Explain how the author presents the character of Squealer in this extract. Use evidence from the extract to support your answer. Miss Tunney’s Notes on Squealer’s speech Verb ‘sent’ shows that Squealer does not hold all the power “Comrades” “we” = friendly term of address – “equals” “brothers” speaks as though he is on the same level but he is obviously not as he seems to be ‘in the know about a number of things. “I trust” expectation language “Sacrifice” - Emotive language shows his passion Persuasive: argument was “unanswerable” Miss Tunney’s Answer 10 minutes We can sense that Squealer is an important and respected member of the farm because of his ability to hold the other animal’s attention for such a long period of time. There is one interruption to his speech from “somebody” but this interruption is so insignificant the animal responsible is not even dignified with a name. This shows how much more important Squealer is to the other animals within the barn. However, we get an immediate sense that, despite his position of authority among the common animals, he is not at the top of the hierarchy. This is obvious because we are told that he was ‘sent round the farm.’ The imperative verb ‘sent’ suggests that Squealer, like the other animals, must listen to orders from someone higher up than he. Despite his higher position within the hierarchy of animal farm, it seems that Squealer tries his best to present himself as ‘equal’ to the other animals. He addresses the other animals as ‘Comrades’ which is a friendly – rather than formal – and yet respectful term of address. Phrases such as ‘then where should we be’ and ‘as we now know’ suggest to the animals that Squealer is on an equal footing with them. The repeated use of the personal pronoun ‘we’ helps to increase the friendliness – and therefore persuasiveness – of his speech. The fact that snowball declares that he ‘trusts that every animal here appreciates the sacrifice that Napoleon made’ shows how confident he is in his convictions. Orwell makes the comment that ‘once again his argument was unanswerable’ he is being ironic. Squealer’s argument was, of course, very flawed and obviously manipulative – full but it was unanswerable to the animals who have learned to believe ‘Napoleon is always right.’ a) Explain how the author presents the character of Moses in this extract Use evidence from the text to support your answer. (8) Miss Tunney’s notes Talked in the ‘same strain’despite ‘several years of absense’ – set in his ways Perch – feeling of superiority Repetition of up there – prohesising AS THOUGH HE DOESN’T KNOW WHAT HE’S GOING TO SAY NEXT ‘FOR EVER’ CAN’T QUANTIFY – DREAMLIKE Poetic – personification ‘lies sugar candy mountain’ The verb claimed suggests that he is not taken seriously Miss Tunney’s answer (10 mins) Orwell presents Moses as a harmless but foolish character who tempts the other animals with tales of ‘everlasting fields of clover,’ ‘linseed cake growing from hedges’ and ‘lump sugar.’ The ridiculousness of this description shows just how farfetched Moses’ ideas are. The repetition of unquantifiable things such as ‘everlasting’ and ‘for ever’ shows just how unproven his claims are. Obviously his name has religious connotations, and the fact that he is a bird with is ‘large beak’ and ‘black wings’ suggests perhaps that he sees himself as spiritually or morally higher or “closer to god” than the other animals. Furthermore, Orwell’s ironic use on the name ‘Sugar Candy Mountain’ (which is obviously representative of Christian heaven ‘up there’ in the sky) mocks Moses and the religion he stands for as outlandish. We are told that ‘despite several years of absence’ from the farm still talks to the animals in the ‘same strain.’ This shows that Moses is an animal who is incredibly stuck in his ways. It seems then that Orwell sees religion and religious figures as slightly out dated, closed minded and unwilling to move with the times. He is obviously very dedicated to the idea of Sugar Candy Mountain and discusses it using poetic language. He personifies the ‘happy county’ as there ‘lying’ over the fields. The physical was that that describes this place shows just how much of a hold it has over him. Finally, the fact that Moses ‘claimed’ to have been to Sugar Candy Mountain ‘on one of his higher flights’ seems ludicrous; thankfully, the verb ‘claimed’ suggests that he is not taken seriously by the animals either.