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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources
Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
Written by: Sloans Chimatiro1, Milton Haughton2, Mariama Barry3, Martha Byanyima4,
Augustine Mobiha5, Francis Nunoo6, edited by J.A. Francis6, [email protected]
This policy brief aims at mobilizing the ACP scientific community to provide knowledge-based
leadership to safeguard and rebuild this vital resource for food and nutrition security and
economic growth. ACP policy makers and regional and international donors are encouraged to
increase investment to build the requisite S,T&I capacity in ACP States.
1.0
Introduction
Fisheries play an important role in the stability of rural and coastal communities in the African,
Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States. It is a vital source of food and contributes to
livelihoods sustainability, food and nutrition security and foreign exchange earnings. These
benefits are being eroded due to unsustainable practices and policies ultimately leading to
dwindling resources; declining catches from the oceans, lakes, rivers and floodplains and illegal
unregulated and unreported fishing. The aquaculture sector is also poorly developed. Limited
scientific and technical capacity and involvement of the scientific community in guiding policy
further exacerbate the situation. Opportunities exist to use more science, technology and
innovation to improve the contribution of fisheries to achieving sustainable social and economic
development. However, special effort must be directed towards improving endogenous scientific
and technical capacity to trigger the development and application of more effective and efficient
technologies, policies, legislation and fisheries and aquaculture management plans.
2.0
Why Safeguard Fisheries Resources?
Many African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries depend on fisheries for food and social
and economic development. In 2000, fish and fishery products constituted 15.3% of the total
animal protein consumed by people globally (FAO, 2003). The annual per capita fish intake for
selected ACP countries ranges between 6.6
1 Yearly per capita intake (kg/year) of fish and fishery
kg in Malawi to 169.2 kg in Samoa as Table
products in selected ACP countries
shown in Table 1. Over the period 1995 – Country
Year/per capita intake
2004 there has been an 8 fold increase in
1999
2000
2001
2002
27.2
27.3
31.3
30.3
the number of fish farmers recorded for Angola
Belize
22.9
27.9
30.8
30.0
Africa (Table 2). The sector also provides Fiji
47.5
67.8
67.3
66.6
income for over 10 million people engaged Ghana
66.9
62.1
64.0
62.6
24.9
23.5
22.1
21.8
in fish production, processing and trade Guinea
Jamaica
43.3
40.0
34.1
33.8
and is a leading export commodity with an
Kenya
11.2
11.3
8.2
8.1
annual export value of US$2.7 billion Malawi
7.8
7.8
6.7
6.6
(NEPAD, 2005).
In some Caribbean Senegal
50.5
56.6
57.3
56.0
113.2
170.6
170.1
169.2
countries, fisheries accounts for more than Samoa
World average
27.8
27.9
28.4
5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Source: World Resource Institute (2004) and FAO28.1
(2004)
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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
8% GDP in Belize and exports have been growing steadily; up from US$13.8 million in 1986 to
approximately US$200 million in 2004. In addition, the combined benefits of dive tourism,
recreational fisheries, and shoreline protection provided by the coral reef ecosystems bring an
estimated net value of US$3.1-3.6 billion to the Caribbean region every year (Burke and
Maidens, 2004; World Resources Institute, 2004).
The ACP island states comprise several highly productive and diverse fragile tropical ecosystems
and natural features such as coral reefs and sea grass beds which support several highly
productive fish assemblages with high species diversity. The total land area of the Caribbean
States is 484,716 km2, whereas the total area of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is 2,205,470
km2. Papua New Guinea, one of the Pacific island states, includes an archipelago of 600 islands
and has a combined total land area of 462, 243 km2 and an EEZ of 2,437,480 km2. All the fifteen
Pacific island states have a combined total land area of 527,436 km2 - an EEZ covering roughly
20,070,000 km², equivalent to about 18% of all EEZs globally. Pacific Island States depend upon
these ecosystems: as a traditional and important source of seafood; as a critical form of revenue
(US$60-70 million in access fees); employment (25,000 regional jobs); and income (expenditure
by locally based vessels is worth US$130 million) (Gillett et al. 2001, Gillett and Lightfoot,
2002). However, despite roughly US$2 billion worth of tuna being caught in the Pacific each
year, the tuna fisheries added only approximately US$97 million to Pacific GDP in 2005, and
employed 11,000 Pacific Islanders (Birdsall et al. 2005). Coastal reef fisheries and other smallscale fisheries play a much under-estimated role in food and value production as well as in
distributional social effects in the ACP region. These tend to be more energy efficient and less
environmentally destructive than more industrial fishing practices particularly bottom trawling.
Over fishing and illegal, unregulated and underreported (IUU) fishing, global warming and sea
level rise, marine and freshwater pollution and habitat degradation are putting the future potential
contribution of the ACP fisheries sector at risk. They are, among others, driven by growing
consumer demand and weaknesses in sector governance. Effective management systems backed
up by sound scientific information and policies supporting sustainable use and value addition
must be put in place to protect vulnerable aquatic ecosystems and arrest the decline in fisheries
resources. The social costs are high and translate into an inability of populations with poor
purchasing power, particularly women,
to maintain continued access to Table 2 World fishers and fish farmers by continent
Year
traditional fish resources for food and
1990
1995
2000
2003
2004
(‘000)
livelihood (Williams et al. 2005). WRI Africa
1,832
1,950
2,981
2,870
2,852
(2005) demonstrated that stewardship of North and Central
760
777
891
841
864
nature is also an effective means to fight America
South America
730
704
706
689
700
poverty; and when poor households Asia
23,736
28,096 34,103
36,189
36,281
626
466
766
653
656
improve their management of local Europe
Oceania
55
52
49
50
54
ecosystems—whether pastures, forests, World
27,737
32,045 39,495
41,293
41,408
or fishing grounds—the productivity of
Of which fish farmers
3
14
83
117
117
these systems rises and economic Africa
North and Central
3
6
75
62
64
progress ensues as well.
America
The numerous challenges facing the
ACP fisheries sector suggest that there is
need to mobilize the ACP scientific
South America
Asia
Europe
Oceania
World
Source: FAO (2007)
66
3,738
20
1
3,832
213
5,986
27
1
6,245
194
8,374
30
5
8,762
193
10,155
68
5
10,599
194
10,837
73
4
11,289
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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
community, policy makers and the international donor community to support the countries in
taking the necessary action. The science, technology and innovation system must be
strengthened to ensure that the fisheries sector can continue to contribute towards the goal of
social and economic development in ACP states. Increased investments for building endogenous
scientific and technical capacity are needed to generate the evidence to support political and
technical interventions and drive innovations to realize the full potential of the industry.
3.0
The Context and Extent of the Problem
3.1 Over-exploitation of stocks and under-developed aquaculture
According to FAO official statistics, overall global production of fish continues to expand, with
more growth approximately 43%, coming from aquaculture, as capture fishery production
stagnates (Figure 1). These statistics may be an overestimation because of double reporting by
China and global capture fisheries has decreased since early 1990’s. The exploitation of wild fish
stocks from the world’s oceans has probably reached its limit, reinforcing the call for more
cautious and effective fisheries management to rebuild depleted stocks and prevent the decline of
those that have not yet reached their limits (FAO, 2007). In the case of inland fishery resources,
there is widespread overfishing, arising from either intensive targeting of individual large-size
species in major river and freshwater systems or overexploitation of highly diverse species
assemblages or ecosystems. This is further aggravated by massive habitat destruction as a result
of engineering interventions on many rivers worldwide. Africa has some of the biggest lake
environments in the world and derives an important part of its overall production from
freshwater, yet, these are much less studied than the less important lakes in other regions limiting
access to accurate data for making realistic projections.
Breton et al. (2006) reported that a number of fish species are overexploited in the Caribbean. For
example, queen conch (Strombus gigas), spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), shrimp (including
Penaeus subtilis, Penaeus schmitti, Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus notialis and Xiphopenaeus
kroyeri), shallow shelf reef-fishes (particularly members of the lutjanidae and serranidae
families), and large pelagic species are fully developed or over exploited. On the other hand some
species e.g. regional off shore pelagic fish such as wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri), dolphinfish
(Coryphaena hippurus), and blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus); deep-slope snappers and
groupers, and some small coastal pelagic species including members of the carangidae, clupeidae,
and engraulidae families are under-utilized.
In Africa, the inland fisheries resources are under threat with assemblage overfishing (decline of
individual species of large size) being evident. For example, large species reaching maximum
lengths of around 60 cm, such as Lates niloticus (Nile perch), Heterotis niloticus, and
Distichodus, were a significant fraction of the catch in the 1950s in Oueme River (Republic of
Benin), but these had either disappeared from the river or reduced their size at maturity by 1970s
(Allan et al. 2005). At the same time, these larger species have been replaced by smaller species
such as Labeo, Clarius, Heterobranchus, Schilbe and Synodontis of maximum length of about 40
cm; and by the 1990s, the fishery became dominated by numerous small species of cichlids and
mormyrids attaining maximum lengths of 10 to 30 cm. Similar observations have been made in
Lakes Malawi and Malombe (Malawi) where Oreochromis lidole, O. karongae and O.
squamipinnis (maximum size of around 38 cm) comprised 75% of the catches in the 1940s but
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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
started to decline since the early 1980s and collapsed in the 1990s, contributing only 7% of the
total catch (Banda et al. 2006). In Lake Malombe, these larger size species have been replaced by
smaller cichlids (maximum size around 7-12 cm) mainly Lethrinops, Otopharynx and
Copadichromis (Banda et al. 2006). In Lake Victoria, evidence of overfishing of Lates niloticus
(Nile perch) has been shown through experimental fishing conducted by the Lake Victoria
Fisheries Research Project (LVFRP), (Cowx et al. 2003) and catch landings by fishers. Between
1999 and 2001, biomass of Nile perch declined from 1.59 to 0.89 million tons; and combined
landings in the three riparian countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) declined from about 400,000
tons in the late 1980s to around 300,000 tons in the early 2000 (Balirwa et al. 2005), mostly as a
result of catching large numbers of juveniles (Froese & Binohlan, 2000).
Although over 70% of the population in Pacific Island States (PIS) rely on near-shore (coral reef)
fisheries for their subsistence requirement, tuna is the most important commercial species. The
tuna fishery is dominated by four major species, namely Albacore (Thunnus alalunga), Bigeye
(Thunnus obesus), Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares). Gillet
(2004) reported that the amount of tuna captured in the region is about ten times all other types of
fish combined; and in terms of value the catch is worth over seven times the value of all other
Pacific Island fish catches combined. However, over-capacity and use of aggregating devices are
a growing concern particularly for Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin) and Thunnus obesus (Bigeye)
(Hanich & Tsamenyi, 2006). Economic studies have also shown that fishing effort is significantly
above optimal levels, thereby reducing the profitability of the fishery (Bertignac et al. 2001).
Therefore, the Scientific Committee of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission
recommended in August 2005 that fishing capacity for bigeye and yellowfin should be reduced
by roughly 20% (Hanich & Tsamenyi, 2006).
3.2 Inadequate research and human and institutional capacity
Although many ACP countries have made significant strides in marine and fisheries science, they
still lack the critical mass of technical
and scientific expertise to monitor
national jurisdiction as well as
transboundary resources and to
generate, use and interpret data on the
biology, ecology and population
dynamics and status of at least the
most commercially important fish
species and the extent of habitat
degradation. The institutional capacity
to manage the resources, especially the
less important commercial varieties, is Fig. 1 World Fish Production (FAO 2007)
also limited.
Forty-two percent of the African research institutions are weak in fisheries and aquaculture
leading to a lack of a common and strategic understanding of the challenges being faced by the
sector and appreciation of the importance of fisheries and aquaculture research for development
(FARA, 2006). Three factors constrain research and development, namely insufficient funds, lack
of core research staff and weak research infrastructure (FAO, 2007). Some ACP countries have
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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
made progress in addressing their research needs. For example, future research areas identified
for Papua New Guinea include bycatch studies of the prawn fishery and mapping of prawn
fishing grounds of the Gulf of Papua; culture of indigenous fish species; study of the deep water
reefs and further tagging studies to determine the movements of the bigeye tuna species.
However, the knowledge gap that exists is not confined to the physical and ecological dimensions
of the resource system. Human dimension, that is, the cultural, social, economic, anthropological,
historical and traditional aspects are also poorly understood. Models for research and effective
resource management in ACP countries must therefore adequately take into account the human
dimension and be consistent with the culture and aspiration of the fishing communities. Breton et
al. (2006) in their book, Coastal Resource Management in the wider Caribbean, argue
convincingly for more attention to be given to reaching a better balance between natural and
social sciences in the management of natural resources and of deepening understanding of the
local-human contexts in which it takes place in light of the increasing tendency towards
decentralization and empowerment of local organizations. This will make the research more
directly policy relevant.
The inability to generate, translate and utilize scientific information for decision-making and
policy formulation therefore hampers the ACP countries from improving fisheries conservation
and management, with wider implications for value addition, trade and socio-economic
sustainability. Hodge (2006) made a case for the role of human capital and institutions in shaping
the evolution of systems of innovations in Lake Chad, by noting that the problems of Lake Chad
may not effectively be solved without a supportive knowledge and innovation system and the
organisational capacity to diffuse technologies. Hodge (2006) further calls on African fisheries
management institutions to learn from the USA’s Land/Sea Grant systems, by strategically
directing investment for strengthening and/or building new institutions that can promote
technology transfer and innovations by formalizing practical linkages of outreach to institutions
of higher learning and research. The European Commission also saw the need to assist ACP
countries in strengthening their capacity to formulate and implement fisheries development
policies and better manage their aquatic resources through improved monitoring and control of
fishing activities and the provision of scientific information on the status of resources (CEC,
2002). Within the framework of the European Partnership Agreements, ACP States can negotiate
fisheries agreements that reinforce cooperation on sustainable use of fishery resources and
transfer of technology, research and training. This complements provisions made in Articles 23,
and 53 of the ACP-EU Cotonou on Fishery Agreements and Article 32 on Environment and
Natural Resources.
ACP countries need to effectively address these constraints by, inter alia, creating and or
adapting institutional models and building the scientific capacity that are relevant to their specific
context. ACP researchers and managers should also be encouraged to publish more
systematically and where possible insert the results of their work in public webarchives, such as
www.fishbase.org, thereby contributing to the body of readily accessible knowledge, and gaining
additional national and international recognition.
3.3 Legal and policy framework
The targets for fisheries set out in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPol) of the World
Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) of Fisheries include: maintaining or restoring
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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
stocks to levels that can produce the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) on an urgent basis or
where possible, not later than 2015; maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of marine
coastal areas and; implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Regional
initiatives and agencies exist to complement national efforts. For example, the Caribbean
Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) and NEPAD Fisheries and Biosciences Programmes,
have been set up to coordinate, provide advice and promote sustainable management of fisheries
resources. Their programmes are aligned with the framework of the 1982 United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the UN Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries. However, many ACP countries may not achieve the goals as attempts to translate
international commitments on environment and sustainable development into national policies,
and legal and regulatory frameworks are hindered first and foremost by the lack of data,
information and S&T capacity.
3.4 Threat from climate change
Fishing and fish farming communities in the ACP region are generally impoverished and illprepared to adapt to the potential negative impact of climate change on their way of life. The
Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change states, “For fisheries, information on the
likely impacts of climate change is very limited.” Changes in temperature and rainfall threaten
fisheries and aquaculture by directly influencing the geographical distribution pattern and
quantity of fish produced and indirectly by affecting the prices of fish and/or the cost of
production under extreme climate events. Sea level rise and increase in the frequency and
intensity of severe weather systems such as hurricanes, further threaten low lying coastal
communities. Knowledge on the response of the marine and inland ecosystems and fish
population e.g. changes in productivity and migratory patterns would help the ACP region in
developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies.
4.0
Policy recommendations
4.1 Sustainable fisheries resource management
Countries should manage their fisheries with the best available scientific information, while
adopting a conservative, precautionary and adaptive approach to resource management. It is clear
that currently many ACP countries do not have the human and institutional capacity to generate
scientifically sound policies and management plans for their fisheries. Therefore, it is imperative
that ACP countries in collaboration with donor organisations dedicate more financial resources
towards building the requisite human and institutional capacity in fisheries and marine science,
value addition and governance. Such capacity must be directed at understanding the biology and
ecology of economically important fish species in order to generate the relevant technologies and
innovative approaches for effective fisheries management. Capacity must also be strengthened in
the social sciences, food sciences, engineering, trade relations, and monitoring, surveillance and
enforcement systems.
Traditional centralized management of fisheries has been reported to be failing and new evidence
in both small and large-scale fisheries indicate that where fisheries decision-making is
participatory in character and is seen to be fair and transparent, management measures are
implemented more fully, with less recourse to costly external enforcement measures. There is
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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
need to strengthen the capacity of research and training institutions in the ACP region to
undertake relevant research in community-based and co-management approaches, and share
existing knowledge to identify and develop suitable models for strengthening the participation of
fishers and other legitimate stakeholders in planning, decision making and managing fisheries.
4.2 Sustainable aquaculture growth and expansion
There are limits to the quantities of fish that can be extracted from the natural resource systems. It
is apparent that in the not too distant future, aquaculture could surpass capture fisheries, unless
the natural productivity of degraded ecosystems can be rebuilt. In any event, there is optimism
that ACP countries could become key players in the global aquaculture movement if the
necessary marketing, technical, institutional and scientific
preconditions are put in place. Supportive and enabling
policies are needed to guide and facilitate its expansion,
taking into account socio-economic and environmental
sustainability issues. Aquaculture must be well linked with
agricultural production systems to achieve synergies,
improve yields and realize greater efficiencies in the use of
land, water and labour (Fig. 2). Drawing on lessons from
Asia, critical investments must be channelled towards, inter
alia, research on aquaculture factor productivity, strategies Fig. 2: Small Scale Fish Farming in Malawi
for seed supply, including selective breeding, nutrient conversion, environmental impact and
economics. Networking and information sharing among researchers, training and outreach
institutions, based on the model developed by the Network for Aquaculture Centres in Asia
(NACA) should be considered for the ACP region.
4.3 Market access: fish without borders
Africa ranks 4th to 5th among continents exporting fishery products to the EU (Table 3). In the
ACP States, there is evidence that domestic trading is more innate to fishery than it is to livestock
and other agricultural products. For the ACP region to capitalize on the growing domestic and
export markets, regionally and globally, investments are needed to empower small and medium
fishing enterprises, strengthen food safety systems and facilitate greater product development,
diversification and value addition. Further investment is also needed to harmonize sanitary and
phytosanitary (SPS) measures and standards and build capacity to negotiate regional and
multilateral trade agreements (e.g. the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) between ACP
States and the EU).
Table 3. Performance of continents in exporting fishery products to the European Union
1999
2000
2001
Border
Rank
Border
Rank
Border
Rank
case
case
case
/100,000
/100,000
/100,000
tonnes
tonnes
tonnes
To EU
Oceania
1
1
5.9
5
North America
1
1.0
3
1.1
2
Europe (not EU)
0.1
3
0.3
2
0.3
1
Central and
1.8
4
4.8
4
2.8
3
South America
Africa
7.0
5
5.7
5
4.4
4
Asia
12.9
6
13.9
6
16.4
6
Source: FAO (2005)
2002
Border
case
/100,000
tonnes
Rank
0.7
1.0
5.9
1
2
3
4
6.2
51.5
5
6
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ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
4.4 Fueling the synergies with the fisheries industry
The price of diesel rose over 100 percent between
January 2004 and 2008, severely affecting the
profitability of the fishing industry. With growing
calls to cut the emission of greenhouse gases, there
is an urgent need to identify and use alternative
sources of energy and explore passive gears.
Research must focus on improving fuel efficiency
of fishing vessels and developing competitively
priced fuel efficient bio-fuels to provide power for
cooling and storage facilities or running motorised
fishing vessels and contribute to reducing Carbon
Dioxide (CO2) emissions (Box 1).
Box 1. Fueling global fishing fleets
Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the
dominant energy input to most of the world’s fisheries. By
integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from
around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for
2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50
billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80
million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average
rate of 620 L t-1. Consequently, fisheries account for about
1.2% of global oil consumption, and directly emit more
than 130 million t of CO2 into the atmosphere. From an
efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel
burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the
edible protein energy content of the resulting catch.
Source: Tyedmers, P.H, Watson, R. and Pauly, D. (2005)
(www.seaaroundus.org)
4.5 Capacity strengthening and inter-regional
networking and information sharing
In order to improve the efficiency of investment in fisheries and aquaculture, there is need to
shorten the learning cycle at all levels. The ACP states must build a cadre of professional staff in
key institutions who are equipped with the knowledge and skills required to generate, adapt and
use appropriate technologies effectively under the specific ecological, economic, social and
institutional contexts. The ACP states should also develop the capacity of national and regional
institutions to deliver fisheries and aquaculture training and continuing development programmes
for professionals. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to establish scientific mentoring, including
networks between and among professionals at national, regional and global levels. Lastly, there is
need to improve the linkages between research, planning and policy at national and regional
levels for science-based fisheries and aquaculture development.
4.6 Gender issues and sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development
Considering that the United Nations global data on women demonstrate that in developing
countries women produce half of the total agricultural products (including fisheries and
aquaculture) in most countries, there is need to engender fisheries policies, in general and for
research to develop fishing, farming and post-harvest technologies which enhance the
participation of women in the sector. There is need for deeper interaction between research,
policy makers, men and women particularly in small-scale fisheries and aquaculture communities
in order to mobilize the full range of ecological, social, economic and institutional knowledge
and competencies in support of the global target set by the JPol of the WSSD, particularly
focusing on gender perspective (Williams et al. 2005).
4.7 Responding to climate change
Scientists in the ACP region need to increase their understanding and knowledge of the impact of
climate change on the fisheries and aquaculture industries. Research on the impact of changes in
sea/lake/river/floodplain temperatures should not only focus on higher-value commercial species,
but should also pay attention to species which local riparian communities depend on for food and
livelihood. Furthermore, strong research focus must be directed at helping fishers become better
able to cope with external shocks, and reducing their reliance on a limited range of species.
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Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
Governments, individually or regionally, need to put in place strategies to understand impacts
and predict changes as well as mitigating measures for fishing communities to adapt to climate
change. This can only be achieved by climate-proofing fisheries development programmes
through close collaboration with the scientific and fisher folk communities.
5.0
Conclusions
Reports by FAO (ref. 2007-SOFIA) noted that population and income growth, together with
urbanization and dietary diversification, are expected to create additional demand and to continue
to shift the composition of food consumption towards a growing share of animal products,
particularly fish. In the ACP region, fish remains an important source of high-quality protein and
as such policy-makers need to take the strategic decision to increase investments in science,
technology and innovation infrastructure for sustainably managing the aquatic habitats and
ecosystems and for developing new and more efficient methods of producing, utilizing, selling
and distributing fish and fishery products to satisfy growing demand in national and international
markets.
Policy-makers in the ACP region need to adopt a number of steps to fully benefit from science,
technology and innovation. First, states should mainstream fisheries and aquaculture within their
development agendas; second, national and regional fisheries development programmes must be
linked to science, technology and innovation policies for improving fisheries and aquaculture;
third, regional scientific and political cooperation must be enhanced to allow countries to jointly
address generic problems; fourth, curricula review at all levels of training should be promoted to
focus on development priorities in fisheries and aquaculture; and, fifth, there must be increased
investment in improved information systems to make use of all available, international, regional
and local knowledge networks and to contribute to them. Finally, improved human and
institutional capacity is imperative for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development as
quality human and physical resources will trigger the development of more efficient technologies,
and effective legislative and governance systems and thus lead to improved quality of life and
standard of living in ACP States.
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Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
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Cowx, I.G., Muhoozi, L., Mkumbo, O., Getabu, A. and Okaranon, J. 2003. Evidence of
overexploitation of the fisheries resources of Lake Victoria, with special reference to Ugandan
waters.
FAO. 2003. Food Balance Sheet. FAOSTAT database. Rome, FAO: http://faostat.fao.org/
FAO. 2004. FAOSTATS. Online statistics, available at http://fao.org/fi
FAO. 2007. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture, 2006. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture
Department, Rome, Italy. Available online at http://www.fao.org/fi
FARA. 2006. An assessment of the requirements for efficient effective and productive national
agricultural research systems in Africa.
FARA. 2007. Regional Stakeholder Consultation: Research coordination in support of the
AU/NEPAD Action Plan for the Development of African Fisheries and Aquaculture. FARA
Secretariat, Accra, Ghana, 6-7 November 2006. Available online at http://www.fara-africa.org/
Gillett R. and Lightfoot C. 2002. The contribution of fisheries to the economies of Pacific island
countries. Asian Development Bank, Manila. www.adb.org/documents/reports/contribution
_fisheries_pacific_economies/default.asp
Froese, R. and Binohlan, C. 2000. Empirical relationships to estimate asymptotic length, length at
first maturity and length at maximum yield per recruit in fishes, with a simple method to
evalutate frequency data. J. Fish Biol. 56:758-773
Gillett, R., McCoy, M., Rodwell, L. and Tamate, J. 2001. Tuna. A Key Economic Resource in the
Pacific Island Countries. A Report Prepared for the Asian Development Bank and the Forum
Fisheries Agency.
Gillett, R. 2004. Tuna for tomorrow? Some of the science behind an important fishery in the
Pacific Islands. Asian Development Bank & Secretariat of the Pacific Community 20p.
10
ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
Hanich, Q. and Tsamenyi, M. 2006. Exclusive economic zones, distant water fishing nations and
Pacific Small Island Developing States: Who really gets all the fish? A paper presented at the
Sharing of the Fish Conference 06. Perth, Western Australia.
Hodge, S. 2006. Knowledge innovation systems and technology diffusion strategies for
ecosystems management in Africa – Case study: Lake Chad Basin Commission. Africa Policy
Journal. Online journal available on: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu
NEPAD. 2005. NEPAD Action Pan for the development of African fisheries and aquaculture.
Rengasamy, S., Devavaram, J., Prasad, R. and Arunodaya. E. 2003. “A case ctudy from the Gulf
of Mannar.” In Poverty and Reefs, Volume II: Case Studies, eds. E. Whittingham, J. Campbell
and P. Townsley, 113-146. Paris, France: DFID-IMM-IOC/UNESCO
Welcomme, R.L. 2006. Role of fisheries in improving water productivity in rivers and
floodplains. Challenge Programme on Water and Food – Aquatic Ecosystems and Fisheries
Review Series 3. Theme 3 of CPWF, c/o WorldFish Centre, Cairo, Egypt 136p.
Willaims, S.B., Hochet-Kibongui, A-M. and Nauen C.E. 2005. Gender, fisheries and aquaculture:
Social capital and knowledge for the transition towards sustainable use of aquatic ecosystems.
ACP-EU
Fisheries
Research
Report
Number
16.
Brussels,
June
2005.
http://cordis.europa.eu/inco/fp5/library en.html
World Resources Institute (WRI) in collaboration with United Nations Development Programme,
United Nations Environment Programme, and World Bank. 2005. World Resources 2005: The
Wealth of the Poor—Managing Ecosystems to Fight Poverty. Washington, DC: WRI.
World Resources Institute (WRI). 2004. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems – Nutrition: daily food
supply per capita from fish and fishery products. Online statistics: http://earthtrends.wri.org
Further reading
Allison E.H., Adger N.W., Badjeck M-C, Brown K, Conway D, Dulvy N.K., Halls, A., Perry, A.,
and Reynolds, J.D. 2005. Effects of climate change on the sustainability of capture and
enhancement fisheries important to the poor: Analysis of the vulnerability and adaptability of
fisherfolk living in poverty. Department for International Development (UK) project number:
R4778J. Available online at http://p15166578.pureserver.info/fmsp/r8475.htm
Chuenpagdee, R., Liguori, M.L.D. and Pauly, D. 2006 Bottom-up global estimates of small-scale
fisheries marine fisheries catches. Univeristy of British Columbia, Fisheries Centre Research
Reports, 14(8):105p. Available on line at http://ww.fisheries.ubc.ca/publications/reports/ferr.php
Froese, R. 2005. Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish and Fisheries,
5:86-91. Available online at http://filaman.uni-kiel.de/ifm-geomar/#publications
11
ACP Fisheries Policy Brief
Safeguarding the ACP Fisheries Resources – Role of Science, Technology & Innovation
Palomares, M.L.D., Samb, B., Diouf, T., Vakily, J.M., and Pauly, D. (eds.) 2003. Fish
biodiversity: Local studies as basis for global inferences. Brussels, ACP-EU Fisheries Research
Report. (14):282 p. Available online http://cordis.europa.eu/inco/fp5/library_en.html
Secretariat of The Pacific Community. 2007. Planning the Use of Fish for Food Security in the
Pacific. Fifth Conference of the Pacific Community, Agenda Item 4. Apia, Samoa, 12-13
November 2007. SPC/CONF 5 (07)/Paper 4.
FAO. 2007. The role of aquaculture in sustainable development. High level special event on
aquaculture. Thirty-fourth Session. C2007/INF/16. Rome. FAO 19-23 November 2007 10pp.
http://www.fao.org/fi/website/
Web resources:
www.fishbase.org;
www.incofish.org;
http://knowledge.cta.int;
www.worlfishcenter.org;
www.nepad.org;
www.oecd.org
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD-?English/POIToc.htm
http://www.spc.int/oceanfish/
http://cordis.europa.eu/inco/fp5/library en.html
1
Dr. Sloans Chimatiro, Senior Fisheries Advisor, NEPAD, South Africa; 2Milton Haughton,
Deputy Executive Director, Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism, Belize;, 3Dr. Mariama
Barry, CRODT/ ISRA, Senegal; 4Martha Byanyima, Regional Coordinator, EU/ACP
Strengthening of Fishery Products Health Conditions (SFP), Uganda; 5Augustine Mobiha,
Executive Manager, Fisheries Management Division, Papua New Guinea; 6Dr. Francis Kofi
Ewusie Nunoo, Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of Ghana, Ghana; edited
by J.A. Francis6, Senior Programme Coordinator, S&T Strategies, CTA, The Netherlands &
Reviewed by Dr. Cornelia Nauen, European Commission, Belgium. The authors and editors
acknowledge the contributions of the ACP and EU experts who participated in the peer review
process.
Reviewed by the Advisory Committee on S&T for ACP Agricultural and Rural Development at
the 6th Meeting, CTA Headquarters, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Approved - March 2008.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect those of The Technical Centre fro Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACPEU (CTA).
Publisher: CTA
Coordinating Editor: Judith Francis, CTA
CTA is an institution of the ACP Group of States (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific) and the EU (European Union), in the framework of the Cotonou
Agreement and is financed by the EU.
ACP policy brief
No 4/2008
ISSN: 1876-0953
12
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