Chapter 23

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23
CH 23 STUDY GUIDE
WORLD ORDER
THE UNITED STATES AND THE OLD
PEOPLE, PLACES & EVENTS
1. Theodore Roosevelt & Panama
2. The Panama Canal progressives
3. The progressives & American diplomacy.
4. Progressive diplomacy & isolationism
5. The depression of 1893 & America’s international posture
6. The “Roosevelt Corollary”
7. Roosevelt justification for his “corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine
8. Roosevelt’s Asian policy & the Russo-Japanese War
9. Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”
10. Wilson & the diplomacy of Roosevelt and Taft
11. Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan & his “diplomatic “pledge”
12. The Wilson administration, Mexico & U.S. invasions
13. Wilson’s commitment to neutrality (in the World War)
14. The U.S. & the Allies in WWI
15. American neutrality &the Allies
16. WWI & the election of 1916
17. The Zimmerman Telegram
18. The U.S. “home front” in the First World War
19. The draft
20. The cost of World War I
21. WWI & the federal government
22. Wilson’s “Fourteen Points”
23. The “Fourteen Points” & the postwar world order
24. Wilson’s fundamental premise & the Treaty of Versailles
25. Tthe doughboys return
26. The Senate & the Treaty of Versailles
27. The Treaty of Versailles & Senate ratification
28. The “Red Scare”
29. Bolshevism in Russia
30. The “Palmer Raids”
COMPLETION
1. [
] diplomacy, like its politics, stressed moralism and order.
2. For his role in mediating the Russo-Japanese War, Theodore Roosevelt was
awarded [
].
3. Theodore Roosevelt aided a revolt by Panamanians against [
order to secure American rights to build a canal.
] in
4. Under the policy known as the [
], the United States
asserted the right to intervene in the Western Hemisphere in order to prevent Europeans
from doing so.
Chapter 23: The United States and the Old World Order
5. President Taft’s foreign policy strategy, designed to reduce the need for American gunboats
and marines, is known as [
].
6. Seeking to punish a revolutionary leader for an attack on Americans, Wilson dispatched an
expeditionary force to [
].
7. Seeking to establish a world order rooted in democratic ideals, Wilson dispatched an
expeditionary force to [
].
8. After World War I broke out in Europe, while the U.S. was still neutral, the advocates of what
was called [
] urged a buildup of American
land and sea forces to keep America at peace.
9. Noticeable by their absence from the peace conference following the war were delegates
from [
], which had just undergone
a revolution and withdrawn from the war.
10. In negotiating the Treaty of Versailles, Woodrow Wilson was willing to compromise on 13 of
his “points” because he believed that if his fourteenth point, calling
for [
], were implemented, it
would adjust for any deficiencies.
IDENTIFICATION
Students should be able to describe the following key terms, concepts, individuals, and places,
and explain their significance:
Terms and Concepts
Platt Amendment
Treaty of Portsmouth
Dollar Diplomacy
Central Powers
U-boats
Sussex Pledge
Selective Service Act
bond drives
National War Labor Board
Sedition Act
Fourteen Points
League of Nations
Palmer raids
Roosevelt Corollary
The Great White Fleet
August 4, 1914
Allies
Lusitania
Zimmerman telegram
War Industries Board
Committee on Public Information
“four-minute men”
Schenck v. United States
The Big Four
Treaty of Versailles
Individuals and Places
Dr. William Gorgas
Philander Knox
Francisco “Pancho” Villa
Charles Evans Hughes
George Creel
Elihu Root
Edward M. House
General John Pershing
Bernard Baruch
MAP IDENTIFICATIONS
Students have been given the following map exercise: On the map below, label or shade in the
following places. In a sentence, note their significance to the chapter.
1. Great Britain, France, and Italy
2. Germany and Austria-Hungary
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Chapter 23: The United States and the Old World Order
3. Belgium
4. Line of farthest German advance
CRITICAL THINKING
EVALUATING EVIDENCE (MAPS)
1. According to the map on page 746, by how many miles did the Panama Canal shorten the
journey from New York to San Francisco? What topographical features made the isthmus an
attractive spot for digging a canal?
2. According to the map on page 754, what advantages did Great Britain and the Allies enjoy
for conducting a naval war and a blockade against Germany and the other Central Powers?
What advantages did the Central Powers enjoy on land?
3. According to the map on page 764, how far had the Germans advanced by the time the
American Expeditionary Force arrived? Where was American participation critical in the final
Allied assault?
EVALUATING EVIDENCE (ILLUSTRATIONS AND CHARTS)
1. In the photograph of working women on page 762, what visual clues indicate that the
women are relatively new to this job?
2. Compare the ideal and real trenches in the pictures on page 758. How does the ideal differ
from the real?
3. In the picture of the signing of the Paris Peace Treaty on page 769, how are the victors
depicted? What does the setting suggest about the nature of the peace that is being
imposed on the defeated Germans?
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Chapter 23: The United States and the Old World Order
CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Students have been asked to read carefully the following excerpt from the text and then answer
the questions that follow.
As the S. S. George Washington approached the coast of France in mid-December 1918
the mist suddenly lifted. On board were the president of the United States, a group of
advisers called the “inquiry,” and an entourage that included Committee on Public
Information chief George Creel, there to make a movie of the historic mission. Woodrow
Wilson was going to represent the United States at the peace conference to be held at
Versailles, outside Paris. A world of problems awaited settlement. Large portions of
Europe had been shelled into ruin and scarred with trenches, barbed wire, and the
debris of war. Fifty million people lay dead or maimed from the fighting. Starvation and
typhus spread across the continent, eventually killing another 6 million people in the first
year of the peace. In eastern Europe and the old Turkish empire, social chaos and
revolution set Poles against Czechs, Slavs against Italians, Turks against Greeks,
Bolshevik “Reds” against czarist “Whites,” Jews against Arabs.
With the old world order so evidently in shambles, it seemed clear to Wilson that
vigorous, immediate action was imperative. Thus the president hand-picked the Peace
Commission that accompanied him, including only loyal supporters like Secretary of
State Lansing and Colonel House but not a single member of the Republican-controlled
Senate. What promised to make negotiations easier at Versailles, however, created a
crippling liability back in Washington, where Republicans cast a hostile eye on the
impending Democratic peace treaty.
PRIMARY SOURCE: A “SEDITIOUS” PAMPHLET OPPOSING
AMERICAN INTERVENTION IN THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION*
The Sedition Act of 1918 made it a felony “to utter, print, or publish disloyal, profane, scurrilous,
or abusive language about the form of government, the Constitution [or] the flag...or by word or
act oppose the cause of the United States.” Jacob Abrams and others published pamphlets
attacking President Wilson for intervening in the Bolshevik revolution by sending troops to
Russia. He advocated resistance to the policy and was later convicted under the Sedition Act.
Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented, claiming that “a silly leaflet by an
unknown man” constituted no clear and present danger to the safety of the United States. An
excerpt from one of the pamphlets follows.
Yes, we, the Workers of America, have been duped—duped by the wonderful speeches
of President Wilson. Although most of us did know the corruption of all the capitalists
and rulers, be they Kaisers, Czars, Kings or Presidents, yet we have revered the attitude
that “our” President had taken toward our COUNTRY, the country which is now the only
country of the proletariat. We really thought that he would not consent to intervention, or
in other words, that her that he would keep his hands clean of this dirty business of
destroying the Russian Revolution, the real proletarian revolution.
And here lies the hypocrisy of it. The President of the United States had not the courage
to come forward straight and openly and say “We, as well as all other capitalist nations
of the world, cannot have this revolution in Russia prolonged. We also are dead afraid of
this proletarian government, which, when once in full power, will destroy capitalism
forever and will spread its dangerous doctrines all over the world.” No, he kept his policy
secret, but instead fed us on pretty, empty phrases, and in the meanwhile American
troops were already landing in Russia and were allying themselves with the other
*From
Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616 (1919). Briefs and Exhibits.
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Chapter 23: The United States and the Old World Order
nations in the destruction of the Russian freedom, the real freedom of the working class,
and not the so-called democratic “freedom.”
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