AIMSweb Reading Improvement Report – Parent Information

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2013-2014 Albany City School District
Elementary RtI Handbook
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City School District of Albany
www.albanyschools.org
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Table of Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Response to Intervention (RtI): Team Process, Protocol and Decision Rules for Grades 1-6........................... 4
RtI READING: Team Process and Protocol ........................................................................................................................... 5
RtI Reading: Kindergarten Decision Rules ........................................................................................................................ 12
RtI Considerations for English Language Learners (ELLs)........................................................................................... 13
Summary: RtI Identification Process ................................................................................................................................... 17
RtI Process Flowchart ................................................................................................................................................................ 18
Standard Reading Protocol...................................................................................................................................................... 19
Fall RtI Group Interventions & Planning Form ................................................................................................................ 21
Winter RtI Group Interventions & Planning Form .......................................................................................................... 22
Spring RtI Group Interventions & Planning Form ........................................................................................................... 23
2013-2014 Grade Level Meeting Minutes .......................................................................................................................... 25
RtI: Request for Student Review ............................................................................................................................................ 25
RtI Student Review: Meeting Minutes .................................................................................................................................. 27
AIMSweb Reading Improvement Report – Parent Information ................................................................................. 30
Tier 2 Notification Letter.......................................................................................................................................................... 31
RtI Parent Brochure ................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Tier 3 Notification Letter.......................................................................................................................................................... 34
RtI Individual Progress Update.............................................................................................................................................. 35
Individual Problem Solving Worksheet: File Review and Problem Identification ............................................. 36
Minimum Requirements Checklist for CSE Referral ...................................................................................................... 38
Appendix: Sample Agendas, Surveys, and Supporting Documents ............................................................. 43
Sample RtI Meeting Guidelines Tier 1 (80%) ................................................................................................................... 44
Tier 1 Consultation and Support Model .............................................................................................................................. 45
“High-Risk” Group Intervention Guidelines ...................................................................................................................... 47
Informal Fidelity Checks: District Guidelines ................................................................................................................... 48
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Interactive Read Aloud..................................................................................... 49
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Shared Reading ................................................................................................... 50
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Guided Reading ................................................................................................... 51
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Word Study ........................................................................................................... 52
Informal Fidelity Checklist: Tier 1 Intervention.............................................................................................................. 53
Instructional Data Collection Form ...................................................................................................................................... 54
Informal Fidelity Checklist: Tier 2 Intervention.............................................................................................................. 55
Informal Fidelity Checklist: Tier 3 Intervention.............................................................................................................. 56
Possible Targeted Skill and Progress Monitoring Recommendations for Reading ............................................ 57
Guidelines for Matching Interventions to Instructional Need .................................................................................... 58
Intervention Review: Questions and Instructional Suggestions ................................................................................ 59
Reading: RtI Tiered Instruction Cheat Sheet ..................................................................................................................... 60
5 Big Ideas in Reading ............................................................................................................................................................... 61
AIMSweb Assessment Recommendations by Grade ....................................................................................................... 62
Survey Level Assessment, Rate of Improvement and Goal Setting ........................................................................... 63
Rate of Improvement (ROI) Calculation Charts: RCBM and MAZE ............................................................................ 64
Rate of Improvement (ROI) Calculation Charts: Tests of Early Literacy ................................................................. 65
Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment.............................................................................................................................................. 66
Elementary IST/RtI Team Planning Survey....................................................................................................................... 68
Glossary of Terms ....................................................................................................................................................................... 74
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Last updated 9/10/13
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Introduction
In accordance with regulations of the Commissioner of Education, the City School District of Albany proposes
the following policy and procedures to ensure that, using a three-tier approach, all students in grades K-6
suspected of having a learning disability receive appropriate instruction in reading in general education before
the district initiates a referral to the Committee on Special Education (CSE) for an evaluation. Such procedures
shall include, as part of its general education program, a process referred to as Response to Intervention (RtI).
Additional areas of instruction including, but not limited to behavior, mathematics, written language, and
spelling will also be subject to a three-tier approach to intervention.
Response to Intervention (RtI) is a decision making process by which teachers can provide early, systematic
intervention and monitoring to all students, including students at risk, students with disabilities and English
Language Learners (ELLs). It is the practice of providing high quality Tier 1 instruction and interventions
matched to student needs and uses learning rate over time and level of performance to make important
educational decisions about an individual student. (NASDE, 2006)
The basic components of the RtI process shall include:

Scientific, research-based core instruction in reading, which shall address the five major components:
phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary development, fluency, and comprehension; a research-based
social/behavioral curriculum that incorporates Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

For students identified as LEP/ELL, appropriate instruction should be linguistically and culturally
responsive (i.e. consider and build upon a student’s cultural background and experiences, as well as their
linguistic proficiency);

Screening for all students in grades K-6 at least three (3) times per year to identify those students who
are not making academic and/or behavioral progress at the expected rates;

Research-based interventions matched to the student’s targeted need at increasing levels of intensity for
those students who do not make satisfactory progress in their performance and/or in their rate of learning
to meet grade level or behavioral expectations;

Repeated assessments of targeted skill areas using curriculum-based measures to determine if
interventions are resulting in student progress toward grade level or behavioral expectations;

A building-based RtI/IST team to establish at-risk criteria, review screening data, and make decisions
related to student performance and intervention need; and

Written notice to the parents when a student requires an intervention beyond that provided to all students
in the general education classroom that provides information about;
o The techniques, strategies, and/or programs that will be used to address deficit areas to increase
the student’s rate of learning, behavior and performance;
o The frequency, duration and intensity of the recommended intervention
o The amount and nature of the student performance data that will be collected and the general
education services that will be provided;
o The parents’ right to request an evaluation for special education.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Response to Intervention (RtI): Team Process, Protocol and Decision Rules for Grades 1-6
(Grade 6 will follow the Elementary Handbook, when housed in an elementary building)
I.
The IST/RtI Team has three purposes:
1) To review school-wide academic and behavioral data and evaluate the effectiveness of core (Tier 1)
instruction.
2) To screen all students and identify those needing additional support/intervention.
3) To plan, implement and modify academic and/or behavioral interventions for these students.
RtI is intended to be a structured, systematic process involving the following features and activities:
1) team membership,
2) school-wide planning,
3) planning for the lowest 20%,
4) weekly team meetings (3xmonth for student/class/grade reviews and 1xmonth for planning); District
RtI Coordinator to attend planning meetings every other month to provide embedded PD and support.
5) individualizing and intensifying interventions.
II. Team membership: Leadership by the principal is essential. It is highly recommended that IST/RtI Team
membership also include any or all of the following members: general education teachers representing grade
levels, reading teachers, school psychologist, social worker, and specialists from special education and ELL
programs. Two team members should also be selected to fulfill the role of AIMSweb Coach (i.e School
Manager) and Behavioral/PBIS Coach to support building planning needs, as well as the school’s data
management programs.
III. Tier 1 or School-wide Instruction/Intervention: Planning for All Students: All students will be
universally screened in the area of reading. Buildings will use AIMSweb to complete universal screenings in
reading, in the fall (September), winter (January), and spring (May). Three times per year, IST/RtI Teams will
review screening results and other data on student performance (e.g., AIMSweb, NWEA, attendance, office
referrals, suspensions, etc.) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of core programs. Student scores will be
compared to national and local norms, as well as established behavioral expectations in order to make databased decisions regarding student performance and progress. Parents should be notified of universal screenings
prior to administration AND be provided opportunities to receive their child’s results upon request. The RtI
Parent Brochure (pg.31-32) should be provided to parents at the beginning of the school year or upon initial
enrollment at the building level. Should a parent request their child’s screening results the AIMSweb Reading
Improvement Report (pg.30) should be attached.
The RtI model is predicated on the notion that all students can make adequate growth and that core programs
should meet the needs of at least 80% of the student population (for reading this is defined as student
performance at or above the 25th percentile). If this is not the case, the team needs to strategize to strengthen the
core. This means the building IST/RtI Team must examine core programs and foster honest conversations about
whether the core is meeting the needs of 80% of all major student populations (race, ELL, SPED, etc.). The
team should then plan intervention activities that are research-based and that target areas, which data analysis
suggests need attention. It is vital to have the building principal on the team to ensure that fundamental
organizational decisions can be made, resources can be allocated, instructional delivery is effective, and the
programs are delivered with fidelity.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI READING: Team Process and Protocol
Tier 1 Team Process and Protocol: Tier 1 must include evaluation of core instruction, including fidelity
checks (Informal Fidelity Checks: District Guidelines, pg.48-52) and initiation of class-wide interventions
(Tier 1 Consultation and Support Model, pg.45) when less than 80% of the students, in a class, meet grade
level expectations on universal screenings. Data should be reviewed by grade level and by class to determine
where class-wide interventions are needed.
Grade level teams should meet following universal screenings, with the building IST/RtI Team, to review
grade level and classroom performance and plan research-based interventions to support core instruction. If
less than 80% of students within a classroom meet grade level expectations:
 Tier 1, research-based interventions should be implemented for 6-8 weeks prior to initiating Tier 2
interventions. Tier 1 consultation and support is typically delivered by classroom teachers with support
and collaboration from literacy specialists or reading teachers, special education, ELL teachers, etc. In
addition to supporting Tier 1 instruction, Tier 2 interventionists may begin tiered interventions with
high-risk students who meet the district’s “High-Risk” Group Intervention Guidelines (pg.47).
 Reading teachers and other Tier 2 interventionists (when schedules permit) will support Tier 1 core
instruction for any classroom with less than 80% of their students meeting grade level expectations (see
the Tier 1 Consultation and Support Model, pg.45). This intervention period must occur when a grade
level or classroom is initially identified with less than 80% of students achieving grade level
expectations, continue for 6-8 weeks, and include progress monitoring of students in the lowest 20%
(see decision rules below). This intervention period should also occur throughout the school year within
classrooms where a limited response to core instruction is identified.
 Fidelity checks of Tier 1 balanced literacy instruction, intervention(s), and assessments should be
completed prior to any changes in student intervention. Please refer to fidelity documents for Interactive
Read Aloud, Shared Reading, Guided Reading, Word Study and Tier 1 interventions (pgs. 49-54). The
fidelity of Tier 1, core instruction and tiered interventions should be evaluated by building
administrators, as per district guidelines (pg.48). In addition, assessment fidelity checks may be
completed by members of the building IST/RtI Team, classroom teachers, or building administrators; as
per district guidelines (pg.48).
If 80% or more of the students meet grade level expectations, begin the team process for identifying and
supporting students who require targeted, tiered interventions.
Decision Rules for Progress Monitoring
Once initial screenings are complete, the following protocol should be followed to determine the minimum
frequency with which a student’s progress is monitored. All progress monitoring data should be entered into
the AIMSweb database.
 Students below the 10th percentile must be administered a Survey Level Assessment (SLA) to determine
the appropriate grade level at which a student will be monitored (Survey Level Assessment, Rate of
Improvement and Goal Setting, pg. 63).
 SLAs are used to determine a student’s instructional level or grade level at which they can
perform between the 25th and 75th percentiles for that particular time of year. The team will select
the measure that best matches the instructional content and goals, allows the student to
demonstrate success with skill acquisition, and provides room for growth over time.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany





An RtI member should complete the SLA, which is only required when a student is initially
identified as below the 10th percentile. Once initial SLAs are completed, the median of the last
three progress monitoring data points can be used for future planning.
 Students below the 10th percentile should be progress monitored 1 time per week using the
appropriate grade level probe, as determined by the SLA.
Students between the 11th and 24th percentile must be progress monitored at least 2 times per month
Students between the 25th percentile and AIMSweb target score should be strategically monitored (at
least 1 time per month). This can be tracked in AIMSweb under the progress monitoring tab OR the
strategic monitoring option.
Students above the 25th percentile, who meet the AIMSweb target score, do not require progress
monitoring.
Students who transfer into the district between universal screenings will be administered a strategic
monitoring assessment in order to obtain baseline performance. All new students, who perform within
the lowest 20% of a class/grade, should be individually reviewed by the building IST/RtI Team to
determine if tiered interventions need to be implemented without delay. The above protocol should be
followed in order to determine the frequency with which a new student is monitored. When evaluating
ELLs, new to the district, tiered intervention and instructional needs will be determined by the building
IST/RtI Team, with input from an ELL representative. ELLs may begin interventions immediately, as
research indicates that waiting for oral language development does not support progress.
Tier 1 Checklist
___ Parent RtI Brochure sent home
___ Universal screening results sent home, if requested by parent
___ Tier 1 fidelity checks completed by principal (minimum of 1 check per teacher)
___ Tier 1 consultation and support model initiated in the fall for 6-8 weeks
___ Tier 1 consultation and support continued due to class performance below 80%
___ AIMSweb fidelity checks completed with teacher (minimum of 3 completed, within a school
year, indicating inter-rater accuracy)
___ SLAs completed for ALL students below the 10th percentile (upon initial identification)
___ Progress monitoring of students in the lowest 20%, as per district guidelines
IV. Tier 2 or Targeted Intervention - Planning for the Lowest 20%: Students who have NOT been
identified for a high-risk group can be considered for placement in the 20% group (Tier 2) following the initial
6-8 weeks of Tier 1 consultation and support AND when: he/she remains below grade level based on progress
monitoring and universal screenings; he/she performs within the lowest 20% of a class (including all students
below the 10th percentile) on AIMSweb and/or NWEA; and 70-80% of classroom peers have met grade level
expectations (at or above the 25th percentile). Reviewing all student data is highly recommended prior to making
final intervention decisions.
Students who are identified as failing to demonstrate adequate progress in the core curriculum and class
intervention (Tier 1), as determined by progress monitoring data, shall receive targeted interventions in the
specific area(s) of difficulty. Targeted interventions must be research-based and implemented with integrity and
fidelity. Interventions are delivered in addition to, and not in place of core instruction provided in Tier 1. The
recommended length of time a student spends in Tier 2 will vary depending on such factors as the skill set to be
learned, rate of student’s progress, attendance, student motivation, and fidelity of instruction and intervention. A
student should be in attendance during core instruction and intervention at least 90% of the time prior to
receiving a Tier 2 intervention. Furthermore, fidelity checks (RtI Fidelity Checklists, pg. 55) should be
completed during a student’s intervention period and prior to any changes.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Students who fall below the 25th percentile, but are not within the lowest 20% of a grade level, should continue
to receive Tier 1 targeted interventions from a classroom teacher at least 3 times per week, 30 minutes each
session. These students should be monitored at a minimum of 2 times per month or every other week. Any
intervention changes and goal updates must be documented in AIMSweb.
Tier 2 Team Process and Protocol:
 Grade level teachers should meet to review benchmark and Tier 1 intervention data in order to list
recommended intervention students on the appropriate RtI Group Interventions & Planning Form
(pgs.21-23). It is recommended that grade levels accomplish this with at least one member of the
IST/RtI Team assisting. This form must be completed by class, include all assessment results for a
student, and be submitted to the K-12 ELA Supervisor three times/year.
 Additionally, forms are then turned into the IST/RtI Team and a Grade Level Meeting is
scheduled in order to plan tiered interventions for groups of students with similar needs.
 At Grade Level Meetings the team will also decide on the target skill and what progress data to
collect, as well as the interventionist and person responsible for collecting data. The Grade Level
Meeting Minutes (pg.24) can be used to document student intervention decisions. Students will be
progress monitored using AIMSweb, based on recommended frequencies. AIMSweb progress
monitoring schedules MUST include all intervention information including, but not limited to, target
skill, tier, intervention program/plan, intervention provider, frequency of intervention, and group size.
 A Tier 2 Notification Letter (pg. 30) must be sent home prior to the intervention start date. Students in
Tier 2 intervention groups should be progress monitored one time per week. If a student’s skill level is
below the 10th percentile, then the IST/RtI Team will use SLA information and progress monitoring
data to determine the appropriate progress monitoring grade level. SLAs are only required when a
student is initially identified as below the 10th percentile. All data must be entered into the AIMSweb
database.
 Tier 2, targeted interventions should be implemented for at least 10 weeks and should be in addition
to core reading instruction.
 Tier 2, targeted interventions should be delivered by either reading, AIS, ELL or special education
teachers.
 Students should be grouped by area of need, with no more than 4 to 6 students per group.
 Interventions should be scheduled at a minimum of 5 times per week, 30 minutes per session. See
Standard Reading Protocol (pg.19-20), for tiered interventions.
 The RtI Individual Progress Update (pg.34), with AIMSweb progress graph attached, should be sent to
parents following 10 weeks of intervention.
 When deemed appropriate, students with Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) will also be progress
monitored.
Tier 2 Process Checklist
___ Multiple data points (AIMSweb, NWEA-MAP, F&P) were reviewed and revealed consistent
deficits on at least 2 out of the 3 assessments.
___ Attendance in Tier 1, core instruction is at 90%
___ The principal has verified Tier 1 fidelity checks are complete and has approved consideration of
more intensive intervention.
___ Progress monitoring in Tier 1 was completed and indicates limited to no progress.
___ AIMSweb progress monitoring schedule includes the required intervention description for
previous interventions.
___ Previous intervention was initiated for a minimum of 6 weeks, with changes only occurring
when 4 out of 6 consecutive data points fell below the aimline or data was highly variable.
___ Progress updates have been sent to parents following 10 weeks of intervention.
___ Tier 2 notification letters are scheduled to be sent prior to intervention start date.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Follow-up Tier 2 Meetings - Review of the Lowest 20%: Each grade level team meets with the
building IST/RtI Team following benchmark assessments and at least every 10 weeks to evaluate the
progress of the lowest 20% of students at each grade level, including those students who receive services
through Special Education. This can be a review of student progress in response to Tier 1 Instruction
Support and/or Tier 2 or 3 tiered interventions. The team reviews attendance, behavioral data, and
progress monitoring data for each student, analyzing aimlines and trendlines. Rates of improvement
between benchmarks and on progress monitoring documentation should also be reviewed. Using the
decision rules listed below, one of four decisions may be made at this meeting, for each student being
reviewed:
1) Student data collected as part of Tier 1 instructional support indicates 80% of students meeting
grade level expectations. Tier 2 intervention groups will be developed and initiated as per district
guidelines.
2) The Tier 2 intervention has been successful and the student no longer needs small group support.
The student must have 3 consecutive scores above their goal score AND the median of the 3 scores
MUST indicate performance at the 25th percentile for the next benchmark. The student will return to
the classroom and receive Tier 1 intervention. The student should be progress monitored as per
criteria set in Tier 1.
3) The intervention is working for the student and should be continued and monitored. The
AIMSweb progress monitoring schedule should be extended. In addition, if the student has obtained
three consecutive scores at or above their goal AND the median of these three scores remains below
the 25th percentile for the next benchmark period, the goal should be updated (see pg. 63).
4) The group intervention is not working for the student and should be revised or refined (see below
for specific decision rules for change). This may involve implementation of a different, Tier 2
intervention. Any intervention change and/or goal updates should be documented in AIMSweb.
Decision Rules for Intervention Change: A change in targeted intervention may be warranted
when a student’s progress monitoring indicates 4 consecutive data points, out of at least 6 points,
below the aimline or if data are highly variable (points are above and below the aimline). A
change may also be warranted if the slope of the trendline is flat or decreasing. Interventionists
must maintain the intervention until 6 data points have been collected in order to ensure accurate
analysis of the student’s aimline and trendline (calculated in AIMSweb). Also, within the 6 data
points, no more than 1 data point should be missing (i.e. if a student is missing 2 or more weeks
of data, the data count “resets”). Furthermore, a student should be in attendance at least 90% of
the time for core instruction AND intervention. If attendance is less than 90%, consider
motivational/behavioral interventions and continue current Tier 2 intervention in reading. If an
interventionist feels a change in intervention is warranted prior to the 10 week review, the
Request for Student Review (pg.25) may be completed and submitted to the building IST/RtI
Team. The RtI Student Review: Meeting Minutes (pg.27-28) must be completed at the student’s
individual RtI meeting.
Additional Reminders for Intervention Change:
 The IST/RtI Team should also review the progress of the grade level and/or class to
determine whether an individual student’s progress is significantly different from
his/her peers, as well as those within the intervention group. The student’s individual
rate of improvement and/or comparison to national and local norms may assist with
this data review.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
 Each time the intervention is changed, updated information should be entered into
AIMSweb. If a goal change is warranted, the aimline is created using the median of the 3
data points prior to the intervention change as the starting point for the new aimline.
 For English Language Learners (ELLs) who meet the above criteria, check the progress of
the cohort group after each 6-week period to determine whether an individual student’s
progress is significantly different from the group. Please refer to RtI Considerations for
ELLs, pgs. 14-17.
 Fidelity checks of Tier 1 core instruction and targeted interventions should be completed
and reviewed prior to any changes in student intervention.
5) An additional Tier 2 intervention may also be recommended for students who are beginning to show
progress, but continue to perform below average as compared to grade level expectations. A student
must participate in a minimum of two Tier 2 intervention periods prior to a move to Tier 3.
6) The student has not made adequate progress during two, Tier 2 intervention periods and therefore
the team will proceed to an Individualized, Intensified Intervention (Tier 3). Fidelity checks of core
instruction, tiered intervention and assessment are required prior to initiation of a Tier 3 intervention.
An Educational Evaluation, completed by the school psychologist, may also be considered in order to
provide more comprehensive assessment data to assist in intervention planning. PLEASE NOTE: an
Educational Evaluation is optional and is NOT an evaluation for Special Education.
Tier 2 Follow-Up Checklist
___ Grade Level or Class Meetings were held following benchmarks/universal screenings.
___ An Individual Student Review was requested and held prior to 10 week reviews – student must
have at least 6 weeks of data prior to review (skip to decision rules)
___ 10-week Progress Reviews held
____ Student attendance was reviewed
____ Behavioral data reviewed
___ Decision rules reviewed and followed for:
___ Tier 1 instructional support
___ Tier 2 discontinuation
___ Tier 2/3 continuation (principal has verified Tier 1 fidelity checks are complete and has
approved consideration of a more intensive intervention).
___ Tier 2/3 change (see fidelity criteria above)
___ An Educational Evaluation discussed as an option for further intervention planning, prior to
Tier 3 intervention.
IV. Tier 3: Individualizing and/or Intensifying Interventions: Students who fail to make progress or who
continue to display inconsistent progress at expected rates, notwithstanding two, targeted interventions at Tier 2
shall be provided individualized or intensified, research-based interventions. Tier 3 interventions are researchbased and implemented with integrity and fidelity consistent with the identified area of need. Interventions are
delivered in addition to, and not in place of, the core instruction provided in Tier 1. Tier 3 is typically reserved
for approximately one to five percent of students in a class who will receive more intensive instruction in
addition to their core instruction. Tier 3 differs from Tier 2 in terms of such factors as time, duration, group size,
frequency of progress monitoring, and focus. Intervention changes and goal updates must be documented in
AIMSweb.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Tier 3 interventions may be designed for students who continue to have difficulty mastering basic skills, even
after Tier 1 and Tier 2 interventions. Students in Tier 3 should receive more intensive and individualized
intervention(s). This can be accomplished by implementing at least two of the following:
 increasing the frequency (more than 5 intervention sessions per week)
 increasing the duration (at least 45-60 minutes per session),
 decreasing the size of the intervention group (1 to 3 students).
Tier 3 Team Process and Protocol: If the student has failed to make adequate progress (see Decision
Rules below) after two consecutive interventions at Tier 2, additional information must be gathered in
order to select an intervention that is specifically targeted to the student’s needs. IST/RtI Teams should
complete the following steps:
 The team should identify a case manager to assist with planning and coordination.
 Attendance (90% recommended) and fidelity checks of instruction and intervention Informal
Fidelity Checklist: Tier 2 Intervention (pg. 56) should also be reviewed prior to implementation
of a Tier 3 intervention.
 A Tier 3 Notification Letter (pg.34) should be sent to parents, notifying them that the school is
beginning to plan for a more individualized intervention for their student.
 If the student is an English Language Learner (ELL), obtain information about the child’s
language development in comparison to the student’s cohorts from the ELL teacher and review
the RtI Considerations for ELLs (pg. 13-16).
 Complete the Individual Problem Solving Worksheet (pgs.36-37). Although time consuming,
this level of evaluation is necessary for only a small percentage of students. It provides detail on
the student’s history and is important for designing an effective, individualized intervention.
 Based on the Individual Problem Solving Worksheet, ELL information, and ALL available
student data (current and historical); the IST/RtI Team will develop an intervention that
specifically targets the student’s individual needs. The team will continue to track intervention
details using AIMSweb and the student will continue to be progress monitored.
 A Tier 3 intervention must be tailored to the student’s specific needs and the student must be
monitored 2 times per week or after every third intervention session, for 10 weeks.
Tier 3 Process Checklist
___ An RtI Case Manager has been assigned
___ The student has received two, Tier 2 interventions
___ Progress monitoring in Tier 2 was completed and indicates limited to no progress. District
Guidelines for change and progress monitoring have been followed.
___ Multiple data points (AIMSweb, NWEA-MAP, F&P) were reviewed and revealed consistent
deficits on at least 2 out of the 3 assessments.
___ Attendance in Tier 2, core instruction and intervention are both at 90%
___ AIMSweb progress monitoring schedule includes the required intervention description for
previous interventions.
___ The principal has verified Tier 1 and 2 fidelity checks are complete and has approved
consideration of more intensive intervention.
___ If an Educational Evaluation was completed, results have been reviewed and support a more
intensive intervention
___ Progress updates have been sent to parents following every 10 weeks of intervention.
___ Parents have been notified of the school’s concerns regarding student lack of progress.
___ The referring teacher has completed the Individual Problem Solving Worksheet
___ Tier 3 notification letters are scheduled to be sent prior to intervention start date.
___ Progress monitoring will be scheduled 2xweek or after every third intervention session.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Tier 3 Decision Rules: Assuming fidelity of intervention and student attendance at 90%, and following
10 weeks of Tier 3 intervention, the IST/RtI Team will determine if:
1) The student has improved substantially and no longer needs to be included in a Tier 3, intensive
intervention group. The student should return to Tier 2, unless performance is on grade level (3
consecutive scores above the goal AND above the 25th percentile for the next benchmark), then
the student would return to Tier 1. The appropriate progress monitoring schedule should be
followed.
2) The student has improved and the team reduces the intensity of the intervention. Continue to
monitor progress.
3) The student has not improved and requires an additional, Tier 3 intervention. *A change in
targeted intervention may be warranted when a student’s progress monitoring indicates 4
consecutive data points, out of at least 6 points, below the aimline or if data are highly variable
(points are above and below the aimline). A change may also be warranted if the slope of the
trendline is flat or decreasing. Interventionists must maintain the intervention until 6 data points
have been collected in order to ensure accurate analysis of the student’s aimline and trendline
(calculated in AIMSweb). Also, within the 6 data points, no more than 1 data point should be
missing (i.e. if a student is missing 2 or more weeks of data, the data count “resets”). In
addition, a student should be in attendance at least 90% of the time for core instruction AND
intervention. If attendance is less than 90%, consider motivational/behavioral interventions and
continue current Tier 3 intervention in reading.
4) The student is beginning to show progress, but continues to perform below average as compared
to grade level expectations, an additional 10 weeks of Tier 3 intervention may be recommended
5) The student has received two, Tier 3 interventions and progress continues below the aimline,
therefore a referral to the Committee on Special Education (CSE) may be warranted. Also
consider a referral for special education services for students who have made progress, but the
intervention has been intensive and will need to be maintained in order for the student to
continue to make progress. If the student is an English Language Learner, see the RtI
Considerations for ELLs (pgs. 13-16).
 Intervention documentation, grade level and individual student reviews, AIMSweb screening
and progress-monitoring data, NWEA & curriculum based assessment results, educational
evaluation results, and the Individual Problem Solving Worksheet should be included with
the referral as they provide evidence regarding the student’s response to various
interventions. While RTI is recommended only for Specific Learning Disability
identification, the information collected may be useful for any special education referral.
When considering a referral to special education, you must complete the Minimum
Requirements Checklist for CSE Referral (pgs. 38-41) and attach.
Consider Exiting students from interventions when:
The student has achieved their progress monitoring goal and have displayed three consecutive progress
monitoring data points at or above the next AIMSweb target score (approximately at the 43rd percentile) and
core reading assessments (Fountas and Pinnell) and district-wide assessments (NWEA) indicate grade-level
proficiency.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Reading: Kindergarten Decision Rules
Tier 1 Instructional Support for Kindergarten will be delivered as per the guidelines listed below. This support
will be delivered to students through collaboration between classroom teachers and Tier 2/3 interventionists:
Reading, Speech, ESL, Special Education, to help determine specific instructional action plan and method of
support. Tier 1 instructional support is delivered in addition to high-risk groups identified for immediate tiered
intervention (please see district guidelines listed below when determining these groups).
Kindergarten
 1st Quarter:
o Collaborate and work with classroom teachers to develop and implement balanced literacy
centers (minimum of 30 minutes/day)
o Assist the building IST/RtI Team with AIMSweb administration
o Attend grade level meetings (when available)
 2nd Quarter:
o Continue supporting Kindergarten within classrooms AND begin to pull high-risk students.
PLEASE NOTE: In order to be considered for a high-risk group and receive tiered intervention
at the start of the second quarter, students MUST meet 3 out of 4 of the following criteria:
 Student is below the 10th percentile (red) on fall AIMSweb assessment (LNF)
 Student attended PreK AND spring readiness screenings indicated significant deficits
(student received less than 50% correct on 10 of the 17 sections AND limited progress
was noted since fall 2013)
 Student is re-administered AIMSweb LNF (as a progress check) at the end of October and
results continue to indicate performance below the 10th percentile AND Kindergarten
readiness screenings indicate deficits in 4 of the 6 early literacy skills.
 NWEA results indicate below grade level performance
o Based on AIMSweb and NWEA data, collaborate with the teachers to create literacy centers
which support Tier 1 instruction and individual class needs
o Based on data, begin small group instruction within classrooms in order to support student needs
o Progress monitor the lowest 20% in letter naming fluency (LNF) 2xmonth.
 3rd Quarter:
o Continue supporting kindergarten within classrooms when feasible and when classrooms are far
below 80% meeting grade level expectations
o Begin tiered interventions based on AIMSweb, progress monitoring, and NWEA data
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Considerations for English Language Learners (ELLs)
Information below was gathered from www.rtisuccess.org
For students identified as ELL, appropriate instruction includes instruction that is linguistically and culturally
responsive. This means that instruction and interventions must consider and build upon a student’s cultural
background and experiences, as well as their linguistic proficiency.
Prior to making decisions about a student’s reading development, teachers should consider the relationship
between the student’s language proficiency and his/her literacy skills. In the case of ELL students, reading
fluency and comprehension may be strongly determined by vocabulary comprehension and linguistic
proficiency in both native language (L1) and second language (L2).
BICS vs. CALPs
 BICS or Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills or “playground English” is usually attained in about 2
years. It is the English required for verbal communication in social settings.
 CALP or Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency takes much longer to acquire. This type of language
proficiency is necessary to perform successfully in mainstream academic courses. It is related to the
student’s age of arrival in an English speaking environment, cognitive development, and previous
educational background. Students who are literate in their first language will acquire CALP in English
at a faster rate than those who are not literate in their first language. For students with no literacy in their
background, academic English may take up 9 to 13 years to develop to native speaking standards. For
students with literacy in their backgrounds: a 5 to 7 year old may take 5 to 8 years, an 8-11 year old may
take 4 to 5 years, and a student 12 and older may take more than 5 years to acquire CALP.
Information below was gathered from Evaluating ELL Students for Special Education Services (Franklin W. Bender, 2008-2009
National CEU, LLC)
Sequential Second Language Acquisition
 Stage 1: Preproduction (typically 0-6 months in US school) – Student focuses on comprehending
messages, tries to associate new words with vocabulary from L1, attends to nonverbal communication,
and responds with simple words or nonverbally. Instruction should emphasize listening comprehension,
choosing, matching, and drawing.
 Stage 2: Early Production (typically 6 months-1 year in US school) – Student communication is
characterized by one and two word phrases and many grammatical errors. Common nouns, verbs and
adjectives emerge first. Vocabulary must be learned in context of themes, stories or personal narratives.
Instruction should focus on conveying meaning as opposed to using correct forms, expressive skills
including listening, naming, categorizing. The student should also be encouraged to use vocabulary that
they understand.
 Stage 3: Speech Emergence (typically 1-3 years in US school) – Student has acquired limited vocabulary
and can respond to literal questions, use simple sentences, and engage in conversation. Student may still
make punctuation and grammatical errors. Errors of omission are common, and their utterances are
often “chunks”. Instruction should emphasize more complete language forms such as comparing and
contrasting, definitions, descriptions, and retelling.
 Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency (typically 3-5 years in US school) – Student continues to develop excellent
comprehension and is beginning to function in normal conversation. However, they continue to lack the
sufficient academic language to compete with native English speakers. They are often actively engaged
13
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
in communication and fluency. Literacy and academic language are continuing to develop. Instruction
should build on the student’s existing skills to produce responses that require creativity, critical thinking,
and complex sentence structures.
 Stage 5: Proficient (typically 5-7 years in US school) – Students can be “themselves” in a variety of
settings and situations using listening, speaking, reading and writing skills with few errors. Instruction
should continue reading and writing instruction with increased focus on evaluation and analysis.
Literacy Acquisition for ELLs
 Stage 1 (typically 6 months-1 year) – Recognizes letters, shows phonics skills, distinguishes vowel and
consonant sounds, possesses a small sight word vocabulary, observes storytelling, attaches meaning to
some print, practices reader-like behavior, and constructs meaning from text primarily from non-print
features.
 Stage 2 (typically 2-3 years) – Predicts outcomes, recalls facts and details, identifies main idea and draws
conclusions, understands the feelings of characters, follows simple written directions, uses the
dictionary, reading along with a group, recognizes and uses a variety of spatial and locational words, and
participates in shared reading.
 Stage 3 (typically 4-5 years) – Uses complex phonics and content for word identification, summarizes and
sequences events, describes time and setting, understands themes and feelings, and uses graphic
resources for information.
 Stage 4 (typically 5-6 years) – Follows written directions, uses word clues to decode text, reads/responds
to a variety of literature, sequences story events, identifies main idea/details, draws conclusions/predicts
outcomes, relates literature to personal experience, expresses opinion, interprets stories, and gathers
information.
 Stage 5 (typically 6-7 years) – Reads competently to meet both social and academic needs/demands, reads
with considerable fluency, and choses and enjoys materials for personal reading.
Data-Based Decision Making
When making decisions regarding appropriate placements for ELLs or the effectiveness of a particular
intervention or curriculum for ELLs, school personnel must consider additional data beyond screening and
progress monitoring data. Factors such as first and second language acquisition; methods and programs for
instruction in the native language; and the interaction among linguistic, cognitive, and academic
development are all areas of be considered so that the evaluation of ELLs, whether through screening or
progress monitoring, can be conducted equitably and appropriately. School personnel should review
students’ records and talk to students and their parents to obtain information on the following data points:
1. Native language skills (L1 or first language)
2. Life experiences and assets
3. Second language skills (L2)
4. Cultural values and beliefs
5. Prior formal education (in L1 and L2)
Determining Adequate Progress
It may take longer for instruction to have the desired impact with ELLs, but this does not necessarily mean
the student has a specific learning disability.
1. Set the same grade level goals for ELLs as everyone else and use the same measures to
determine students in need of intervention.
2. It may also be helpful to set short and long-term intermediate goals as ELLs work toward
meeting the grade level standards. Depending on what these are, it may be appropriate to use a
test or a portfolio to determine when these goals have been met.
3. Monitor student progress in all languages of instruction.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
www.rtinetwork.org
What does Tier 1 look like for our ELLs?
 Tier 1 includes the core reading curriculum (balanced literacy) delivered to all students, with targeted
instruction to proficiency level and collaboration among classroom teachers and ESL providers in order
to align the common core learning standards to meet individual needs. Instruction should be
differentiated within the core, balanced literacy curriculum. *Please note that mandatory ESL services,
provided to ELLs, are considered part of Tier 1, core instruction.
 When administering AIMSweb screenings and other school-wide assessments (i.e. Fountas and Pinnell,
NWEA) it is important to have an adult who is familiar with the student’s manner of speaking (i.e.
accent) administer or assist in administering the benchmark as to ensure fidelity and scoring consistency.
How is Tier 1 instruction and intervention effectively implemented for ELLs?
 Ongoing collaboration with the student’s ESL teacher and other related service providers.
 Differentiate instruction throughout the day.
 Set high but reasonable instructional expectations that provide ongoing support
 Consider the foundational skills such as phonemic awareness and phonics early in the reading process,
with continued emphasis on vocabulary and concept building throughout the instructional process.
Reading words accurately and with prosody, as well as reading for meaning are emphasized throughout
listening comprehension early and then later through reading comprehension.
 Do not wait for English oral language to meet grade level expectations before providing reading
instruction. Provide instruction in early reading while also providing support for English oral language
development.
 Promote language and vocabulary development throughout the day with the use of visual support.
 Scaffold language and opportunities to respond.
 Provide opportunities for appropriate peer learning and small group, differentiated instruction.
 Incorporate strategies and instructional routines such as repetitive language, rapid pacing, adult and peer
modeling, practice, reading discussions, and systematic/explicit instruction into the core program.
 Consider oral language acquisition when making instructional decisions.
 Use cognates to facilitate instruction for ELL Spanish Native speakers.
 Include language objectives in all content areas.
 Teach prefixes, suffixes, and word relationships.
 Use repetition, rhyme, and song to build fluency and auditory discrimination.
How are Tier 2 interventions effectively implemented for ELLs?
 Provide interventions in addition to, not in place of, core instruction and Tier 1 supports.
 Provide intense reading interventions to ELLs demonstrating low reading skills when needed.
 Retain a small group to ensure intensive interventions.
 Do not wait for English oral language to develop before providing interventions in reading. If an ELL
student is exhibiting characteristics of the Preproduction Stage or the “silent stage”, the IST/RtI
Team with support from the building ELL teacher should determine whether the student is
appropriate for Tier 2 intervention OR if they should remain within Tier 1 for a longer period of time,
until Early Production skills emerge.
 Provide ongoing support for English oral language development and vocabulary through the use of
visuals and models.
 Consider an additional, Tier 2 intervention for students who have had interrupted schooling or have
limited to no background instruction in their native language (L1).
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
How is Tier 3 intervention effectively implemented for ELLs?
 Provide interventions in addition to, not in place of, core instruction, as well as, Tier 1 and 2 supports.
 Provide ongoing support for English oral language development.
 ELLs, who are significantly below in reading, should receive highly intensive and extensive reading
interventions and should continue until the student is able to adequately benefit from reading instruction
provided within the core reading program.
 Tier 3 intervention should be provided by a well-trained specialist with a strong background in literacy.
 Tier 3 may need to continue for a significant period of time when students are making minimal progress;
adjustments to instruction may be made with consideration given to the integration of contextual factors.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Summary: RtI Identification Process
Decision Rules
Tier 1, 80% Decision Rule: If
80% of students within a
classroom are not meeting
grade level or behavioral
benchmarks, the team should
then strengthen the core by
planning intervention activities
that target areas, which data
analysis suggests need
attention.
Tier 2, 20% Decision Rule:
The lowest 20% of students,
including all students <10th
percentile, at each grade level
on school-wide screening
measures, may receive small
group interventions following
documentation of a successful
Tier 1program.
Tier 3, Intensifying
Interventions Rule: When
students fail to make progress
after two, Tier 2 interventions,
intensify the intervention using
RtI protocol. An educational
evaluation may be completed
following the initial, Tier 3
intervention if student has not
made adequate progress.
Refer for Special Education
Rule: When student fails to
make expected progress after
two, Tier 3 interventions a
referral to special education
may be initiated. The
Minimum Requirements
Checklist must be completed
and attached to referral.
RtI Team Timelines
Building RtI Team: will meet in the fall, winter and spring to review universal screening data and make
decisions regarding school-wide and individual progress. Teams will also meet with grade levels or
classroom teachers every 10 weeks to review data, plan and adjust interventions. Individual student
reviews may be requested prior to 10 weeks or at any point during the RtI process.
17
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Process Flowchart
*The RtI Process Flowchart can also be accessed via the following link S:\Response to Intervention-Elementary\ACSD Elementary Rtl Handbook\RtI Flowchart.xlsx
18
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Standard Reading Protocol
CORE PROGRAM
GRADE
TIME
90
minutes
daily
K
90
minutes
daily
1-2
90
minutes
daily
3-5
45 - 90
minutes
daily
6
CURRICULUM
Balanced Literacy
 Interactive Read
Aloud
 Shared Reading
 Guided Reading
 Phonics/Word Study
(Words Their Way)
Balanced Literacy
 Interactive Read
Aloud
 Shared Reading
 Guided Reading
 Phonics/Word Study
(Words Their Way)
Balanced Literacy
 Interactive Read
Aloud
 Shared Reading
 Guided
Reading/Literature
Circles or Stations
 Phonics/Word Study
(Words Their Way)
English Language Arts
Units of Study
(district curriculum)
INTERVENTIONS
CURRICULUM OPTIONS
TIME AND GROUP SIZE
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 1 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes of Instructional Support or
teacher intervention, at least 3xweek.
Large or small group, typically in the classroom
Tier 2 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes, at least 5xweek. Small group (46 students), typically outside the classroom
Tier 3 Intervention:
Core + a minimum of 45 minutes daily. Small group
(1-3 students), typically outside the classroom







Tier 1 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes of Instructional Support or
teacher intervention, at least 3xweek. Large or small
group, typically in the classroom
Tier 2 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes, 5xweek. Small group (4-6
students), typically outside the classroom
Tier 3 Intervention:
Core + a minimum of 45 minutes daily.
Small group (1-3 students), typically outside the
classroom







www.fcrr.org
www.free-reading.net
www.readworks.org
www.interventioncentral.org
Razkids; Reading A to Z
Earobics
Braidy, the Story Braid
(large group)
 Fundations (large group)
 Everyday Comprehension


Tier 1 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes of Instructional Support or
teacher intervention, at least 3xweek. Large or small
group, typically in the classroom
Tier 2 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes, 5xweek. Small group (4-6
students), typically outside the classroom
Tier 3 Intervention:
Core + a minimum of 45 minutes daily. Small group
(1-3 students), typically outside the classroom





www.fcrr.org
www.free-reading.net
www.readworks.org
www.interventioncentral.org
Razkids; Reading A to Z
Everyday Comprehension
Reader’s Theater
Story Grammar Marker (large
group)








www.fcrr.org
www.readworks.org
www.interventioncentral.org
Razkids; Reading A to Z
Everyday Comprehension
Reader’s Theater








www.fcrr.org
www.free-reading.net
www.readworks.org
www.interventioncentral.org
Razkids
Earobics
Braidy, the Story Braid
(large group)
Fundations (large group)
Ladders to Literacy
















Fundations (small group)
Braidy, the Story Braid
(small group)
Harcourt Intensive
Intervention
Lindamood-Bell LiPS
The Comprehension Tool
Kit
LLI*
Tier 3
 Double dose of
Fundations
 LLI (must include a
reduction in group
size)
Fundations (small group)
Braidy the Story Braid
(small group)
Lindamood-Bell LiPS
Harcourt Intensive
Intervention
LLI *
The Comprehension Tool
Kit
Responsive Reading
 Double dose of
Fundations
 LLI (must include a
reduction in group
size)
Wilson Just Words
Story Grammar Marker
(small group)
Harcourt Intensive
Intervention
LLI *
The Comprehension Tool Kit
 Wilson
 LLI (must include a
reduction in group
size)
 HELPS Program
(www.helpsprogram
.org)
Wilson Just Words
Theme Maker
Harcourt Intensive
Intervention
The Comprehension Tool Kit
LLI*
 Wilson
 LLI (must include a
reduction in group
size)
 HELPS Program
(www.helpsprogram
.org)
19
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Special Ed:
SelfContained
K-3 (12:1,
15:1)
90
minutes
daily
90
minutes
daily
Special Ed:
SelfContained
4-6 (12:1,
15:1)
90
minutes
daily
ELL
Balanced Literacy
 Interactive Read
Aloud
 Shared Reading
 Guided Reading
 Phonics/Word Study
Balanced Literacy
 Interactive Read
Aloud
 Shared Reading
 Guided
Reading/Literature
Circles or Stations
 Phonics/Word Study
 Balanced Literacy
(see grades K-5)
 ESL services as per
NYS Assessments
(LAB-R,
NYSESLAT)
Tier 1 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes Fundations and/or Braidy the
Story Braid (3xweek). Large or small group
Tier 2 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes, Double Dose Fundations or LLI
(daily). Small group (4-6 students)
Tier 3 Intervention:
Core + a minimum of 45 minutes daily.Small group
(1-3 students), typically outside the classroom
Tier 1 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes Scripted Interventions
Large or small group
Tier 2 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes, Wilson Just Words, Story
Grammar Marker or LLI (daily). Small group (4-6
students)
Tier 3 Intervention:
Core + a minimum of 45 minutes daily
Small group (1-3 students), typically outside the
classroom
Tier 1 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes of Instructional Support or
teacher intervention, 3xweek. Large or small group,
typically in the classroom
Tier 2 Intervention:
Core + 30 minutes, 5xweek. Small group (4-6
students), typically outside the classroom
Tier 3 Intervention:
Core + a minimum of 45 minutes daily.
Small group (1-3 students), typically outside the
classroom


























www.fcrr.org
www.free-reading.net
www.readworks.org
www.interventioncentral.org
Fundations (large group)
Braidy the Story Braid
(large group)
Razkids; Reading A to Z
Ladders to Literacy
www.fcrr.org
www.free-reading.net
www.readworks.org
www.interventioncentral.org
Razkids; Reading A to Z
Earobics
Story Grammar Marker
(large group)
Everyday Comprehension
Reader’s Theater
Continue ESL services as per
NYS Assessments
Use picture dictionaries
Label items in room
Add visual cues/symbols
Increase language
development opportunities
Include language objectives
as per common core
Provide language arts
instruction in student’s native
language when available and
appropriate.
Words Their Way ELL
Curriculum
Any Tier 1 intervention
resources listed for grades K6, as deemed appropriate




Double Dose Fundations
(11th-24th percentile)
LLI* (<10th percentile)
The Comprehension Tool Kit
Responsive Reading
 Wilson (5x45)
 HELPS Program
(www.helpsprogram
.org)




Wilson Just Words (5x45)
Story Grammar Marker
LLI*
The Comprehension Tool Kit
 Wilson (5x45)
 HELPS Program
(www.helpsprogram
.org)
Any of the following, as deemed
appropriate and based on
instructional level:
 Fundations
 Braidy the Story Braid,
Story Grammar Marker, or
Theme Maker
 Lindamood-Bell LiPS
 LLI *
 Wilson Just Words
 The Comprehension Tool Kit
 Harcourt Intensive
Intervention
 Responsive Reading
Any of the following,
as deemed appropriate
and based on
instructional level:
 Double dose of
Fundations
 Wilson
 LLI* (must include a
reduction in group
size)
 HELPS Program
(www.helpsprogram
.org)
*LLI: The recommended group size is 1:3, however due to restrictions or limited resources some buildings may alter these requirements
http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/default.aspx
20
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Fall RtI Group Interventions & Planning Form
Teacher/Grade:
Check if
Appropriate
Tier
Decision
Behavioral Screening
Office Referrals
NYS Math
NYS ELA
NWEA (Overall RIT)
AIMSweb MAZE
AIMSweb RCBM
AIMSweb NWF
AIMSweb PSF
AIMSweb LSF
AIMSweb LNF
WTW Level
Fluency
Comprehension
Accuracy
Enter Raw Scores (F&P, AIMSweb, NWEA, etc.)
F& P Instructional Level
ELL
Math
Writing
Reading
Attendance/Tardies
First Name
Behavior/Social-Emotional
Last Name
Check if Concerns
Special Education
School:
*Group Intervention & Planning Forms should be completed per classroom, following benchmarks (3xyear). Completed forms must be submitted to Karen Bechdol (3xyear) and
saved in building RtI folder on the shared drive.
21
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Winter RtI Group Interventions & Planning Form
Teacher/Grade:
Check if
Appropriate
Tier
Decision
Behavioral Screening
Office Referrals
NYS Math
NYS ELA
NWEA (Overall RIT)
AIMSweb MAZE
AIMSweb RCBM
AIMSweb NWF
AIMSweb PSF
AIMSweb LSF
AIMSweb LNF
WTW Level
Fluency
Comprehension
Accuracy
Enter Raw Scores (F&P, AIMSweb, NWEA, etc.)
F& P Instructional Level
ELL
Math
Writing
Reading
Attendance/Tardies
First Name
Behavior/Social-Emotional
Last Name
Check if Concerns
Special Education
School:
*Group Intervention & Planning Forms should be completed per classroom, following benchmarks (3xyear). Completed forms must be submitted to Karen Bechdol (3xyear) and
saved in building RtI folder on the shared drive.
22
Last Name
First Name
Behavioral Screening
Office Referrals
NYS Math
NYS ELA
NWEA (Overall RIT)
AIMSweb MAZE
AIMSweb RCBM
AIMSweb NWF
AIMSweb PSF
AIMSweb LSF
AIMSweb LNF
WTW Level
Fluency
Check if
Appropriate
Comprehension
Accuracy
F& P Instructional Level
ELL
Check if Concerns
Special Education
Math
Writing
Reading
Attendance/Tardies
School:
Behavior/Social-Emotional
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Spring RtI Group Interventions & Planning Form
Teacher/Grade:
Enter Raw Scores (F&P, AIMSweb, NWEA, etc.)
Tier
Decision
23
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
*Group Intervention & Planning Forms should be completed per classroom, following benchmarks (3xyear). Completed forms must be submitted to Karen Bechdol (3xyear) and
saved in building RtI folder on the shared drive.
24
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
2013-2014 Grade Level Meeting Minutes
Benchmark Review ☐
Progress Review ☐
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Grade: Choose an item. Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Attendees: Click here to enter text.
Student: Click here to enter text.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Current Intervention:Click here to enter text. Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Area of Concern: Choose an item. If Behavior is selected as area of concern, please provide more
detailed information: Click here to enter text.
Attendance: Click here to enter text.
Are 80% of the students responding to core instruction? Choose an item.
Are 80% of the students responding to the intervention? Choose an item.
Notes/Comments:Click here to enter text.
Intervention Decision: Click here to enter text.
Student: Click here to enter text.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Current Intervention:Click here to enter text. Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Area of Concern: Choose an item. If Behavior is selected as area of concern, please provide more
detailed information: Click here to enter text.
Attendance: Click here to enter text.
Are 80% of the students responding to core instruction? Choose an item.
Are 80% of the students responding to the intervention? Choose an item.
Notes/Comments:
Intervention Decision:
Student: Click here to enter text.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Current Intervention:Click here to enter text. Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Area of Concern: Choose an item. If Behavior is selected as area of concern, please provide more
detailed information: Click here to enter text.
Attendance: Click here to enter text.
Are 80% of the students responding to core instruction? Choose an item.
Are 80% of the students responding to the intervention? Choose an item.
Notes/Comments:
Intervention Decision:
Student: Click here to enter text.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Current Intervention:Click here to enter text. Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Area of Concern: Choose an item. If Behavior is selected as area of concern, please provide more
detailed information: Click here to enter text.
Attendance: Click here to enter text.
Are 80% of the students responding to core instruction? Choose an item.
Are 80% of the students responding to the intervention? Choose an item.
Notes/Comments:
Intervention Decision:
RtI: Request for Student Review
Student Information:
Name
ID Number
Date
Grade Level
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Date of Birth
School
Parent/Guardian
Person Requesting
Review
Gender
Teacher
Phone Number
IEP or ELL
Student?
Purpose: This form is completed by the referring classroom teacher and/or interventionist to request an
individual student review by the building IST/IST/RtI Team.
1. What are the student’s strengths?
Academic
SocialEmotional/Behavioral
2. What are the areas of concern?
☐Early Literacy Skills ☐Reading Fluency ☐Reading Comprehension
☐Written Expression
☐Oral Expression ☐Listening Comprehension
☐Math Calculation
☐Math Problem Solving
☐Social Emotional
☐Behavior
☐Attendance/Tardies
☐Other
Please provide a detailed description of your concern. If your area of concern is social-emotional or
behavior, please include how long the behavior has been occurring. Click here to enter text.
3. Please list any parent contact you have had to date and/or parent involvement prior to review.
4. Please list any tiered interventions the student has received to date.
Intervention
Tier
Frequency/Duration
Date(s)
Provider
5. Please list any additional services, not listed as a tiered intervention, (i.e. speech therapy, counseling,
behavior intervention plan, etc.), which have been provided. Please include dates and provider.
6. In addition to those attached (see list below), please list any additional assessment results, administered
within the last year.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Assessment
NWEA ELA (RIT Score)
NWEA Math (RIT Score)
Score(s)
Date(s)
Grade
F&P Instructional Level(s)
NYS ELA
NYS Math
Other:
7. Please list student absences and tardies for the current school year.
8. Please note any additional factor you feel will be need to conduct a comprehensive review of this
student.
Please attach the following supporting documents with this referral:
 AIMSweb benchmark screening
 AIMSweb progress monitoring graph, with intervention description
 Behavioral screening results and progress monitoring reports
 FBA/BIP
Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs)
RtI Student Review: Meeting Minutes
Student Name
School
Date
Grade Level
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Person Requesting
Review
IEP or ELL
Student
Teacher
Please attach Request for Student Review form to completed meeting minutes.
Problem Identification:
State specific area of concern (limit to one area of greatest concern): Click here to enter text.
Evidence of Skill/Performance Deficit:
☐AIMSweb universal screening
Individual Student Report reviewed? Choose an item.
Is the student’s rate of improvement (ROI) less than 50% when compared to national norms?
Choose an item. Local norms? Choose an item.
Progress monitoring data reviewed? Choose an item.
At what grade level is the student currently progress monitored?Choose an item.
Is the student’s ROI less than their goal ROI? Choose an item.
☐ Fountas and Pinnell
Benchmark assessment results reviewed? Choose an item.
Please list the student’s last 2 instructional levels. Click here to enter text.
Running records reviewed? Choose an item.
How often have running records been completed? Click here to enter text.
Has progress been noted on running records? Choose an item.
☐NWEA
Results reviewed? Choose an item.
What is the student’s approximate grade level performance? Click here to enter text.
☐Behavioral Screening/Assessment
Universal Screening or Social Emotional Screening completed? Choose an item.
Progress Monitoring completed and reviewed? Choose an item..
FBA completed? Choose an item. BIP completed? Choose an item..
☐Other (Click here to enter text.)
Evidence of Fidelity:
☐AIMSweb assessments have been completed with fidelity.
Fidelity check completed onClick here to enter a date.. by Click here to enter text.
☐Core balanced literacy instruction has been provided with fidelity.
Core fidelity check list completed on Click here to enter a date.by Click here to enter text.
☐Intervention has been delivered with fidelity.
Fidelity check list completed on Click here to enter a date. By Click here to enter text.
Problem Analysis: (Statement of why the problem is occurring)
☐Skill Deficit (i.e. can’t do)
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
☐Fragile Skill (i.e. can do, but is inconsistent and/or not fluent)
☐Performance Deficit (i.e. won’t do) due to:
☐attention seeking
☐sensory needs
☐avoidance/escape
☐social emotional needs
☐desire to obtain item/activity
☐defiance/oppositional behavior
☐other
☐not sure
Intervention Recommendations:
Recommendations: Choose an item.
Please explain further if intervention was modified or intensified: Click here to enter text.
If modifying or intensifying the intervention, did 80% of the students receiving the
intervention make progress? Choose an item.
New Intervention Details: To be completed if intervention is modified or intensified.
*Please be sure to update any intervention changes in AIMSweb.
Brief Description: Click here to enter text.
Tier: Click here to enter text.
Target Skill:Choose an item. Please specify target skills, if general area selected: Click here to enter text.
Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Start Date:Click here to enter a date. Frequency: Choose an item. Duration: Choose an item.
Frequency of data collection/progress monitoring: Choose an item.
*A follow-up meeting will be scheduled for Click here to enter a date.
Additional Notes/Minutes:
Members in Attendance:
Team Use Only
☐FBA/BIP recommended
☐Referral to Behavioral Specialist recommended (must submit Request for Student Review
and Meeting Minutes, along with progress monitoring data, FBA/BIP, office referrals, and
physical intervention forms. It is recommended that the principal, social worker and school
psychologist attend individual student reviews prior to referral. Please be sure to sign above.
☐Educational Evaluation, Speech Language, OT/PT evaluation recommended (please circle).
☐Initiation of referral to special education recommended (please complete the Minimum
Requirements Checklist for CSE Referral and attach all relevant data).
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
AIMSweb Reading Improvement Report – Parent Information
In order to identify your child’s achievement in reading, he/she has been screened, using an assessment
system called AIMSweb. This benchmark screening will occur three times per year (Fall, Winter and Spring).
Depending on your child’s grade level he/she will be assessed in reading fluency, comprehension, and/or early
literacy skills. If requested, you will receive a copy of your child’s results, which may include previous
assessments completed during the current school year or years prior.
Following benchmark screenings you can request a report similar to the one below. Your child’s report may
vary slightly, depending upon grade level and whether or not your child has been screened in the past.
The example provided below includes benchmark screening results for a third grade student. He/she was
previously screened using the R-CBM (oral reading fluency) in first grade spring (1S), second grade fall, winter
and spring (2F, 2W, 2S) and third grade fall (3F). Results are also listed for the MAZE (a short comprehension
screening) for second grade winter and spring, as well as third grade fall. Student results are compared to
national norms, which provide information about how a child is doing compared to their same aged peers.
With regard to the R-CBM results, this example shows how one student read compared to same aged peers.
The chart also displays how well an average third-grader reads.
 The number of words this child read correctly in one minute in indicated by the blue dot.
 The black horizontal line (within the green box) represents the score of what an average student read
(nationally), this is also the 50th percentile.
 The black horizontal line that extends beyond the green box is the target score (around the 44 th percentile)
for a student at that particular grade level.
 The green box indicates the average range nationally, which extends from the 25 th percentile to the 74th
percentile. Generally speaking, this range indicates students approaching grade level expectations to
those meeting grade level expectations.
 The units on the left hand side of the grade are items correct or more specifically words read correct for the
RCBM and items answered correctly for the MAZE.
Looking at this particular graph and reviewing the most recent results (third grade fall), this student is reading
within the average range and above the 50th percentile as compared to same aged peers, nationally. This
indicates oral reading at grade level. With regard to the MAZE results, this student is slightly above grade level
expectations for reading comprehension.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Tier 2 Notification Letter
City School District of Albany
Click here to enter a date.
Name
Address
City, State Zip Code
Dear Parent/Guardian;
A Response to Intervention Plan (Tier 2) has been developed on behalf of your child to address the following
targeted skill area: Choose an item. As a Tier 2 intervention, your child will receive targeted, small group
intervention. The school’s IST/RtI Team will meet regularly to review progress and make recommendations.
You will receive updates at least every 10 weeks and/or if a more intensive intervention is required.
Recommendations at IST/RtI Team meetings may include any of the following:
 Discontinue the plan and set new goals
 Continue the plan and set new goals
 Change the plan and set new goals
 Create a more intensive, individualized RtI Plan (Tier 3)
If you would like to review the plan, please contact your child’s classroom teacher to schedule a meeting.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation and assistance. Please remember, we believe parents play a critical
role in supporting their child’s learning in school.
 Communicate frequently with your child’s teacher
 Review and assist with homework
 Celebrate your child’s successes
 Discuss issues or problems openly and honestly
 Participate in conferences and other meetings about your child
 Ask your child about their school day
 Support and reinforce your child’s teachers
 Read together and talk about characters/problems in the story
 Praise good behavior and choices at home and at school
Sincerely,
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Parent Brochure
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
* RtI Parent Brochure should be printed from Microsoft Publisher via the following link S:\Response to Intervention-Elementary\ACSD Elementary
Rtl Handbook\Parent Brochure 2013-2014.pub
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Tier 3 Notification Letter
Instructional Program Review
City School District of Albany
Click here to enter a date.
Name
Address
City, State Zip Code
Dear Parent/Guardian:
Your child has been receiving additional support in reading through the Response to Intervention (RtI) process.
The RtI program’s purpose is prevention of academic problems by supporting group and individual programs
for all students. The IST/RtI Team is planning on meeting to discuss your child’s needs and to review his/her
individual RtI program and determine if a more intensified, Tier 3 plan is warranted at this time. The team will
be meeting on Click here to enter a date.
We believe parents play a critical role in supporting their child’s learning in school. Your input is an important
part of this process and we would appreciate your attendance at this meeting. If you need more specific
information, please contact your child’s classroom teacher.
If you have questions regarding the RtI program, please contact your school principal. Thank you in advance for
your cooperation and assistance.
Sincerely,
IMPORTANT NOTICE REGARDING SPECIAL EDUCATION: Sometimes students experience substantial ongoing
difficulties in school as the result of disabilities. If the school team or your child’s teacher(s) have this concern, they will
contact you to discuss it. If you are concerned that your child may have a disability and is in need of special education
services, please contact the school principal.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Individual Progress Update
City School District of Albany
Click here to enter a date.
Dear Parent/Guardian of Click here to enter text;
In an effort to meet your child’s individual learning needs, he/she was provided a targeted, research-based
intervention as per our district’s Response to Intervention (RtI) model. Interventions have been provided
Choose an item. for Choose an item. While receiving RtI support, you child participated in an intervention called
Click here to enter text.with the intent of improving your child’s Choose an item. Throughout the RtI process
your child was assessed regularly in order to document progress towards grade level reading skills.
The attached graph demonstrates your child’s performance in response to interventions delivered.
 The solid black line represents the “goal” for your child based on his/her original screening.
 The dots along or around the goal line represent your child’s actual performance during progress checks.
 The dotted line represents your child’s trend or predicted progress towards his/her goal.
 Vertical lines indicate changes to your child’s intervention and/or goal.
Based on your child’s progress monitoring data, he/she Choose an item. (see graph) and therefore Choose an item.
require further support.
If you have any further questions or concerns regarding the RtI process or your child’s intervention, please do
not hesitate to contact your child’s principal.
Sincerely,
Student Progress Key:
 Student has made adequate progress and is on grade level = Student has met their goal for 3 consecutive scores
AND is above the 25th percentile as compared to same aged peers.
 Student has not made adequate progress = Student has not met their goal for 3 consecutive scores AND remains
below the 25th percentile as compared to same aged peers.
 Student continues to progress but remains below grade level = Student has met their goal BUT remains below the
25th percentile as compared to same aged peers.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Individual Problem Solving Worksheet: File Review and Problem Identification
Date:
Student Name:
School:
Case Manager:
Grade
K
Grade:
1
Teacher:
Person completing this form:
Current Services (bold): Sp. Ed., ELL, RTI/AIS, 504, other: _______
ATTENDANCE REVIEW: Complete the following.
2
3
4
5
School Year
School(s) Attended
Days Absent per year
Attendance
Percentage
Grade
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
School Year
School Attended
Days Absent per year
Attendance
Percentage
Review of permanent record for any school related domains NOT previously reported on the Request for Student Review OR Meeting Minutes :
Reading achievement:
Math achievement:
Behavior (including attending skills):
Language skills (including oral and written language):
Hearing Screening Results:
Vision Screening Results:
English Language Development:
How long has the child been in an ELL program in the United States?
Is the student’s language level and rate of progress similar to the language level of other students in their cohort group? (This should give an initial
indication of potential learning difficulty IF the child has had years of explicit English language instruction but not made progress.)
Is there an indication that the child has a delayed or disrupted educational experience? (This could explain why the child’s skills are very low.)
Is there an indication that the student’s language and/or academic development has been different from his or her peers? (This might be an indication
that the student may have a learning difference that is inherent.)
Other (including attendance issues):
*Please attach benchmark results with rate of improvement information for the current and previous school year, request for student review and
meeting minutes (with updated intervention information), AND progress monitoring graphs for the current school year.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
INDIVIDUAL PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHEET – Page 2 –
Student:
Date:
HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT
1. Does evidence support that the student’s problems may be primarily due to problems with attention, motivation, or other behavioral difficulty? Include
data along with progress monitoring of behavioral supports.
2. Does evidence support that the student’s problems may be primarily due to attendance problems, or frequent school interruptions? If so, indicate
reasons for absences and interruptions. What interventions have been put in place to address this issue? Progress should be proportionate to attendance.
3. Does evidence support that the student’s problems may be primarily due to other concerns like trauma, economic or cultural disadvantage, or other
disabilities? Describe. Be sure to note when these issues occurred and their correlations with any academic concerns. What will be done to help the
student be more successful?
4. Does the evidence support that the child’s difficulties may be the result of language difficulties in areas such as language processing, social language,
or articulation? Indicate next steps.
5. Does the evidence support the hypothesis that the difficulty is due to limited English proficiency? Indicate next steps.
6. Does the evidence suggest that the student has low skills and slow progress despite intensive interventions? What will the individualized intervention
be? Curriculum, time per day, size of group, etc.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Minimum Requirements Checklist for CSE Referral
Interventions: Evidence-Based & Implemented with Integrity
Tier 1: Classroom Interventions. The classroom teacher is the “first responder” for students with academic delays.
Classroom efforts to instruct and individually support the student should be documented.
Adequately
RtI Element
If this element is incomplete,
Documented?
missing, or undocumented…
Tier 1: High-Quality Core Instruction - The student has received
Inadequate or incorrectly focused
high quality core instruction in the area of academic concern. “High core instruction may be an
☐ YES
quality” is defined as at least 80% of students in the classroom or
explanation for students’
☐ NO
grade level performing at or above grade level expectations,
academic delays. This does not
through classroom instructional support alone (Christ, 2008). Data
validate a referral to special
sources including AIMSweb and NWEA should be reviewed to
education.
determine if 80% of students are meeting grade level expectations.
Tier 1: Classroom Intervention - The classroom teacher has
An absence of individualized
provided additional individualized academic support to the student classroom support or a poorly
☐ YES
beyond that provided in core instruction.
focused classroom intervention
☐ NO
plan may contribute to the
 The teacher has documented those strategies on a Tier 1
student’s academic delays and
intervention plan, in AIMSweb.
does not validate a referral to
 Intervention ideas contained in the plan meet the district’s
criteria as “evidence-based” and/or are provided within the special education.
Standard Reading Protocol chart. Interventions have been
provided at a minimum of 3xweek, for 30 minutes.
 Student academic baseline and goals were calculated, and
progress-monitoring data was collected (minimum of
2xmonth) to measure the impact of the plan.
 The classroom intervention was attempted for a period
sufficiently long (e.g., 6-10 instructional weeks) to fully
assess its effectiveness.
 The student was in attendance for core instruction and
intervention 90% of the time.
Tiers 2 & 3: Supplemental Interventions. Interventions at Tiers 2 & 3 supplement core instruction and specifically target
the student’s academic deficits.
Adequately
RtI Element
If this element is incomplete,
Documented?
missing, or undocumented…
Tier 2 & 3 Interventions: Minimum Number & Length A foundation assumption of RtI is
The student’s cumulative RtI information indicates that an
that a general-education student
☐ YES
adequate effort in the general-education setting was made to
with academic difficulties is
☐ NO
provide supplemental interventions at Tiers 2 & 3. The term
typical and simply needs targeted
“sufficient effort” includes the expectation that within the student’s instructional support to be
general education setting:
successful. Therefore, strong
evidence (i.e., several
 A minimum number of two separate, Tier 2 and Tier 3
intervention trials have been attempted. Interventions and documented, “good faith”
intervention attempts) are
changes have been consistently documented in AIMSweb.
needed before the school can
 Each intervention trial lasted the minimum period of time
move beyond the assumption
(e.g., 6-10 instructional weeks). Intervention information
that the student is typical to
and progress monitoring has been documented in
consider whether there are
AIMSweb.
possible “within-child” factors,
 Interventions and weekly progress monitoring was
such as a learning disability that
implemented with fidelity and consistency. Fidelity
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
☐ YES
☐ NO
☐ YES
☐ NO
documentation is available upon request.
 Any changes in intervention were based on data, as per
district guidelines (e.g. 4 out of 6 consecutive data points
below a student’s aimline).
Tier 2 & 3 Interventions: Essential Elements - Each Tier 2/3
intervention plan shows evidence that:
 Instructional programs or practices used in the intervention
met the district’s criteria of “evidence-based” and/or are
provided within the Standard Reading Protocol chart.
 The intervention was selected because it logically addressed
the area(s) of academic deficit for the student (e.g., an
intervention to address reading fluency was chosen for a
student whose primary deficit was in reading fluency).
 If the intervention was group-based, all students enrolled in
the Tier 2/3 intervention group have a shared intervention
need that could reasonably be addressed through the
group instruction provided and 80% of the group has
exhibited a response to the intervention.
 The student-teacher ratio in the group-based intervention
provided adequate student support. NOTE: For Tier 2,
group sizes should be capped at 6 students. Tier 3
interventions may be delivered in smaller groups (e.g., 3
students or fewer) or individually.
 The intervention provided contact time adequate to the
student academic deficit. NOTE: Tier 2 interventions should
take place a minimum of 5 times per week in sessions of 30
minutes; Tier 3 interventions should take place daily in
sessions of 45 minutes or more (Burns & Gibbons, 2008)
Tier 1, 2, & 3 Interventions: Intervention Integrity Data are collected to verify that the intervention is carried out with
integrity and fidelity (Gansle & Noell, 2007; Roach & Elliott, 2008).
Relevant intervention fidelity data includes information about:
 Tier 1 core instruction
 Attendance
 Tier 1, 2 & 3 interventions (including frequency and length of
intervention sessions; rate of improvement; comparisons to
peer performance within the classroom/small group – 80%
responding to core or intervention).
 Progress monitoring
 Benchmark assessments
best explain the student’s
academic difficulties.
Supplemental intervention
programs are compromised if
they are not based on research,
are too large, or include students
with very discrepant intervention
needs. Schools cannot have
confidence in the impact of such
potentially compromised
supplemental intervention
programs.
Without intervention-integrity
and fidelity data, it is impossible
to discern whether academic
underperformance is due to the
student’s ‘non-response’ to
intervention or due to an
intervention that was poorly or
inconsistently carried out.
Academic Screenings: General Outcome Measures and Skill-Based Measures
Peer Norms: The school selects efficient measures with good technical adequacy to be used to screen all students at a
grade level in targeted academic areas.
Adequately
RtI Element
If this element is incomplete,
Documented?
missing, or undocumented…
Selection of Academic Screening Measures - The school has
Academic screening measures
selected
appropriate
grade-level
screening
measures
for
the
provide a shared standard for
☐ YES
academic skill area(s) in which the student struggles (Hosp &
assessing student academic
☐ NO
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
☐ YES
☐ NO
Howell, 2007). The selected screening measure(s):
 Have “technical adequacy” as grade-level screeners -and
have been researched and shown to predict future student
success in the academic skill(s) targeted (AIMSweb, NWEA)
 Are general enough to give useful information for at least a
full school year of the developing academic skill (e.g.,
General Outcome Measure or Skill-Based Mastery Measure
such as AIMSweb).
 Include research norms, proprietary norms developed as part
of a reputable commercial assessment product, or
benchmarks to guide the school in evaluating the risk level
for each student screened.
National Norms are utilized OR Local Norms are Collected at Least
3 Times Per Year. All students at each grade level are administered
the relevant academic screening measures at least three times per
school year. The results are compared to national norms and used
to compile local norms of academic performance, which are also
referenced when making educational decisions regarding a referral
for intensive or restrictive services/supports.
risk. If appropriate grade level
academic screening measure(s)
are not in place, the school
cannot efficiently identify
struggling students who need
additional intervention support
or calculate the relative
probability of academic success
for each student.
In the absence of regularly
updated local screening norms,
the school cannot easily judge
whether a particular student’s
skills are substantially delayed
from those of peers in the
same educational setting.
Dual Discrepancy Cut-Offs: Academic Skill Level and Student Rate of Improvement
Establishment of Guidelines for Determining Student ‘Non-Response’ to Intervention as a Dual Discrepancy: The school
has developed definitions for ‘severely discrepant’ academic performance and student growth.
Adequately
RtI Element
If this element is incomplete,
Documented?
missing, or undocumented…
Cut-point Established to Define ‘Severely Discrepant’ Academic
The RtI model uses a dual
Performance - Using local or national norms, the school sets “cutdiscrepancy approach to
☐ YES
points”
below
which
a
student’s
academic
performance
is
defined
identify a student as a
☐ NO
as “severely discrepant” from that of peers in the enrolled grade.
“nonresponder” to academic
intervention (Fuchs, 2003) to
Students referred to the Committee on Special Education should be include: (1) a severe
performing below the 10th percentile as compared to same aged
discrepancy in academic
peers AND often two or more years below their enrolled grade
performance and (2) a
level. AIMSweb progress monitoring data should be consistent with discrepancy in rate of student
benchmark data, within a standard error of measurement.
growth during intervention
Additional data used by the district (NWEA, Fountas & Pinnell)
(e.g. rate of improvement or
should also indicate consistent deficits and validate student
ROI). Demonstration that the
achievement levels.
student continues to lag
severely behind peers in
academic skills, despite
intensive intervention, is a key
requirement in certifying RtI
“nonresponder” status.
Cut-Off Criterion Selected to Define Discrepant Slope - The school
A clear formula is needed for
has selected a formula for determining when a student’s rate of
determining whether a student
☐ YES
improvement (ROI) is severely discrepant from that of peers.
slope reaches the threshold of
☐ NO
“discrepancy” to ensure
 AIMSweb benchmark data indicates that a student’s rate of
consistency across all student
improvement is less than that of 45% of students in a
national sample who started at a similar level. This ROI can cases.
be obtained from AIMSweb once at least 2 benchmarks
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
have been obtained on a student.
 AIMSweb progress monitoring data indicates that the
student’s individual ROI is significantly below their goal ROI,
which was calculated for their goal or frustrational level.
Data Collection
Intervention Outcome Data: Student baseline level and goals are calculated for each intervention, and a sufficient
number of data points are collected during progress monitoring to judge whether the intervention is successful.
Adequately
RtI Element
If this element is incomplete,
Documented?
missing, or undocumented…
Use of Both “Off-Level” and Enrolled Grade-Level Benchmarks &
If an off-level student is tracked
Progress-Monitoring Measures to Assess Student Skills and
using only unrealistically
☐ YES
Growth
For
students
with
substantial
skill
deficits
(e.g.,
a
2-year
difficult progress monitoring
☐ NO
delay in reading), any Tier 2/3 intervention is likely to be off level to measures from his or her
match the student’s actual skills. Here are data-collection guidelines enrolled-grade level, any actual
for off-level interventions (Shapiro, 2008):
evidence of student progress
may be masked by the
 Survey level assessments (SLAs) were completed when the
challenging nature of the
student was initially identified as below the 10th percentile
assessment materials. This
on grade level text. SLAs are used to determine the
intervention assessment
student’s progress monitoring level.
 Progress-monitoring should generally match the intervention mismatch could lead the school
to erroneously judge the
level. So, if a 5th-grade student receives a supplemental
reading fluency intervention using grade 2 texts, the school student as a nonresponder to
an off-level intervention, when
would use grade 2 reading fluency progress-monitoring
in fact the student is actually
measures to track student growth and to determine when
making substantial academic
the student has reached mastery at this off-level
progress.
intervention point.
Student Baseline Calculated - For each Tier 2/3 intervention being
Without information about
reviewed, the school calculates the student’s baseline level, or
baseline student performance
☐ YES
starting point, in the academic skill before starting the intervention prior to an intervention, it is
☐ NO
(Witt, VanDerHeyden, & Gilbertson, 2004). Baseline is calculated in difficult to estimate the actual
one of the following ways:
progress that the student made
during the intervention. Lack of
 Using benchmark data, which is consistent with progress
monitoring. Benchmark assessments should be periodically baseline data therefore
comprises a “fatal flaw” (Witt,
assessed for fidelity.
VanDerHeyden, & Gilbertson,
 If benchmark data was obtained more than 4 weeks prior
2004) that invalidates any RTI
AND a tiered intervention has been recently attempted,
intervention.
baseline can be assessed by taking the three final (that is,
most recent) data points from that progress monitoring
data series and selecting the median value from the three
points as a calculation of baseline. This is also used for
students who are being progress monitored below their
current enrolled grade level, where SLAs were completed
following a prior benchmark period.
☐ YES
☐ NO
Student Goal Calculated - For each intervention being reviewed,
the school calculates a predicted goal for student progress to be
attained by the end of the intervention period. The goal:
 Is based on acceptable norms for student growth (i.e.,
If no clear goal for student
progress is established prior to
the start of a tiered
intervention, the school cannot
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
research-based growth norms).
 Is periodically reviewed and updated when a student meets
or exceeds their goal for three consecutive data points.
 Represents a realistic prediction of student growth that is
sufficiently ambitious - assuming that the intervention is
successful - to eventually close the gap between the
student and grade-level peers.
☐ YES
☐ NO
Regular Progress-Monitoring Conducted - Each tiered intervention
is monitored on a regular basis.
 If Tier 1, the intervention is monitored at least 2xmonth.
 If Tier 2, the intervention is monitored at least 1xweek.
 If Tier 3, the intervention is monitored following every 3rd
intervention session.
 Students who are of relative concern (e.g. average but
performing below their grade level target score) can also be
monitored 1xmonth.
know at the conclusion
whether the intervention was
successful. Lack of a specific
criterion or goal for student
improvement, therefore
comprises a “fatal flaw” (Witt,
VanDerHeyden, & Gilbertson,
2004) that invalidates any RTI
intervention.
A student’s rate of
improvement, or slope, during
an intervention is calculated
from the total progress
monitoring data points
collected. The greater the
number of data points, the
greater the confidence that the
slope is a good approximation
of actual progress. If, however,
the data is too sparse, the
school cannot have confidence
that the data points collected
are an accurate representation
of actual student progress.
Application of RTI Decision Rules to a Particular Student Case
RTI Data Analysis. The student’s individual RtI data is analyzed to determine if that student is a “non-responder”
despite the best efforts to provide evidence-based interventions in the general-education setting.
Adequately
RtI Element
If this element is incomplete,
Documented?
missing, or undocumented…
Despite the Tier 2/3 Interventions Attempted, the Student’s Skills A discrepant student
Continue to Fall Below the Boundary of Severely Discrepant
performance level is the first
☐ YES
Academic Performance - Using the school’s definition for
element of a dual discrepancy
☐ NO
calculating “severely discrepant academic performance”, it is
needed under RtI to define a
determined that the student’s current academic performance is
student as a non-responder to
discrepant from that of peers.
general education
interventions.
Despite the Tier 2/3 Interventions Attempted, the Student’s Rate
A discrepant student slope is
of Improvement (Slope) Continues to Be Discrepant - Applying the the second element of a dual
☐ YES
school’s methods for calculating discrepant slope (above), it is
discrepancy needed under RtI
☐ NO
determined that the student’s slope (growth during the
to define a student as a nonintervention) is discrepant from that of peers.
responder to general-education
interventions.
Adapted from Jim Wright’s RtI Toolkit: A Practical Guide for Schools
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Appendix: Sample Agendas, Surveys, and Supporting Documents
Sample RtI Meeting Guidelines: Tier 1 (80%)
………………………………………………………43
Tier 1Consultation and Support Model
………………………………………………………44
High Risk Group Intervention Guidelines
………………………………………………………46
Informal Fidelity Checks: District Guidelines
………………………………………………………47
Tier 1 Fidelity Checklist: Interactive Read Aloud ………………………………………………………48
Tier 1 Fidelity Checklist: Shared Reading
………………………………………………………49
Tier 1 Fidelity Checklist: Guided Reading
………………………………………………………50
Tier 1 Fidelity Checklist: Word Study
………………………………………………………51
RtI Fidelity Checklist: Tier 1 Intervention
………………………………………………………52
Instructional Data Collection Form
………………………………………………………53
RtI Fidelity Checklist: Tier 2 Intervention
………………………………………………………54
RtI Fidelity Checklist: Tier 3 Intervention
………………………………………………………55
Possible Targeted Skill and Progress Monitoring Recommendations ………………………………..56
Guidelines for Matching Interventions to Instructional Need
………………………………. 57
Intervention Review: Questions and Instructional Suggestions
………………………………..58
Reading: RtI Tiered Instruction Check Sheet
……………………………………………………....59
5 Big Ideas in Reading
………………………………………………………60
AIMSweb Assessment Recommendations by Grade
………………………………..61
Survey Level Assessment, Rate of Improvement and Goal Setting
………………………………..62
Rate of Improvement (ROI) Calculation Charts ………………………………………………………63
Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment
………………………………………………………65
Elementary IST/RtI Team Planning Survey
………………………………………………………66
Glossary of Terms
………………………………………………………71
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Sample RtI Meeting Guidelines Tier 1 (80%)
Meeting tips:
 Use a projector or wall chart to display student data. Meet only if the principal and other essential team
members are present
 Remind the team that the focus of the meeting is general education and ensuring that all students are
making growth (review data disaggregated by race, ELL, SPED, teacher; use both national and local
norms for discussion).
 Designate roles (timekeeper, facilitator, note taker, AIMSweb navigator, etc.)
 Organize the data before the meeting
 Celebrate successes
 Conduct 80% meetings after each universal screening or benchmark.
Team membership: Any or all of the following members: principal, ESL teacher, reading teacher, special
education representative, school psychologist, social worker, grade level representative.
Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of the core program and add intervention/supplemental activities if it
is not meeting the needs of 80% of the students.
Examine ALL data: Including but not limited to attendance, AIMSweb, Fountas and Pinnell, NWEA-MAPs,
and behavioral data.
Review data from the AIMSweb, NWEA and behavioral database and ask the following:

If the grade level increased the number of students meeting grade level expectations or
decreased the percent of students performing significantly below grade level, what are some
differences in the system that might have resulted in this improvement?
o It is helpful to focus on characteristics of the system- such as instructional materials, time,
and grouping, rather than commenting on how this year's class is "just higher than last
year's".
 If the grade level decreased the number of students at grade level or increased the number of
students below grade level, consider, what are some differences in the system that might be
attributed to this shift in the data?
o What are some characteristics of the system that were in place last year that are no longer in
place this year?
o Was Tier 1 instruction or groupings changed significantly with regard to the types of
students that were grouped together or in the amount of time students are practicing Tier 1
expectations?
o Are students receiving differentiated instruction based on individual needs??
 Ask the following questions:
1. Are 80% or more of your students meeting grade level or behavioral expectations?
2. Are ALL subgroups making growth? (Grade Level, Ethnicity, ELL, Sped)?
3. Have you set ambitious goals for the next quarter?
Yes: Celebrate!
No: Discuss the following questions about the core program.
4. Are all teachers using the program with a high degree of fidelity?
5. Is instructional time protected or are there interruptions such as assemblies, fire drills, etc.?
6. Is the instructional block sufficient, or is more time needed?
7. Are students grouped appropriately?
*See Intervention Review: Questions and Instructional Suggestions, pg. 59
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Tier 1 Consultation and Support Model
Tier 1 Consultation & Support will be delivered during the first 6-8 weeks of a school year or at any time
during the year when a classroom falls significantly below 80% meeting grade level expectations. This support
will be delivered to students through collaboration with classroom teachers, as well as instructional/
intervention support from Tier 2/3 interventionists (i.e. reading, speech, ESL, special education). This support
is based upon availability of providers. This model is delivered in addition to high-risk groups identified for
immediate tiered intervention (please see district guidelines when determining these groups). This time should
NOT be used for administering Fountas & Pinnell (F&P) benchmarks, working in book rooms, practicing
AIMSweb probes with students, or creating schedules. Please be sure to maintain a log of tier 1 instructional
support (i.e. classrooms supported, time/dates, tasks accomplished).
Kindergarten
 1st Quarter:
o Collaborate and work with classroom teachers to develop and implement balanced literacy
centers (minimum of 30 minutes/day)
o Assist the building IST/RtI Team with AIMSweb administration
o Attend grade level meetings (when available)
 2nd Quarter:
o Continue supporting kindergarten within classrooms AND begin to pull high-risk students
(please see district guidelines when determining these groups)
o Based on AIMSweb and NWEA data, collaborate with the teachers to create centers which
support Tier 1 instruction and individual class needs
o Based on data, begin small group instruction within classrooms in order to support student needs
o Progress monitor the lowest 20% in letter naming fluency (LNF) 2xmonth.
 3rd Quarter:
o Continue supporting kindergarten within classrooms when feasible and when classrooms are far
below 80% meeting grade level expectations
o Begin tiered interventions based on AIMSweb, progress monitoring, and NWEA data
Grades 1-2
 Collaborate and work with classroom teachers to develop and implement balanced literacy centers
 Support transition to the Daily 5
 Attend grade level meetings (when available)
 Assist the building IST/RtI Team with AIMSweb administration
 Model oral reading fluency in the classroom and assist with implementing strategies to support fluency
(i.e. Readers Theater, FCRR rating scales, etc.)
 Use AIMSweb and NWEA data to identify target skills for each classroom and grade level
 Complete F&P fidelity checks (i.e. parallel administration to compare results for at least 2 students per
class)
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
(page 1 of 2)
Tier 1 Consultation and Support Model (continued)
Grades 3-5 (Grade 6 when appropriate)
 Model oral reading fluency in the classroom and assist with implementing strategies to support fluency
(i.e. Readers Theater, FCRR rating scales, etc.)
 Use AIMSweb and NWEA data to identify target skills for each classroom and grade level
 Complete F&P fidelity checks (i.e. parallel administration to compare results for at least 2 students per
class)
 Support the Daily 5 (i.e. model interactive read aloud and close reading strategies for students and
teacher)
 Assist the building IST/RtI Team with AIMSweb administration
 Attend grade level meetings (when available)
 Provide instruction and instructional strategies for cloze reading (how to)
(page 2 of 2)
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
“High-Risk” Group Intervention Guidelines
Before the end of June 2013, please identify and establish “high-risk” groups for tiered intervention. These
intervention groups will begin on September 9, 2013 without delay and will be delivered in addition to Tier 1
Consultation and Support. Progress monitoring schedules (1xweek) for these high-risk students must begin
following 1 week of intervention.
For the purpose of identifying students we will rely on AIMSweb LNF & LSF for exiting kindergarten students,
NWF & R-CBM for exiting 1st grade students, and the R-CBM for students in grades 2-6. In addition to these
AIMSweb tasks, we will also reference Fountas and Pinnell and NWEA-MAP results from the spring.
Grades 1-6:
Students MUST meet 4 out of the 5 following criteria to be placed in a high-risk group for the fall:
1. Student is below the 10th percentile (red) on spring AIMSweb assessment. This spring benchmark score
MUST be consistent with the final 3 progress monitoring data points for any students receiving
intervention through May/June 2013.
2. Student is below the 10th percentile (red) on spring AIMSweb assessment AND has been progress
monitored 2 years below current grade level placement.
3. Student is below the 10th percentile (red) on spring AIMSweb assessment AND recent progress
monitoring data points indicates 4 out of 6 points below the aimline
4. The student’s Fountas and Pinnell results are consistent in indicating significantly below grade level skills
(i.e. at least 1.5-2 years below grade level)
5. The student’s NWEA-MAP results are consistent in indicating significantly below grade level skills (i.e.
RIT score indicates ability at least 1.5-2 years below grade level)
Kindergarten:
Students will not begin receiving tiered intervention until the second quarter, at which time only “high-risk”
groups will begin. In order to be considered for a high-risk group and receive tiered intervention at the start of
the second quarter, students MUST meet 3 out of 4 of the following criteria:
1. Student is below the 10th percentile (red) on fall AIMSweb assessment (LNF)
2. Student attended PreK AND spring readiness screenings indicated significant deficits (student
received less than 50% correct on 10 of the 17 sections AND limited progress was noted since fall
2012)
3. Student is re-administered AIMSweb LNF (as a progress check) at the end of October and results
continue to indicate performance below the 10th percentile AND Kindergarten readiness screenings
indicate deficits in 4 of the 6 early literacy skills.
4. NWEA results indicate below grade level performance
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Fidelity Checks: District Guidelines
Tier 1 Informal Fidelity Checks: Informal fidelity checklists (pgs. 47-55) for instruction and intervention can be
used as a tool for documentation during your Informal Walkthrough, but cannot be used as part of your
Unannounced Observations or towards APPR points. Teachers must be provided a copy of the informal
checklist, which they can then use as evidence for their APPR binders. Administrators can also use the informal
checklist as part of their own evidence. Administrators should be the only person using the informal fidelity
checklists.
Should a walkthrough show a lack of fidelity, the checklist may be completed multiple times and provided to
the teacher for reflection of practice.
With regard to the RtI decision making process, informal checklists can be voluntarily submitted to the
building IST/RtI Team by teachers as evidence of fidelity to support the need for more intensive intervention
and/or a referral to special education. If a teacher chooses not to submit their informal checklist, the principal
will make the final decision regarding the student’s need for a more intensive intervention and/or referral.
District PARs and the APSTA executive committee have reviewed the informal checklists and have agreed
on their use, as prescribed above. This tool, when used in the manner described, will take care of informal
walkthough observations and building RtI needs.
Fidelity of Assessment & Progress Monitoring (AIMSweb): Building IST/RtI Team members and/or the
District RtI Coordinator may complete fidelity checks at the agreement of the teacher and in a manner in which
the teacher chooses. The Accuracy of Implementation Rating Scale (AIRS) can be used to document this
informal fidelity check. The following are options, which can be provided to teachers, in order to gather
evidence of fidelity.
1. Parallel assessment: both the teacher and IST/RtI Team member simultaneously complete an
individual student screening using the selected AIMSweb measure. Following administration results
can be compared for inter-rater reliability (i.e. the degree of agreement among raters). Professional
discussions regarding any discrepancies and subsequent screenings are recommended.
2. Modeling: an IST/RtI Team member may complete an individual student screening while the teacher
observes. Following the screening and scoring, professional discussion regarding the assessment
and scoring procedures, as well as the results, is highly recommended.
3. Observation: a teacher may choose to have an IST/RtI Team member observe as they administer an
individual AIMSweb screening and provide them with professional feedback.
4. Random student assessment: a teacher may choose to have a random selection of students (whom
they are currently progress monitoring) re-assessed by an IST/RtI Team member to look for interrater reliability. Following administration and scoring, results should be compared to previous
screenings administered by the teacher to look for consistency of results. Professional discussion
regarding any discrepancies is highly recommended.
*Additional training with the District RtI Coordinator can be requested at any time.
*A teacher may decide not to take part in this informal check for fidelity of assessment. If this occurs, it
should be reported to the principal.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Interactive Read Aloud
Albany City School District
School: Choose an item.
Grade level: Choose an item.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Observer: Click here to enter text.
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Time: Click here to enter text.
Comments/Notes:__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Interactive Read Aloud
YES
NO
N/A
Materials
Teacher and students are prepared, organized and readily available.
Teacher can see all students, students can see the teacher.
Teacher selects text that is age and grade level appropriate, although it may not
necessarily be a text that students can read.
Duration & Frequency
Session length is at least 15 minutes
Student takes part in interactive read aloud daily.
During the Reading (Teacher may use the same text all week)
Teacher reads the text with appropriate phrasing, intonation, and expression.
Teacher provides an introduction and may highlight key vocabulary and provides
necessary background knowledge.
Teacher models think aloud and think along strategies.
Teacher uses specific skill and strategy based on the needs of students.
Teacher facilitates new and varied interpretations of the text.
Teacher engages in a few, brief conversations about the text.
Teacher elicits student comments.
Teacher stops occasionally to define or highlight unusual or difficult words.
Teacher builds on student comments, predictions, questions, etc.
Teacher relates text to other texts.
Teacher comments on language or vocabulary.
Teacher draws attention to the writer’s craft.
Teacher reteaches as needed.
Effective Instructional Strategies
Instruction is well paced.
Teacher employs immediate corrective feedback.
Teacher transitions smoothly from one exercise to the next.
Expectations are clear (posted/stated and or referred to).
Teacher provides positive reinforcement/specific praise.
Students are on-task and/ off task behavior is addressed
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Shared Reading
Albany City School District
School: Choose an item.
Grade level: Choose an item.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Observer: Click here to enter text.
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Time: Click here to enter text.
Comments/Notes:__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Shared Reading
YES
NO
N/A
Materials
Teacher and students are prepared, organized and readily available.
Teacher can see all students, students can see the teacher.
Duration & Frequency
Session length is at least 10 minutes
Student takes part in shared reading daily.
During the Reading
Teacher uses the same text all week.
Teacher follows a five-day plan for instruction (i.e. primary or intermediate).
Teacher engages the student in discussion.
Teacher selects age and grade level appropriate text that the students can read.
All students are able to see the text.
Teacher provides a brief introduction to the text.
Teacher models/demonstrates the processing of the text.
Teacher models fluent, phrased reading with attention to punctuation.
Teacher reteaches as needed.
Effective Instructional Strategies
Instruction is well paced.
Teacher employs immediate corrective feedback.
Teacher transitions smoothly from one exercise to the next.
Expectations are clear (posted/stated and or referred to).
Teacher provides positive reinforcement/specific praise.
Students are on-task and/ off task behavior is addressed
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Guided Reading
Albany City School District
School: Choose an item.
Grade level: Choose an item.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Observer: Click here to enter text.
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Time: Click here to enter text.
Comments/Notes:__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading
YES
NO
N/A
Materials
Teacher and students are prepared, organized and readily available.
Teacher can see all students, students can see the teacher.
Duration & Frequency
Session length is at least 15-20 minute sessions.
Student takes part in guided reading daily.
During the Reading
Teacher selects appropriate text for students’ instructional levels.
Teacher briefly introduces the story.
Teacher listens in as students read silently.
Teacher listens as students read aloud.
Teacher confirms students’ problem solving attempts and successes.
Teacher interacts with students to assist with problem solving.
Teacher makes notes about the strategy use of individual students.
Teacher talks about the story with the students.
Teacher returns to the text for one or two teaching opportunities.
Teacher assesses the students’ understanding of what he/she read.
Teacher uses appropriate question stems based on Bloom’s Taxonomy and
discusses the story with students.
Teacher may provide instruction in word work when needed.
Teacher reteaches as needed.
Effective Instructional Strategies
Instruction is well paced.
Teacher employs immediate corrective feedback.
Teacher transitions smoothly from one exercise to the next.
Expectations are clear (posted/stated and or referred to).
Teacher provides positive reinforcement/specific praise.
Students are on-task and/ off task behavior is addressed
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Reading Fidelity Checklist: Word Study
Albany City School District
School: Choose an item.
Grade level: Choose an item.
Teacher: Click here to enter text.
Observer: Click here to enter text.
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Time: Click here to enter text.
Comments/Notes:__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Word Study
YES
NO
N/A
Materials
Teacher and students are prepared, organized and readily available.
Teacher can see all students, students can see the teacher.
Duration & Frequency
Session length is at least 20 minutes
Student takes part in word study daily.
During the Lesson
Teacher identifies the appropriate word study principle.
Teacher promotes interaction with established routines so students are actively
engaged in the learning process.
Teacher models the principle and sort.
Teacher makes and promotes connections to the principle.
Teacher demonstrates the application activity (i.e. reading, writing, sorting)
Teacher engages students in the application activity.
Teacher encourages students to talk about their thinking and learning.
Teacher checks for understanding and assesses learning.
Teacher summarizes the mini-lesson principle
Teacher links the principle to text.
After explicit instruction, the student has an opportunity to work with the sort.
Effective Instructional Strategies
Instruction is well paced.
Teacher employs immediate corrective feedback.
Teacher transitions smoothly from one exercise to the next.
Expectations are clear (posted/stated and or referred to).
Teacher provides positive reinforcement/specific praise.
Students are on-task and/ off task behavior is addressed
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Fidelity Checklist: Tier 1 Intervention
Albany City School District
School: Choose an item.
Grade level: Choose an item.
Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Observer: Click here to enter text.
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Time: Click here to enter text.
Intervention: Click here to enter text.
Comments/Notes:__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Tier 1 Intervention
YES
NO
N/A
Materials
Teacher and students are organized and readily available.
Teacher can see all students, students can see the teacher
Duration & Frequency
Session length is at least 15 minutes, in a large or small group setting.
Student receives the intervention 3-5 days per week.
Student receives the intervention in addition to the 90-minute core.
Intervention/Implementation Step-by-Step Procedure
The students are provided all materials necessary for the lesson.
The teacher follows an intervention script and/or step-by-step procedures for delivery.
The students are provided direct skill instruction prior to independent practice.
The teacher provides immediate feedback of targeted skills.
The teacher repeats and reinforces intervention strategies.
The teacher explains the task and checks for comprehension.
The teacher models the task for students.
The teacher practices the task with the students.
The teacher facilitates independent student practice of the skill.
The intervention is differentiated based on student need.
The teacher supports students’ varied levels of background knowledge and vocabulary.
Monitoring Student Progress
Student progress is monitored using AIMSweb probes (R-CBM/MAZE/ TEL), based on
targeted skill area and frequency guidelines.
Effective Instructional Strategies
Instruction is well paced.
Teacher employs immediate corrective feedback.
Teacher transitions smoothly from one exercise to the next.
Expectations are clear (posted/stated and or referred to).
Teacher provides positive reinforcement/specific praise.
Students are on-task and/ off task behavior is addressed
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Instructional Data Collection Form
The Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education
Instructional Delivery
Direct Instruction (DI)
Modeling (M)
Guided Practice (GP)
Checks Understanding (CU)
Monitors/Adjusts (MA)
Independent Practice (IP)
Closure (C)
Systematic Review (SR)
Assessment (A)
Transition (Tr)
ROOM
Student Engagement
1. Engaged in stated objective
2. Responding to teacher questions
3. Following teacher directions (mandatory)
4. Actively participating in whole group discussions
5. Working in cooperative groups to complete the
assigned tasks
6. Working silently to complete the assigned tasks
7. Writing responses
8. Completing a worksheet, board walk, test
9. Listening to teacher direct instruction
10. Verbalizing understanding of stated objective (tell me
what you are doing)
Instructional
Delivery
Student engagement
Instructional Strategies
1. Using visual aids, graphic
organizers and reals
2. Student talk outweighs teacher
talk
3. Using manipulatives
4. Hands on activities
5. Working in cooperative groups
6. Higher level questions/think
alouds
7. Using interactive
technology/media
8. Evidence of routines and
procedures
9. Monitoring of learning
environment (student work
displayed)
10. Active teacher engagement
Instructional Notes/Other:
Strategies
___ out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
___out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
__ out of _____students =
_____%
This form is optional and can be completed in addition to the appropriate Tier 1 and intervention checklists.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Fidelity Checklist: Tier 2 Intervention
Albany City School District
School: Choose an item.
Grade level: Choose an item.
Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Observer: Click here to enter text.
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Time: Click here to enter text.
Intervention: Click here to enter text.
Comments/Notes:__________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Tier 2 Intervention
YES
NO
N/A
Materials
Teacher and students are organized and readily available.
Teacher can see all students, students can see the teacher
Duration & Frequency
Session length is at least 30 minutes, in a group of 3-6 students.
Student receives the intervention 3-5 days per week.
The student receives the intervention in addition to the 90-minute core.
Intervention/Implementation Step-by-Step Procedure
The students are provided all materials necessary for the lesson.
The teacher follows an intervention script/program as well as the step-by-step procedures
for delivery.
The students are provided direct skill instruction prior to independent practice.
The teacher provides immediate feedback of targeted skills.
The teacher repeats and reinforces intervention strategies.
The teacher explains the task and checks for comprehension.
The teacher models the task for students.
The teacher practices the task with the students.
The teacher facilitates independent student practice of the skill.
The intervention is differentiated based on student need.
The teacher supports students’ varied levels of background knowledge and vocabulary.
Monitoring Student Progress
Student progress is monitored 1time per week, using AIMSweb probes, based on targeted
skill area.
Effective Instructional Strategies
Instruction is well paced.
Teacher employs immediate corrective feedback.
Teacher transitions smoothly from one exercise to the next.
Expectations are clear (posted/stated and or referred to).
Teacher provides positive reinforcement/specific praise.
Students are on-task and/ off task behavior is addressed
The Instructional Data Collection Form is optional and can be completed along with Tiered Intervention checklists.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Informal Fidelity Checklist: Tier 3 Intervention
Albany City School District
School: Choose an item.
Grade level: Choose an item.
Interventionist: Click here to enter text.
Observer: Click here to enter text.
Date: Click here to enter a date.
Time: Click here to enter text.
Intervention: Click here to enter text.
Comments/Notes:__________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Tier 3 Intervention
YES NO N/A
Materials
Teacher and students are organized and readily available.
Teacher can see all students, students can see the teacher
Duration & Frequency
Session length is at least 30 minutes, in a group of 1-3 students.
Student receives the intervention 5 days per week.
Intervention/Implementation Step-by-Step Procedure
The students are provided all materials necessary for the lesson.
The intervention is highly intensified and individualized for the student.
The teacher follows an intervention script/program as well as step-by-step procedures for
delivery.
The students are provided direct skill instruction prior to independent practice.
The teacher provides immediate feedback of targeted skills.
The teacher repeats and reinforces intervention strategies.
The teacher explains the task and checks for comprehension.
The teacher models the task for students.
The teacher practices the task with the students.
The teacher facilitates independent student practice of the skill.
The intervention is differentiated based on student need.
The teacher supports students’ varied levels of background knowledge and vocabulary.
Monitoring Student Progress
Student progress is monitored using AIMSweb probes, based on targeted skill area and
frequency guidelines.
Effective Instructional Strategies
Instruction is well paced.
Teacher employs immediate corrective feedback.
Teacher transitions smoothly from one exercise to the next.
Expectations are clear (posted/stated and or referred to).
Teacher provides positive reinforcement/specific praise.
Students are on-task and/ off task behavior is addressed
The Instructional Data Collection Form is optional and can be completed along with Tiered Intervention checklists.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Possible Targeted Skill and Progress Monitoring Recommendations for Reading
LNF Category
LSF Category
Red
Red
KINDERGARTEN-GRADE 1
PSF Category
NWF Category
R-CBM
Category
(grade 1 only)
Red
Red
Red
Yellow or Green
Red
Red or Yellow
Red or Yellow
Red or Yellow
Yellow or Green
Yellow or
Green
Red or Yellow
Red or Yellow
Red or Yellow
Yellow or Green
Yellow or
Green
Green, Blue or
White
Yellow or Green
Red or Yellow
Red or Yellow
Green, Blue or
White
Green, Blue or
White
Red or Yellow
Green, Blue or
White
Targeted Skill for
Intervention
Letter Names, Letter Sounds
or Sound-Symbol
Correspondence
Letter Sounds, Sound-Symbol
Correspondence, Rhyming
Phoneme Segmentation,
Syllable Segmentation;
Segmenting/Blending Sounds
Phonics, Decoding, Words
that end in “e” rule
Phonics/Decoding, Oral
Reading Fluency
Progress
Monitoring
Measure
LNF
LSF
PSF
NWF
R-CBM (use
grade level
probe)
GRADE 2
R-CBM Category
Red
Yellow
Green, Blue or White
R-CBM Category
Red
Red
Yellow
Yellow
Green, Blue or White
Targeted Skill for Intervention
Phonemic Awareness or Phonics
Progress Monitoring Measure
This decision will be based on SLA data (remember to test down until you reach the
Tests of Early Literacy (TEL) measures). For progress monitoring you will most
likely use one of the TELs or grade 1 R-CBM
Decoding or Fluency
R-CBM (use grade level probe)
Comprehension
MAZE (use grade level probe)
GRADES 3-6
MAZE Category
Targeted Skill for Intervention
Progress Monitoring Measure
Red
Phonemic Awareness or Phonics
R-CBM (complete SLA and use probe at goal level)
Yellow
Phonics or Decoding
R-CBM (complete SLA and use probe at goal level)
Red or Yellow
Fluency or Decoding
R-CBM (use grade level probe)
Green or Blue
Fluency
R-CBM (use grade level probe)
Red or Yellow
Comprehension
MAZE (use grade level probe)
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Guidelines for Matching Interventions to Instructional Need
Fast & Accurate
Fast & Inaccurate
(less than 90% accurate)
Question: Are comprehension
skills on grade level?
Question: Are the errors due to
decoding or comprehension deficits?
 Yes: continue with strong core  Yes: build decoding and/or
comprehension skills
instruction
 No: consider fluency intervention
 No: build vocabulary,
and/or fluency work within core
comprehension, and/or fluency,
instruction, add language
add language intervention for
intervention for ELL
ELL
Slow & Accurate
Slow & Inaccurate
Question: Are comprehension
skills on grade level?
Question: Does the student have
sufficient vocabulary and listening
comprehension skills?
 Yes: build fluency
 No: build fluency, vocabulary,
and comprehension, add
language intervention for ELL
 Yes: build decoding and practice
with connected text
 No: use comprehensive
intervention program that
addresses the Big 5, add language
intervention for ELL
*Fluency and comprehension may be taught as stand-alone interventions or as research-based routines
embedded in the core program and intervention programs. This will depend on the tier at which a
student is placed. Tier 2 and 3 interventions must be taught in small groups and monitored. If a student
is receiving more than one intervention program, sufficient time must be allotted for both AND both
programs must support each other in approach and strategy.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Intervention Review: Questions and Instructional Suggestions
Student has met their goal, but scores are
inconsistent (i.e. data points are above and below
the aimline).
Questions (to ask)
1. Is the skill too hard due to deficits or
motivation?
2. Is the student making some progress?
3. Is the grouping appropriate for this student?
Student has surpassed their goal (student has 3
consecutive scores above their goal).
1. Does the student remain below the 25th
percentile?
2. Is the student above the 25th percentile?
Student has not responded to the intervention (4
consecutive data points out of 6 are below the
student’s aimline OR data points are a flat line).
OR
Student has not responded to the intervention and
their performance seems to be declining (data
points are descending).
2. Does the targeted skill remain appropriate?
1. Was the student engaged in the intervention?
2. Is the skill or grouping no longer appropriate
for the student?
3. Does the student have significant absences
and/or tardies?
4. Does the student exhibit social-emotional or
behavioral difficulties that may be impacting
progress?
5. How many intervention periods has this student
received in the current tier?
Instructional Suggestions
1. If the academic skill seems too hard, complete a
survey level assessment (SLA) and change the
targeted skill to something a bit easier.
2. If motivation is a concern, implement an incentive
plan or motivation strategy.
3. If grouping, switch student to another group within
the same tier.
4. Consider providing the student additional time in
the current intervention.
1. Increase the goal and continue the intervention.
2. Reduce intervention (Tier 1?) and monitor
3. If targeted skill does not remain appropriate,
consider changing the student to another skill group.
1. If activity is not engaging for the student, increase
the number of modalities employed.
2. If skill or grouping is no longer appropriate,
consider changing the intervention/group.
3. If the student has attendance issues, consider a
referral to the attendance committee and employ a
motivational strategy or incentive plan to improve
attendance.
4. If the student exhibits social or behavioral
difficulties consult with the social worker or school
psychologist to develop a tiered intervention plan.
5. If the student has received two interventions
within the current tier, considering intensifying the
intervention.
*Intervention and assessment fidelity should be evaluated on an ongoing basis. Intervention fidelity indicates that the same intervention was delivered, in the
same fashion/sequence, for the prescribed intervention period and/or until enough data had been collected to make an informed decision. Any changes to an
intervention must be documented in AIMSweb and implemented consistently alongside the original intervention. Assessment fidelity indicates the assessment
was administered and scored following standardized directions/protocols. Periodic fidelity checks of interventions should be performed. Assessment fidelity
checks can be performed by IST/RtI Team members (see pg. 43 for district guidelines).
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Reading: RtI Tiered Instruction Cheat Sheet
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Special Education
Criteria
ALL students with focus on students
in the lowest 20% of a grade level
and below the AIMSweb target
score (44th percentile).
Student progress remains
below the AIMSweb aimline
for two consecutive 10 week,
Tier 2 intervention periods.
Classified through referral
and evaluation by the
Committee on Special
Education (CSE). See
decision rules for referral
process.
Instruction
90 minutes of core balanced literacy
instruction: interactive reading
aloud, guided reading,
centers/literature stations,
phonics/word study.
Intervention
A minimum of 1530 minutes,
3xweek of supplemental
differentiated instruction in phonics,
phonemic awareness, fluency or
comprehension, etc. Instructional
support and collaboration from
intervention providers.
Following 6-8 weeks of Tier
1 instructional support;
students within the lowest
20% and/or those who
remain below the 10th
percentile; depending on
progress monitoring data.
90 minutes of core balanced
literacy instruction:
interactive reading aloud,
guided reading,
centers/literature stations,
phonics/word study.
A minimum of 30 minutes,
5xweek of targeted, small
group (4-6 students)
intervention in phonics,
phonemic awareness, fluency
or comprehension, etc.
90 minutes of core balanced
literacy instruction:
interactive reading aloud,
guided reading,
centers/literature stations,
phonics/word study.
Implement at least two of the
following: increased
frequency (2xday); increased
duration (45 minutes); or
reduce the size of the
intervention group (1 to 3
students).
90 minutes of core balanced
literacy instruction:
interactive reading aloud,
guided reading,
centers/literature stations,
phonics/word study.
Self-contained classes: See
RtI decision rules.
Universal screening using AIMSweb
benchmark 3xyear (fall, winter,
spring). NWEA 3xyear. Fountas and
Pinnell 2-3xyear (depending on
initial performance).
Universal screening using
AIMSweb benchmark 3xyear
(fall, winter, spring). NWEA
3xyear. Fountas and Pinnell
2-3xyear.
Students within the lowest 20% and
below the 10th percentile will be
administered Survey Level
Assessments (SLAs) to determine
goal level. Students below the 10th
percentile monitored 1xweek,
between the 11th and 24th percentile
2xmonth, and between the 25th
percentile and target score 1xmonth.
Intervention duration is 6-10weeks.
For students performing
below the 10th percentile, use
SLAs to determine goal
level. All Tier 2 students
monitored 1xweek.
Intervention duration is a
minimum of 10 weeks.
Universal screening using
AIMSweb benchmark 3xyear
(fall, winter, spring). NWEA
3xyear. Fountas and Pinnell
2-3xyear. Educational
evaluation as deemed
necessary.
AIMSweb probes
administered after every 3rd
intervention session or
2xweek. Intervention
duration is a minimum of 10
weeks.
Assessment
Optional assessment
at any Tier – Can’t
Do/Won’t Do
Assessment (pg.66)
Progress Monitoring
& Duration
Resource room, DCT
students: follow RtI decision
rules and tiered protocols for
intervention and monitoring.
Universal screening using
AIMSweb benchmark 3xyear
(fall, winter, spring). NWEA
3xyear. Fountas and Pinnell
2-3xyear.
SLAs to determine PM goal
level for all students
performing below the 10th
percentile. Students below
the 10th percentile progress
monitored 1xweek for 36
week, between the 11th and
24th percentile 2xmonth, and
between the 25th percentile
and target score 1xmonth.60
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
5 Big Ideas in Reading
Phonemic
Awareness
Phonics
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension
Recognizing and using individual sounds to create words. Children need
to be taught to hear sounds in words and those words are made up of the
smallest parts of sound, or phonemes.
Understanding the relationships between written letters and spoken
sounds. Children need to be taught the sounds individual printed letters
and groups of letters make. Knowing the relationships between letters
and sounds helps children to recognize familiar words accurately and
automatically, and "decode" new words.
Learning the meaning and pronunciation of words. Children need to
actively build and expand their knowledge of written and spoken words,
what they mean and how they are used.
The ability to read a text with accuracy, automaticity, prosody, the
appropriate use of phrasing, and expression to convey meaning.
Children must learn to read words rapidly and accurately in order to
understand what is read. When fluent readers read silently, they
recognize words automatically. When fluent readers read aloud, they
read effortlessly and with expression. Readers who are weak in fluency
read slowly, word by word, focusing on decoding words instead of
comprehending meaning.
The ability to acquire strategies to understand, remember and
communicate what is read. Children need to be taught comprehension
strategies, or the steps good readers use to make sure they understand
text. Students who are in control of their own reading comprehension
become purposeful, active readers.
Targeted Intervention Skill Focus
Kindergarten- 1st Grade
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
2nd – 3rd Grade
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
4th – 6th Grade
Advanced Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
AIMSweb Assessment Recommendations by Grade
Fall
LNF
KINDERGARTEN
Winter
LNF
Spring
LNF
Fall
LNF
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
LSF
LSF
LSF
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
GRADE 1
Winter
PSF
PSF
PSF
PSF
Test if Early
Literacy
Test if Early
Literacy
Test if Early
Literacy
Test if Early
Literacy
Spring
NWF
NWF
NWF
NWF
NWF
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
Test of Early
Literacy
R-CBM
R-CBM
Reading
Reading
WE-CBM
WE-CBM
WE-CBM
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Spring
R-CBM
Reading
Fall
R-CBM
GRADE 2
Winter
R-CBM
Spring
R-CBM
Fall
R-CBM
GRADES 3-8
Winter
R-CBM
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
MAZE
MAZE
MAZE
Reading
Reading
Reading
WE-CBM
WE-CBM
WE-CBM
WE-CBM
WE-CBM
WE-CBM
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Writing
(Pilot Only)
Key:
LNF : Letter Naming Fluency
LSF: Letter Sound Fluency
PSF:
Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
NWF: Nonsense Word Fluency
R-CBM: Reading-Curriculum Based Measurement
MAZE: (measure of comprehension)
WE-CBM: Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measure
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Survey Level Assessment, Rate of Improvement and Goal Setting
The Survey Level Assessment (SLA) allows an interventionist to assess the extent of a student’s academic
deficit. It is necessary for the purpose of setting reasonable goals to determine student progress and the
effectiveness of an intervention. SLAs are completed when a student is initially identified below the 10th
percentile, based on national norms. Should a student remain below the 10th percentile on subsequent
benchmarks (during the same school year), initial SLAs and progress monitoring data will determine his/her
goal/progress monitoring grade level.
AIMSweb allows the interventionist to determine the student’s instructional level and monitor skills below
the student’s grade placement when appropriate. The instructional level is the grade at which the student can
perform between the 25th and 75th percentile (average range). If the instructional level is two or more years
below their current grade level, then the progress goal is calculated at one grade level above the instructional
level, which is called the goal level.
The instructional level is the grade at which the student currently performs, while the goal level is the grade
at which we set the goal and progress monitor. A SLA is conducted with AIMSweb probes to determine the
instructional and goal level for the student.
How Do I Conduct A Survey Level Assessment (SLA)?
Step 1: Administer benchmark screening and determine performance based on national norms
Step 2: For all students falling below the 10th percentile, administer AIMSweb probes from successive grade
levels and stop testing when the student scores within the average range (i.e. 25th - 75th percentile).
Step 3: All scores should be recorded on the SLA side of the goal setting page (within the AIMSweb
progress monitoring schedule), which is located under the blue progress monitoring tab. This can be done
once the student has been added to the teacher’s caseload and an AIMSweb measure has been selected.
How Do I Determine the Rate of Improvement and Establish a Goal?
After completing the SLA and deciding on the goal level for the student, look at the Rate of Improvement
(ROI) for a student at the 25th percentile on that goal level material. Refer to ROI Calculation Chart (pg.
64+) for initial calculation at set intervals (i.e. 6, 10, or 36 weeks). Otherwise refer to calculation
directions below.

Step 1: Look at the rate of improvement (ROI) for the 25th percentile at the
th
goal level (i.e. 4 grade) using the AIMSweb National Norms Table

Step 2: Double the ROI to get the rate of growth

Step 3: Multiply the rate of growth by the number of weeks you plan to
provide the intervention, which gives you the number of words (letters, etc.) you expect the student to
gain as a result of the intervention.

Step 4: Add the expected number of words score to the SLA score to
determine the final goal.

Step 5: Round up to an even number (no decimals).
th
Example: If the 25 percentile ROI for 4th grade is .08, then the growth rate = .08x2 or 1.6
Multiply 1.6 x the # of weeks you plan to deliver the intervention (i.e. 1.6x10 weeks or 16 wrc)
Add the expected wrc to the SLA score from the goal level material to determine the final goal.
When do I change or update a student’s goal in AIMSweb?
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
If a student has met or exceeded their goal for three consecutive scores AND they remain below the 25th
percentile; their goal should be updated. This is accomplished by using the formula found above, using the
number of weeks remaining in the intervention period.
Rate of Improvement (ROI) Calculation Charts: RCBM and MAZE
Directions: Refer to the charts below in order to determine the expected gain for the predetermined
intervention period (i.e. 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 36 weeks). Add this number to the student’s median score
from universal screening or benchmark, SLA, or median progress monitoring score (determine from the last
3 data points). This total is the student’s goal score to be entered into the AIMSweb progress monitoring
schedule. If the intervention period is not listed or you are changing/updating a goal, please refer to the
AIMSweb National Norms Table and calculate the goal using the formula on page 58.
Reading Curriculum Based Measurement (RCBM): 25th and 50th Percentiles
Add the number listed below to median score
Grade
Percentile
ROI
6 weeks
10 weeks
Expected Gain
Expected Gain
1
25th
.97
11.6
19.4
th
50
1.50
18.0
30.0
2
25th
1.31
15.7
26.2
th
50
1.22
14.6
24.4
th
3
25
1.08
12.9
21.6
50th
1.11
13.3
22.2
th
4
25
.78
9.4
15.6
50th
.89
10.7
17.8
th
5
25
.81
9.7
16.2
50th
.89
10.7
17.8
th
6
25
.69
8.3
13.8
th
50
.69
8.3
13.8
MAZE: 25th and 50th Percentiles
Add the number listed below to median score
Grade
Percentile
ROI
2
3
4
5
6
25th
50th
25th
50th
25th
50th
25th
50th
25th
50th
.22
.31
.08
.08
.14
.17
.22
.28
.17
.17
6 weeks, add (+)
to SLA or
median score
2.6
3.7
1.0
1.0
1.7
2.0
2.6
3.4
2.0
2.0
10 weeks, add (+)
to SLA or median
score
4.4
6.2
1.6
1.6
2.8
3.4
4.4
5.6
3.4
3.4
36 weeks
Expected Gain
69.8
108.0
94.3
87.8
77.8
79.9
56.2
64.1
58.3
64.1
49.7
49.7
36 weeks, add (+)
to SLA or median
score
15.8
22.3
5.8
5.8
10.1
12.2
15.8
20.2
12.2
12.2
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Rate of Improvement (ROI) Calculation Charts: Tests of Early Literacy
Directions: Refer to the charts below in order to determine the expected gain for the predetermined
intervention period (i.e. 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 36 weeks). Add this number to the student’s median score
from universal screening or benchmark, SLA, or median progress monitoring score (determine from the last
3 data points). This total is the student’s goal score to be entered into the AIMSweb progress monitoring
schedule. If the intervention period is not listed or you are changing/updating a goal, please refer to the
AIMSweb National Norms Table and calculate the goal using the formula on page 58.
Letter Naming Fluency (LNF): 25th and 50th Percentiles
Add the number listed below to median score
Grade
Percentile
ROI
6 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark
or median score
th
K
25
.94
11.3
50th
.86
10.3
th
1
25
.39
4.7
50th
.44
5.3
10 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark or
median score
18.8
17.2
7.8
8.8
36 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark or
median score
67.7
62.0
28.1
31.7
Letter Sound Fluency (LSF): 25th and 50th Percentiles
Add the number listed below to median score
Grade
Percentile
ROI
6 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark
or median score
K
25th
.78
9.4
th
50
.94
11.3
1
25th
.56
6.7
th
50
.61
7.3
10 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark or
median score
15.6
18.8
11.2
12.2
36 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark or
median score
56.2
67.7
40.3
43.4
Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF): 25th and 50th Percentiles
Add the number listed below to median score
Grade
Percentile
ROI
6 weeks, add (+) 10 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark
to benchmark or
or median score median score
K
25th
.94
11.3
18.8
th
50
1.11
13.3
22.2
th
1
25
.44
5.3
8.8
50th
.39
4.7
7.8
36 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark or
median score
67.7
79.9
31.7
28.1
Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF): 25th and 50th Percentiles
Add the number listed below to median score
Grade
Percentile
ROI
6 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark
or median score
th
K
25
.72
8.6
10 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark or
median score
14.4
36 weeks, add (+)
to benchmark or
median score
51.8
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
1
50th
25th
50th
.83
.81
.94
10.0
9.7
11.3
16.6
16.2
18.8
59.8
58.3
67.7
Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment
http://www.vail.k12.az.us/steep2004/district/step3.php
The idea behind the “Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment” is that there are only two reasons to explain why a
child is not performing the work that is expected of him or her: either the child can’t do the work or the child
won’t do the work. The reason it is important to make this distinction is that each reason necessarily leads to
different interventions. If a child is not motivated to perform the work that is expected in the classroom, then
skill-building intervention will not solve the problem. Sometimes, children need an intervention that
addresses both motivation and skill deficits and this brief assessment tells us that, too.
When children are performing in the bottom 16% of their class and the class median is in the instructional
range (i.e., a class wide problem is not suspected), they participate in a can’t do/won’t do assessment. The
assessment is usually conducted by a member of the RtI building level team and takes about 5 minutes. The
assessor offers the child an opportunity to select a reward from a “treasure chest” contingent on “beating the
score” from the class wide assessment.
Children whose scores improve to the instructional range to earn an incentive are not considered to be
potentially in need of special services because they can perform the skill given the right motivating
conditions.
In these cases, an “accountability” intervention is suggested to the teacher and parents. That is, the teacher
requires the student to perform the work of which he or she is capable by, for example, monitoring correct
work completion frequently and requiring that inadequate work be re-done at a time that is inconvenient for
the student (e.g., recess, student free time) while small privileges or rewards can be offered for correct work
completion. Usually about 10% of children screened do not improve their scores to the instructional range
for an incentive and so proceed to individual intervention.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Elementary IST/RtI Team Planning Survey
To be completed at least annually and submitted to District RtI Coordinator. This document will be used as a guide for
planning and professional development opportunities.
Please complete the following items on your own. After completing the entire document, place a checkmark next to the top three
items that are not fully in place that you would prioritize for goal setting in your building.
Please indicate your position at your school:
RtI Features
Administrator____
1. Team Membership and Process: Building Level
Teacher______ Specialist_________
Rating
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
a. IST/RtI Teams include principal, special education
representative, reading teacher, school psychologist, classroom
teachers, and ELL teacher.
b. Principal, teachers, and representatives from special education
attend every meeting.
c. Grade level teams meet regularly every six to ten weeks.
d. Building principal provides instructional leadership at RtI
meetings (e.g., interprets data, guides intervention decision
making, allocates resources, etc.).
e. Team roles are clearly defined (e.g., facilitator, time keeper,
data analyst, recorder)
f. All meetings have clearly defined agendas.
g. Meetings include review of progress monitoring data for all
students in the lowest 20% of a grade level, including all
students below the 10th percentile. Decision rules from the
appropriate protocol are used to guide changes in interventions.
h. The building’s screening process quickly identifies new
students who fall in the lowest 20% (including those below the
10th percentile) and places them in appropriate interventions.
i. RtI meetings are completed within the allocated time.
j. Specific data on student performance is used at the RtI
meeting to make decisions about student placement. These
decisions are not made based on teacher report alone.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Features
1. Team Membership and Process: Building Level
(continued)
k. At least 3 times per year, teams review the effectiveness of
the core program.
l. If less than 80% of students are above the 25th percentile,
teams discuss and plan for changes to the implementation of the
core program.
m. The minutes from each RtI meeting are distributed to
building team members. This documentation helps to clarify
specific tasks that team members must complete before the next
RtI meeting. (Who will do what, by when.)
2. Core Instructional Program
Rating
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
a. A balanced reading program is implemented consistently and
with fidelity at your school.
b. The core curriculum is delivered for a minimum of 90
minutes per day (based on the Reading Protocol).
c. Students are flexibly grouped according to skill level.
d. New teachers receive initial training in the core reading
curriculum, and returning teachers receive yearly refresher
courses.
e. Teachers have ready access to high quality additional support
(e.g., peer coaching, classes) as needed.
f. Teachers have received sufficient support to adjust the
implementation of the core program based on students’ skill,
while still maintaining fidelity to the program.
g. Building principal conducts frequent fidelity checks and
observations of classroom teachers.
h. Assessments from the core program (Fountas and Pinnell,
running records) are administered and reviewed to guide
decisions about student placement.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Features
3. Screening and Progress Monitoring Procedures
Rating
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
a. All assessors (both screening and progress monitoring)
receive thorough initial training, as well as, yearly fidelity
trainings.
b. Progress is monitored weekly, bi-weekly or strategically (i.e.
monthly) according to protocol for all students receiving
interventions.
c. Administration and scoring of measures is routinely checked
for inter-rater reliability.
d. Building staff is thoroughly trained and skilled in data
analysis and interpretation.
e. Data from AIMSweb screener and NWEA, along with inprogram assessments, are used to place appropriate students in
reading interventions.
f. Progress monitoring data is reviewed at each regular RtI
meeting.
4. Decision Rules
a. All IST/RtI Team members understand decision rules and
have access to the Reading protocols.
b. Progress is monitored and interventions changed based upon
the decision rules for students who fail to make adequate
progress.
c. Prior to placing a student in an individualized intervention
(after two failed Tier 2 interventions for elementary students),
the following are completed: The Problem Solving Worksheet,
and if the student is receiving ELL services, an evaluation of
his/her language level.
d. Decision rules are consistently followed for all students.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Features
5. Reading Interventions
a. Research based interventions are available at each grade level
and address phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,
comprehension, and vocabulary.
b. At least one member of the IST/RtI Team is highly skilled
and knowledgeable regarding the range of intervention options.
c. Tier 3 students receive at least 30 minutes of intervention
daily in addition to core instruction in a very small group.
6. Interventions for Reading, Math, Writing and Behavior
Rating
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
a. Interventions are chosen to address specific areas of need of
the student. Students participate in a reasonable number of
programs so as to have an aligned, coherent program without
conflicting information being presented.
b. The Student Intervention Profile is kept up to date for each
student in an intervention, with accurate program information
and start and end dates for interventions.
7. Behavior and Attendance Concerns
a. IST/RtI Teams review attendance and behavior records at
each meeting and place students who meet the decision rules
into behavioral interventions.
b. Students in interventions due to problems with behavior or
attendance have their progress monitored and the data reviewed
at each RtI meeting. If inadequate progress is made,
interventions are intensified.
c. If a student continues to have behavioral difficulties even
with a strategic behavioral intervention in place, a Functional
Behavioral Assessment (FBA) is completed and a Behavior
Support Plan developed.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
RtI Features
Rating
8. LD Eligibility
a. Referrals are always accompanied by appropriate
documentation (e.g., progress monitoring data, student
intervention profile, problem solving worksheet)
b. Students are referred for a special education evaluation by the
IST/RtI Team after two Tier 2 and two Tier 3 interventions
(unless extenuating circumstances are present).
9. Parent Participation
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
Not in
Place
Partially
in Place
Fully in
Place
Notes for Goal Setting
a. A system is in place, which ensures that parents regularly
receive screening and progress monitoring data.
b. Parents are consistently notified when students begin or
change interventions.
c. Parents receive the ACSD RTI Brochure when their child is
about to begin a Tier 2 intervention, if not before.
d. Input from parents is solicited and used in RtI decisionmaking, with targeted outreach to parents with diverse needs
(e.g. poverty, primary language other than English).
IST/RtI Team Goals
RtI Feature
Indicate Schoolwide or Specific
Grade and Group
Action to Be Taken
(Be specific enough so that it is possible to determine when the action has been
implemented.)
1
2
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
73
RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Glossary of Terms
AIMSweb:
A data management system that facilitates the organization of student, classroom, school and
district level benchmark and progress monitoring data. The system provides grade level
measures for screening and automatically graphs data against student, classroom, school, or
district using national norms.
Benchmark:
A universal screening administered to all students. It identifies students that are at risk for
failure. It is timed (1-4 minutes) and may be administered individually or whole group;
depending on the measure used (i.e., TEL, R-CBM or MAZE).
CBM:
Curriculum Based Measurement. A method of monitoring student progress through a
curriculum which reflects the success of students’ instructional program by using short,
formative assessments that are nationally normed and standardized.
Core Reading
Instruction:
For the purpose of this document, core refers to the 90 minutes of balanced literacy
instruction in grades K-5. Reading instruction should, however, be delivered throughout a
student’s entire school day (i.e. science, social studies, etc.). Core instruction in grade 6 will
refer to district units of study.
Data-Based
Decisions:
The process of planning for student success (academic and behavior) through the use
of ongoing progress monitoring and analysis of data.
Differentiated
Instruction:
Instruction that matches the specific strengths and needs of each learner.
Duration:
The length of time over which a child receives an intervention (i.e. 10 weeks).
Fidelity:
Implementing a program, system, intervention, or assessment exactly as designed so
that it is aligned with research and ensures the most accurate outcome.
Frequency:
The number of times a child receives an intervention in a given timeframe.
Integrity:
Consistency of values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes.
Local Norms:
MAZE:
A multiple-choice cloze reading task. It is a timed (3 minutes) silent reading task used to
screen comprehension. It can be administered individually or group. A new probe is used
each time (Fall, Winter and Spring).
Median:
Middle score in a series of data points (arranged in ascending/descending order).
National Norms:
Growth tables are used to target students’ rate of improvement (ROI) and assign a percentile
rank to a student’s current performance. These are based on the national normative data.
Positive Behavior
Support:
A proactive school-wide approach for teaching and improving socially acceptable
behavior.
Probe:
An electronic or hard copy of a short academic screening. It may be a reading passage,
letters, etc. and is given to the student to read. It is administered 3 times per year (i.e. fall,
winter, spring) for benchmarks/universal screenings. It may also be used more frequently in
strategic and progress monitoring.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Glossary of Terms (page 2)
Progress Monitoring:
A systematic, formative evaluation that requires the use of standard assessment tools, which
are developed with the same difficulty level and are administered the same way each time.
Depending on student’s tier, progress monitoring may be administered once a week or every
2 weeks, for a period of at least 8 to 10 weeks. All students falling within the lowest 20% of
a grade level on a benchmark screening must be progress monitored.
RCBM:
Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement. A timed, standardized test/screening used to
assess reading fluency. Students read aloud for 1 minute. It must be administered the same
way (i.e. standardized), each time. Students read 3 passages aloud for benchmarks and the
median (middle) score is used to assess words read correctly. Only 1 passage is used for
progress and strategic monitoring. It is used 3 times per year for benchmarking and/or more
frequently for strategic and progress monitoring.
Research-Based
Instruction:
Instructional strategies and curricular components that have been validated as effective by
experimental design studies that have been applied to a large study sample, show a direct
correlation between the intervention and student progress, and have been reported in peerreviewed journals.
IST/RtI Team:
Response to Intervention team, also called Instructional Support Team (IST). A collaborative
team which includes parents, teachers, and specialists that meet to evaluate student data, plan
interventions, and monitor progress.
Skill:
Reading is comprised of many skill sets and sub-sets. Primary reading skills are Fluency and
Comprehension. These are both further comprised of component skill sub-sets including
phonics, phonemic awareness, blending, phoneme segmentation, inference, main idea, etc.
SLA:
Survey Level Assessment. Students performing below the 10th percentile, based on national
norms, are screened using successively lower levels of reading materials (R-CBM and/or
MAZE). Screening begins with a student’s current grade placement and continues until they
reach a level at which they score at or above the 25% percentile. This is determined to be
their instructional level and the student is progress monitored one grade level above. (EX.
Johnny is a 6th grade student who, on SLA, achieved the 25% percentile on a 3rd grade RCBM. He should be progress monitored using 4th grade R-CBM probes). SLAs must be
completed and scored using pencil and paper probes.
Strategic Monitoring:
Students performing within the remaining 80% of a class/grade level, following benchmark
screenings, may be monitored 1 time per month in order to document progress towards grade
level benchmarks. Strategic monitoring may also be used as a screening for students who
enroll in the school beyond the benchmark period. Probes are completed pencil and paper
and results are entered into the AIMSweb database.
TEL:
Test of Early Literacy. Early literacy screenings, administered to students in kindergarten
and first grade. TEL is comprised of four subtests including: Letter Naming Fluency or LNF,
Letter Sound Fluency or LSF, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency or PSF, Nonsense Word
Fluency or NWF.
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RtI Handbook: City School District of Albany
Special thanks and acknowledgement must be given to members of the District RtI
Committee: Michele Bridgewater, Kim Kubisch, Cecily Wilson, Kendra Chaires, Thomas
Giglio, Angela Cortese, Anne Miller, Betsy Tanenhaus, Cathy Huttner, Dawn Castle, Amy
Dillenback, Darlene King, Dixelia Lopez, Edith Banker, Elisa Byrnes, Elissa Peckage,
Evita Rodriguez, Eileen Sunderhaft, Fred Engelhardt, Jennifer Fusco, Jeffrey Gilchrist,
Jill Hans, Kristen Clancy, Lisa Lafountain, Margaret Morehouse-Strack, Renee Morris,
and Susan Lofrumento; Pilot Schools: Pine Hills Elementary School, Eagle Point
Elementary School, Delaware Community School, and Sheridan Preparatory Academy;
and K-12 ELA Supervisor, Karen Bechdol.
Thank you for your hard work and dedication to RtI.
Tanya Pennock
RtI Coordinator
Albany City School District
(518) 475-6150
[email protected]
*Handbook last updated 9/10/13
76
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