included or referenced using DITA by reusing more detailed
information provided by other sources such as the UNU-EHS.
[Insert Fig. 6. Text section with options for reuse]
IV. CREATING LEARNING CONTENT WITH DITA
With the current draft specifications for DITA learning and
content [5], [32]-[33] a specialization is available that allows
authors to create content topics customized for educational
purposes. The DITA design for learning content provides a
basic set of specialized topic types to support structured,
intent-based authoring of content for learning and training. It
includes a mechanism to create DITA maps to structure
specialized learning topics as reusable learning objects and to
manage topic linking, relationship and simple sequencing. In
addition, the specification includes basic mechanisms for
learning interactions, for use in testing and assessment. DITA
learning and training content is also designed to support
learning metadata based on the IEEE standard [34], for use in
both learning topics and maps. As DITA is not built for
context-based sequencing, the use of IEEE learning object
metadata can provide most of the necessary contextual
metadata with the topics (or with maps).
DITA learning content is based on the notion of reusable
learning objects. According to the DITA learning content
specification, a learning objects comprises a discrete reusable
collection of content used to present and support a single
learning objective. It consists of instructional objects, which
provide the structured framework for a learning experience,
that is, overview, summary, and assessments, and information
objects, which provide the source learning content, that is,
topic-based learning content and other supplemental content
(see Fig. 7).
[Insert Fig. 7. DITA topic types for learning]
5
The specialized learning topics can be further assembled
using the DITA map domain for learning. For learning content,
a map domain can organize the content in a structured
sequence of references to learning topic types by instantiating
the sequencing and grouping of DITA topics that comprise a
learning object. For instance, a DITA learning map can define
a learning object as a specific sequence of overview,
supporting task, concept, and reference topics, a summary, and
optional practice and assessment topics (see Fig. 8).
[Insert
Fig.
8.
A
map
domain
for
a
learning
object]
When designing, authoring, and delivering learning objects
through the DITA specialization, the following generic steps
can be applied (see Fig. 9). First, DITA topics are created as
learning objects and captured in DITA maps. Then,
specialized learning topics are created to incorporate learning
plans, overview, learning content, summaries, and
assessments. Third, IEEE learning metadata is included.
Fourth, the DITA learning maps and relationship tables are
built to organize learning objects into lessons and courses, and
to manage the relationships and interactions among them.
Finally, the learning content is processed to generate learning
deliverables.
[Insert Fig. 9. Learning content design, authoring, and delivery through DITA
specialization]
Currently, DITA is supported by a variety of tools that can
be utilized in a workflow to create SCORM-compliant content
packages, ranging from the authoring of DITA learning
content and the assembly of SCORM-compliant learning
objects to the storage and delivery of the learning objects (see
Fig. 10).
[Insert Fig. 10. Schematic workflow for creating and delivering SCORMcompliant learning objects based on DITA learning content types]
For instance, to create DITA topics and maps, the open
source DITA Open Toolkit can be used, which was designed
to transform DITA content (maps and topics) into deliverable
formats. The proprietary layout program Adobe FrameMaker
provides similar functionalities through XML-based structured
authoring with template-based publishing using DITA. Adobe
FrameMaker also enables the use of the DITA Open Toolkit
through a plug-in. A more integrated environment for content
creation, storage and delivery is provided by Author-IT, a
single-source, reusable component content management
system, which supports DITA output through DITA topic
templates.
Once DITA learning content is created, it can be assembled
into SCORM-compliant learning objects. The SCORM
Content Aggregation Model (CAM) provides information on
how to describe learning content with IEEE learning object
metadata, how to package those components for use with
interoperable systems, and how to define sequencing
information for the components. As SCORM only describes
learning objects, but does not define the internal information
Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with HAICTA 2008
architecture of the object, DITA can be used to structure the
learning content accordingly. For instance, the open source
RELOAD Metadata and Content Package Editor can be used
to assemble learning objects in SCORM-compliant content
packages. These content packages can be stored in a repository
for deployment, such as ARIADNE’s KPS, or they can be
directly imported into a learning management system (LMS).
For instance, both the open source LMS Moodle or the
commercial Blackboard Learning System support the loading
and playing of SCORM-compliant content packages.
With regards to the exchange of content on disaster risk
management, an author of the CGIAR could again consult the
resources made available by the UNU-EHS and reuse those
based on DITA. Shown in Fig. # is a snippet of a learning
summary topic derived from the CGIAR toolkit for tree seeds.
Once the appropriate resources for a module have been
prepared, a DITA learning map is prepared with the selected
topics needed for the unit, and sequenced in the order needed
for this purpose. Again, additional components such as those
from the UNU-EHS can be selected and referenced to be
reused in this particular module.
V. INCORPORATING DITA INTO THE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
PROCESS
Content reuse applies to instructional design as well. XML
can be used in an instructional design setting to manage,
define, use and distribute learning objects [35]- [37]. Critical
to a successfully reusing learning content is the establishment
of an XML content reuse system to manage the creation and
delivery of learning objects. In correspondence with
Rockley’s unified content strategy [26], the content reuse
system facilitates the process of reusing learning content
through a set of four tools, that is, content system or
repository, a parser or query engine to retrieve content from
the repository, an authoring content management component to
create new learning content, and delivery outputs to make
available and accessible learning content in different formats
and to different audiences. For instance, the CGIAR has
developed a repository for its training materials, in
collaboration with ARIADNE (Alliance of Remote
Instructional Authoring and Distribution Networks for Europe)
Foundation using their Knowledge Pool System (KPS) [38]
The repository is integrated with an open source learning
management system. Users can store, search and retrieve
learning resources, and incorporate them in on-line courses as
well.
The notion of learning objects is also capture in the FourComponent Instructional Design (4C/ID) model of van
Merriënboer [39]-[40], which is based on the cognitive load
theory [41]-[42]. The 4C/ID model is applied in the context of
instructional systems design, which typically divide the
instructional design process into the five phases of analysis,
design, development, implementation, and summative
evaluation, also called the ADDIE model. The 4C/ID model is
narrower in scope and focuses on the first two phases, that is,
task and content analysis and design. The 4C/ID model has
been design to assist authors in creating training blueprints for
6
complex learning. The blueprints four interrelated
components, that is, (1) learning tasks with authentic wholetask experiences based on real-life tasks, (2) supportive
information helpful for learning and performing the problemsolving and reasoning aspects of the learning tasks, (3)
procedural (or just-in-time) information as a prerequisite for
learning and performing routine aspects of learning tasks, and
(4) part-task practice for learning the routine aspects of a task.
Instead of focusing on separate and specific learning
objectives that decompose a learning domain into small pieces,
the model promotes the notion of integrated objectives, which
are delivered through the learning tasks. This is achieved
through the notion of task classes. These classes contain
categories of learning tasks, each representing a whole
learning task with a particular difficulty, which progress to
more difficult whole tasks.
The 4C/ID model can also be expressed in IMS learning
design [43], a formalism based on the educational modeling
language to create units of learning [44]-[45]. A unit of
learning is defined as an artifact designed for learners to
achieve one or more interrelated learning objects. A IMS
learning design is the application of an instructional model for
a specific learning objective, target audience and for a specific
context or knowledge domain. The IMS learning design
provides a semantically rich information model and XML
binding that describe the content and processes within units of
learning form an instructional perspective.
IMS learning design has the potential for reusing learning
content [46]. IMS learning design can assist in deciding what
content will presented, how it will be integrated into a learning
environment, how it will be sequenced, and how it will be
assigned to learners in a unit or lesson. The notion of reusing
learning content by integrating learning designs and learning
objects is based on the ALOCoM ontology [47], which is an
ontology to represent learning object structure. ALOCoM, in
turn, is based on the DITA to structure learning content into
different types of granular content chunks, that is, content
fragment, content object and learning object.
VI. CONCLUSION
This proof-of-concept shows that DITA can be integrated
into single source publishing approach using XML. The next
step is to develop a pilot study to test the integration of the
different design and process components similar to [48]. Most
importantly will be the establishment of an appropriate
workflow to integrate the information model based on DITA
learning content topics that follows the steps of the 4C/ID
model and is represented with IMS learning design. Although,
a standard for the graphical representation of IMS learning
design is not yet available, alternative approaches could be
used. For instance, the Learning Activity Management System
(LAMS) is an open source tool for designing, managing and
delivering on-line learning activities. It is based on the unified
markup language (UML). LAMS can be integrated with the
LMS Moodle. With the existing repository and LMS of the
CGIAR, the system can be extended with these alternative
approaches while promoting the use of an established
instructional design model (4C/ID) and the authoring of
Workshop on Learning Technology Standards for Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with HAICTA 2008
learning content using DITA in an integrated environment.
Such as system would help to close the division between
(technical) content creation and learning content authoring by
utilizing a single-sourced system that can serve both domains
of technical documentation and training materials
development. At the same time such a system can be open up
to incorporate resources of other organization, such as the
UNU in the case of materials concerning disaster risk
preparedness as proposed in this paper. This would help to
contribute to the expressed need of making available and
accessible more references and extension manuals as well as
preparing additional teaching or extension materials that are
still missing for agricultural (higher) education, especially in
Sub-Saharan Africa [49].
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8
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