German Unification Germany did not exist as a nation. It was a loose confederation of independent states. These states shared common traits, but in no way were they united as nation. Each state shared a common language(German), common history, common songs, poems, art, operas, and theater. But, they did not have one set of laws, ruler, or currency. The most important of the German speaking states was called Prussia. Prussia had the strongest army in Europe. Prussian culture valued strength, discipline, & obedience to authority. The most attractive quality a Prussian woman looked for in a potential husband would be the number of scars or wounds from battle. Prussia’s Prime Minister, Otto von Bismark wanted to unify the German speaking states into one nation. King Wilhelm I, ruler of Prussia instructed Bismark to unify the German speaking states. Otto von Bismark Prussia’s Prime Minister, Otto von Bismark gave a famous “Iron & Blood Speech” to promote the idea of German unity. Each speech ended with the same quote, “The question of the day can be solved only with iron & blood.” Blood =sacrifices Iron =weapons of war Prussia began a series of three wars to promote unity. (Nothing generates unity faster than a common enemy!) 3 wars of German unification 1864: War with Denmark 1866: Austria 1870-71: Franco-Prussian War (France) Germany became a united nation in 1871. The King of Prussia was named the leader of an united Germany. His title was Kaiser. Kaiser Wilhelm I Balkans Peninsula Old Balkans quote: I am the enemy of my neighbor but friends with my neighbor’s neighbor. Turkey was a dominant military power. The Turks once controlled all lands from Vienna, Austria through the Saudi Peninsula, including most of the Middle East. Turkey’s military strength began to slip in 1876. Bulgaria rose up in rebellion and defeated Turkey after two years of fighting.(1878) Other countries saw this as an opportunity. The Austrian-Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia away from Turkey in 1878. Young military officers in Turkey began to fear that their nation was in a slow collapse. The young officer corps of Turkey formed an organization dedicated to recapturing military strength. This organization was called, the Young Turks. Ismail Enver Leader of Young Turks The Young Turks needed financial support, weapons, and military training from a large powerful nation. The Young Turks found a willing partner in 1908. Germany offered to help. Germany began sending weapons and old fashioned Prussian training. Soon Turkey’s military began to grow strong again. News of the rebirth of the Turkish military scared the nations of the Balkans Peninsula. Serbia realized that it was vulnerable to a new and improved Turkish military. Serbia needed to find a large powerful nation to provide assistance. Serbia found a partner from Russia. 5 Common traits of Russia & Serbia Both nations are Slavic Both share Orthodox Christianity Both share the Cyrillic alphabet Historically, the Serbs & Russians have worked together against enemy nations Both Serbia & Russia disliked Turkey 1st Balkans War (1912) Serbia vs. Turkey (No one won…It was a tie) 2nd Balkans War (1913) Serbia vs. Turkey (No one won… It was a tie) 1912-war in the Balkans Peninsula 1913-war in the Balkans Peninsula ? 1914- Archduke Ferdinand and Sophie Fears began to spread of a war breaking out in 1914. The Emperor of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire decided to have a peace conference. Leaders of nations would be invited to discuss solutions to prevent a war. The Peace Conference To be held in Sarajevo, Bosnia To be held on 28 June 1914 The Emperor’s nephew, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary would lead the discussions. Archduke Ferdinand was in line to become the next Emperor of AustriaHungary. (Ferdinand would inherit the throne of one of the largest Empires in Europe)The announcement of his arrival was printed in all of the Sarajevo newspapers. The parade route and times of the parade were also printed in the newspapers. Assassination Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophie arrived in Sarajevo for the peace conference. Meanwhile a group of Serbian students had organized into a group called, Black Hand. They wanted to show the world that Serbia feared no one. They wanted to assassinate the future emperor to prove their courage. The date of the assassination would be on Saint Vitus Day, June 28th. This day in Serbian history marked the Battle of Kosovo.(Serbia defeated the Turks in 1389) Ferdinand & Sophie with two of their children Sophie Jr. in 8th grade Archduke Ferdinand and Sophie were assassinated in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. June 1914 S 1 7 14 21 28 M Tu W Th F S 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 30 The attack was planned by a Serbian terrorist group called, Black Hand. The assassin was a nineteen year old named, Gavrilo Princip. Did Gavrilo Princip know the moment he pulled the trigger that this act of murder would unleash the next 35 years of history? Did he know that a war killing 18,000,000 would occur followed by a second war killing 45,000,000? Photo taken minutes before their assassination. The Emperor of Austria-Hungarian Empire was furious that his nephew was... a.) murdered while attending a peace conference b.) the assassins were Serbs c.) the attack was on June 28th Archduke Ferdinand’s funeral procession Emperor Franz Joseph of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire wanted revenge to retaliate against Serbia. Emperor Franz Joseph gave a list of six demands that needed to be met or war was going to occur. Austria-Hungary’s six demands (Six 4+2= ? 006 >5 <7 60/10 ) 1. all members of Black Hand were to be turned over to the Austrian police 2. All anti-Austrian newspaper in Serbia must be closed Why close the Serbian newspapers? 3. all anti-Austrian teachers to be fired in Serbia Why fire the teachers? Why were the teachers considered a threat? 4. all anti-Austrian military officers in Serbia were to be fired Why fire the Serbian Army officers? 5. “Special” units of the Austrian police (military police) are to be allowed across the border to administer law & order inside of Serbia 6. demands must be met within 48 hours How many demands did Serbia accept? Serbia agreed to every demand except for # 5. (Austrian military police crossing the border into Serbia) Serbia met 5 of 6 demands. This was not enough for the Austrian Hungarian Emperor, Franz Joseph. The Emperor ordered war against Serbia to avenge the death of his nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. World War One began on 28 July 1914. World War One begins. And, it was the end of the world…as we knew of it. July 1914 S M Tu 5 6 7 12 13 14 19 20 21 26 27 28 W 1 8 15 22 29 Th 2 9 16 23 30 F S 3 4 10 11 17 18 24 25 31 The Austrian-Hungarian Empire was at at war with Serbia. But, how did it become a World War? Triple Alliance (1882) vs. Triple Entente (1907) 1. Italy 1. United Kingdom 2. Germany 2. Russia 3. Austria-Hungary 3. France Ten Minutes with Wilson Let’s Review 1908: Young Turks receive weapons and assistance from Germany. Russia provides weapons to Serbia. 1912: 1st Balkans War 1913: 2nd Balkans War May 1914: Emperor Franz Joseph announce an upcoming peace conference to occur in Sarajevo, Bosnia June 1914: Archduke Ferdinand assassinate by a Serbian terrorist group July 1914: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia pledges to defend Serbia. August 1914: Other nations such as Italy, Germany, UK, & France are bound by treaties to support their ally. August 1914: Nations around the world decide which side to support in the war. August 1914: President Wilson’s wife dies in the White House. Overcome with grief and personal pain, the US President hesitates on taking any action. The USA does not enter the war. The Von Schlieffen Plan A German general named Alfred von Schlieffen studied Russian history. He found that the Russians always began every war in a slow manner. Russia was technologically slow. The Russians lacked sophisticated communication & transportation systems. Von Schlieffen found that it took nine weeks from the time war was declared for the Russian army to actually be ready to fight. . Germany would devote nearly all of it’s military strength to knock out France. Germany would almost totally ignore the Russian army for nine weeks. After the French were quickly defeated, the German army would shift to destroy the Russians. The key to the Von Schlieffen plan was the element of time. The French had to be defeated before the Russian army moved against Germany. World War One Images German spiked helmet Early WWI Later in the war New Technologies 1. Tumbling bullet 2. Hollowpoint bullet 3. Machine gun 4. Zeppelin 5. Airplanes 6. Unterseeboot (u-boat) 7. Tank 8. Poison gas 9. Flame thrower German aircraft Baron Manfred von Richthofen (Red Baron) British Sopwith Camel Flamethrower German U-Boat Canadian troops with gas masks Australian machine gun Reasons the United States entered the war (on the British side) 1. The US and UK share common traits (language, ocean, political structure, co urt system) m, 2. Sinking of the Lusitania on 07 May 1915 by a German U-boat. 3. Zimmerman Telegram (1917): Arthur Zimmerman, the German Foreign Minister sent a telegram to Mexico. The Germans were asking Mexico to invade the United States. After the war, Germany would give Mexico three states as a reward. (Texas, Arizona, & New Mexico) The telegram was intercepted by a British MI-6 secret agent. The news of Germany plotting behind our backs caused great anger. 4. Russia surrendered to Germany in 1917. (Treaty of Brest-Litvosk) RMS Lusitania Last known Lusitania survivor, 95, Born: 1915 Died: 11 January 2011 Kapitänleutnant Walter Schweiger Commanding Officer U-20 ----------------------------------------------Captain of Lusitania: William Turner Lusitania Notes British ship sunk on 07 May 1915 by a German U-boat. (U-20) The captain of the U-20 was Kapitanleutnant Walter Schweiger. The Lusitania’s captain was William Turner One torpedo from the U-20 ignited a coal dust explosion. The Lusitania sank in approximately eighteen minutes off the coast of Kinsale, Ireland. (County Cork) 1195 people died This event was a contributing factor in the USA entering World War One. MI6 John “BlackJack” Pershing Born in 1860 Graduate of the US Military Academy at West Point Graduate of University of Nebraska (Law School) Served as military JAG (military attorney) Served in the all African-American 10th Cavalry Fought in the Spanish-American War (saved T. Roosevelt’s life) Promoted repeatedly while T.R. was president Led the U.S. Army into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa in 1916 Led all U.S. troops “Yanks” against Germany in World War One (1917) Became the highest ranking general in U.S. history (General of the Armies) The Bolshevik Revolution and the USSR World War One was very difficult for the Russians. One of every four Russian soldiers did not have a rifle. Instead, soldiers were given a handful of bullets and expected to wait until someone was shot. Most of the soldiers were farmers. This left very few people left on the farms to grow the food. Starvation swept through Russia. Consequently, the Russian people began to riot through the streets. They rioted for food and bread! A book written by Karl Marx offered the starving hope. The book was called, Communist Manifesto. The book is a plan for developing communism. Two communist groups developed in Russia. Both groups hoped to take over the country. 2 communist groups Bolsheviks: (majority) commonly referred to as the Reds Mensheviks: (minority) commonly referred to as the Whites A Civil War began within Russia. It was a three way war. Reds vs Whites vs the Czar Bolshevik soldiers captured the Czar and his family. The Reds wanted all Romanov family members dead. On 17 July 1918, the Romanov family was murdered. Their bodies were buried in a forest and acid poured onto their bodies. One of Europe’s most powerful royal families was murdered. Czar Nicholas Romanov II and the Royal Family Murdered 17 July 1918 The Romanov family was murdered by Bolshevik guards. (17 July 1918) Anastasia Romanov (age 7) Eventually, the Bolsheviks (Reds) defeated the Mensheviks. A new nation was created called the USSR in 1922. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) Or Soviet Union 3 Key leaders of the USSR Vladimir Lenin: Leader of the Bolshevik Revolution and first leader of the USSR (died of a stroke in 1924) Leon Trotsky: leader of the Red Army (killed by Stalin with an axe in the head) Joseph Stalin: Leader of the secret police (eventually known as the KGB) Stalin gained total control of the new nation after Lenin’s death. Anyone that opposed Stalin faced death in a gulag(death camp) Stalin eventually kills 20,000,000 of his own citizens to gain complete control of the USSR. Lenin and Stalin Cousins Joseph Stalin Saddam Hussein Results of World War One On 11 November 1918, all nations agreed to stop the fighting. This was called the Armistice. It was not a surrender! With the fighting over, France and the United Kingdom felt the need to punish the Germans. France: 1,300,000 soldiers killed UK: 1,000,000 soldiers killed Austria-Hungary: 1,500,000 soldiers killed Turkey: 2,921,844 soldiers killed Germany: 2,476,000 soldiers killed USA: 120,000 soldiers killed Serbia lost 12% of it’s population. The French and British wanted to make the Germans pay. They began writing an unfair treaty that would blame Germany for starting the war. It also required the Germans to pay for all damages. Large chunks(13%)of land would be stripped from Germany. This Treaty was called, The Treaty of Versailles. (1919) Results of the War 1. 18,000,000 killed 21,000,000 casualties 39,000,000 killed or wounded “The war to end all wars” 2. 65,000,000 soldiers fought in the war 3. Germany was forced to accept blame for starting WWI. 4. Germany lost it’s airforce and fleet of U-boats. The German army was reduced from 4,000,000 to 100,000. 5. Germany was forced to accept financial responsibility for all damages during the war. This total was $331,600,000,000. Germany was expected to pay back this amount promptly. 6. Germany & Austria-Hungary were stripped of huge sections of land. Austria-Hungary was broken into two separate countries. New nations were created such from these lands. (Germany lost 13% of it’s land & AustriaHungary lost 75%) Poland: Warsaw Lithuania: Vilnius Czechoslovakia: Prague Yugoslavia: Belgrade 7. New nations in the Middle East will be created from lands taken from Turkey. Saudi Arabia: Riyadh Syria: Damascus Jordan: Amman Iraq: Baghdad 8. The League of Nations was created to prevent another war. This would be a place where the nations of the world could negotiate their differences. (Germany, Japan, & the USSR were not invited.) 9. Frankfurt, Illinois was a town with a population that contained many German immigrants. The people of Frankfurt felt awkward about their German heritage. The decision was made to intentionally misspell the name as a way of showing loyalty to America. But, how can the name be misspelled? FRANKFERT? FRANKFORT? FRANKFIRT? FRANKFYRT? OR FRANKFART A TOWN WITH 1890’s CHARM (big paragraph isn’t it…stinks to be you) Germany was left broke, crushed, and blamed for a war it didn’t start. Not one British or French soldier ever set foot on German soil during the war. For four years , Germany kept 4,000,000 troops inside of France. From the German point of view, it did not lose war. But, it was now being treated like a loser. The German economy was destroyed in the attempt to pay back the money ($331,600,000,000) Unemployment in Germany was very high. This created great hatred. Germany began looking for a new leader that could fix the problems, improve the economy, tear up the Treaty of Versailles, and strike back in revenge. The seeds for the next war were being planted. Coming soon: World War Two General Blackjack Pershing Bolshevik leader: Vladimir Lenin Lusitania Notes British ship sunk on 07 May 1915 by a German U-boat. (U-20) The Lusitania’s captain was William Turner The captain of the U-20 was Lieutenant-Kapitan Walter Schweiger One torpedo from the U-20 ignited a coal dust explosion. The Lusitania sank in approximately eighteen minutes off the coast of Kinsale, Ireland. (County Cork) 1195 people died This event was a contributing factor in the USA entering World War One. Lusitania Notes British ship sunk on 07 May 1915 by a German U-boat. (U-20) The Lusitania’s captain was William Turner The captain of the U-20 was Lieutenant-Kapitan Walter Schweiger One torpedo from the U-20 ignited a coal dust explosion. The Lusitania sank in approximately eighteen minutes off the coast of Kinsale, Ireland. (County Cork) 1195 people died This event was a contributing factor in the USA entering World War One. World War I veterans (from left) Henry Allingham, Harry Patch, and Bill Stone, all over 100 years old, gathered for Armistice Day commemorations in London in November. (Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images/File) By Robert Barr Associated Press / July 26, 2009 | LONDON- Harry Patch, Britain’s last survivor of the trenches of World War I, was a reluctant soldier who became a powerful eyewitness to the horror of war, and a symbol of a lost generation. Mr. Patch, who died yesterday at 111, was wounded in 1917 in the Battle of Passchendaele, which he remembered as “mud, mud, and more mud mixed together with blood.’’ “Anyone who tells you that in the trenches they weren’t scared, he’s a damned liar: You were scared all the time,’’ Mr. Patch was quoted as saying in a book, “The Last Fighting Tommy,’’ written with historian Richard van Emden. Last US veteran of WWI dies in W. Va. at age 110 Published February 28, 2011 In a May 26, 2008 file photo Frank Buckles receives an American flag during Memorial Day activities at the National World War I Museum in Kansas City, Mo. MORGANTOWN, W.VA. – Frank Buckles enlisted for World War I at 16 after lying about his age. He made it home again and ultimately became that war's last surviving U.S. veteran, campaigning for greater recognition for his comrades-in-arms before dying at 110. Buckles, who also survived being a civilian POW in the Philippines in World War II, died of natural causes Sunday at his home in Charles Town, biographer and family spokesman David DeJonge said. He was 110. Buckles had been advocating for a national memorial honoring veterans of the Great War in the nation's capital and asked about its progress weekly, sometimes daily. "He was sad it's not completed," DeJonge said Monday. "It's a simple straightforward thing to do, to honor Americans." When asked in February 2008 how it felt to be the last of his kind, he said simply, "I realized that somebody had to be, and it was me." And he told The Associated Press he would have done it all over again, "without a doubt." This August 1917 file photo provided by the Buckles Family shows Frank Buckles' enlistment photo into the U.S. Army. On Nov. 11, 2008, the 90th anniversary of the end of the war, Buckles attended a ceremony at the grave of World War I Gen. John Pershing in Arlington National Cemetery. He was back in Washington a year later to endorse a proposal to rededicate the existing World War I memorial on the National Mall as the official National World War I Memorial. He told a Senate panel it was "an excellent idea." The memorial was originally built to honor District of Columbia's war dead. Born in Missouri in 1901 and raised in Oklahoma, Buckles visited a string of military recruiters after the United States entered the "war to end all wars" in April 1917. He was repeatedly rejected before convincing an Army captain he was 18. He was actually 16 1/2. "A boy of (that age), he's not afraid of anything. He wants to get in there," Buckles said. Details for services and arrangements will be announced later this week, but DeJonge said Buckles' daughter, Susannah Flanagan, is planning for burial in Arlington National Cemetery. In 2008, friends persuaded the federal government to make an exception to its rules and allow his burial there. Buckles had already been eligible to have his cremated remains housed at the cemetery. To be buried underground, however, he would have had to meet several criteria, including earning one of five medals, such as a Purple Heart. Buckles never saw combat but joked, "Didn't I make every effort?" "We have lost a living link to an important era in our nation's history," said Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki. "But we have also lost a man of quiet dignity, who dedicated his final years to ensuring the sacrifices of his fellow 'Doughboys' are appropriately commemorated." U.S. Sen. Jay Rockefeller called Buckles "a wonderfully plainspoken man and an icon for the World War I generation" and said he will continue fighting for the memorial Buckles wanted. "He lived a long and rich life as a true American patriot," said U.S. Sen. Joe Manchin, "and I hope that his family's loss is lightened with the knowledge that he was loved and will be missed by so many." The family asked that donations be made to the National World War One Legacy Project. The project is managed by the nonprofit Survivor Quest and will educate students about Buckles and WWI through a documentary and traveling educational exhibition. More than 4.7 million people joined the U.S. military from 1917-18. As of spring 2007, only three were still alive, according to a tally by the Department of Veterans Affairs: Buckles, J. Russell Coffey of Ohio and Harry Richard Landis of Florida. The dwindling roster prompted a flurry of public interest, and Buckles went to Washington in May 2007 to serve as grand marshal of the national Memorial Day parade. Coffey died Dec. 20, 2007, at age 109, while Landis died Feb. 4, 2008, at 108. Unlike Buckles, those two men were still in basic training in the United States when the war ended and did not make it overseas. The last known Canadian veteran of the war, John Babcock of Spokane, Wash., died in February 2010. There are no French or German veterans of the war left alive. Buckles served in England and France, working mainly as a driver and a warehouse clerk. An eager student of culture and language, he used his offduty hours to learn German, visit cathedrals, museums and tombs, and bicycle in the French countryside. After Armistice Day, Buckles helped return prisoners of war to Germany. He returned to the United States in January 1920. Buckles returned to Oklahoma for a while, then moved to Canada, where he worked a series of jobs before heading for New York City. There, he again took advantage of free museums, worked out at the YMCA, and landed jobs in banking and advertising. But it was the shipping industry that suited him best, and he worked around the world for the White Star Line Steamship Co. and W.R. Grace & Co. In 1941, while on business in the Philippines, Buckles was captured by the Japanese. He spent more than three years in prison camps. "I was never actually looking for adventure," Buckles once said. "It just came to me." He married in 1946 and moved to his farm in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle in 1954, where he and wife Audrey raised their daughter. Audrey Buckles died in 1999. In spring 2007, Buckles told the AP of the trouble he went through to get into the military. "I went to the state fair up in Wichita, Kansas, and while there, went to the recruiting station for the Marine Corps," he said. "The nice Marine sergeant said I was too young when I gave my age as 18, said I had to be 21." Buckles returned a week later. "I went back to the recruiting sergeant, and this time I was 21," he said with a grin. "I passed the inspection ... but he told me I just wasn't heavy enough." Then he tried the Navy, whose recruiter told Buckles he was flat-footed. Buckles wouldn't quit. In Oklahoma City, an Army captain demanded a birth certificate. "I told him birth certificates were not made in Missouri when I was born, that the record was in a family Bible. I said, 'You don't want me to bring the family Bible down, do you?'" Buckles said with a laugh. "He said, 'OK, we'll take you.'" He enlisted Aug. 14, 1917, serial number 15577.