SPOTLIGHT 2006 ABSTRACTS (1) Stream bed material as indicator for benthic macroinvertebrate abundance Nourredine Abdoulmoumine Stream hydrodynamics and morphology could provide insight on stream ecological health. This project investigated relationship of benthic macro invertebrates and bed material on Onondaga Creek in Syracuse, New York. Attempts were made to determine correlation between stream bed material composition and benthic macro invertebrate spatial distribution in stream rural gradient. Five sites have been sampled for stream bed substrates composition and benthic macro-invertebrates population during June to August 2005. Stream was sampled using Wolman Pebble Count for bed material and kick sampling for invertebrate assessment. After identification of invertebrates down to family, sites with predominance of different categories of substrates were checked for abundance of invertebrate families. (2) Sawmill wood procurement in the Northern Forest: Economies of scale and forestland parcelization Nate Anderson, Dr. Rene Germain, Dr. Eddie Bevilacqua Parcelization of non-industrial private forestland (NIPF), or the division of single forest ownerships into multiple ownerships of smaller size, has the potential to negatively impact the profitability of the forest products industry in the Northeast by reducing economies of scale for forest management and wood procurement operations. Such impacts may be especially significant for Northeastern sawmills, which rely on local woodsheds dominated by NIPF for the majority of their roundwood requirements. Using mail surveys coupled with GIS analysis, this research is evaluating the impact of forestland ownership patterns on the ability of sawmills to compete for stumpage and procure logs in the Northern Forest. We are linking the results of a mail survey with the analysis of forest ownership within the woodsheds of respondent mills. The survey includes mills in seven States and three Provinces, and characterizes wood procurement operations with regards to location and area of woodshed, sources of roundwood, the average volume of stumpage purchases, trucking distances, and the minimum parcel size necessary to manage a property for sawlogs. GIS analysis is used to characterize the distribution of ownership classes and extent of parcelization within each woodshed. This study marks the first time that researchers have attempted to quantify the relationship between parcelization and wood procurement operations. Only after the dynamics of this relationship are quantified and described, can sawmills and resource planners hope to effectively formulate a strategy to predict and mitigate the effects of changing ownership and the parcelization of forestland. (3) Use of historical documents to explore the fire history of Quinault tribal land in Washington Kimberly Babcock, Daniela Shebitz, Dr. Robin Kimmerer Plants significant to the Quinault Indian tribe of the Olympic Peninsula, WA are often associated with burned landscapes, which are uncommon in this temperate rainforest biome. The natural fire cycle of the area has been calculated to be over 13,000 years, so any fire is almost certainly anthropogenic in origin. Although many other tribes of the Pacific Northwest are known to have conducted regular burnings to maintain open tracts of land, it had not yet been documented in the Quinault tribe. This study was designed to determine if Quinaults used fire as a management tool on their land. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough search of historical documents, letters, and ethnological descriptions in the University of Washington Archives and the Jefferson County Historical Society Research Center in June 2005. Information was also gathered from interviews with Quinault tribal members. Although some references were found to prairies within Quinault territory and the use of fire adapted plants, there was no direct evidence in archival documents that the Quinaults used regular burning as a means of maintaining open tracts of land. The results were then shared with the Quinault tribe for ecological restoration purposes. (4) Evidence of fire history on potential beargrass restoration sites on Quinault tribal land in Washington Kimberly Babcock, Daniela Shebitz, Dr. Robin Kimmerer Plants significant to the Quinault Indian tribe of the Olympic Peninsula, WA are often associated with burned landscapes. One such plant is Xerophyllum tenax, beargrass, which is used for basketry and only flowers under open canopy conditions. The Quinaults have targeted a clear-cut site for beargrass restoration, but it was not known if this site had been traditionally managed with regular burns. This study was designed to gather dendrochronological evidence to determine the fire history of this potential beargrass restoration site. Eighteen stump slabs were taken from the clear-cut area and increment cores were collected from all sixteen living trees located in a small bog that was left unharvested. The stump slabs were chosen to best represent the species composition, size classes, and varying locations on the site. Both the slabs and cores were sanded and tree establishment dates were determined microscopically. The cores were analyzed using the CDendro computer program to look for patterns in establishment and growth indicating regular burning cycles. Preliminary soil cores were taken at three locations, but no visible charcoal was found in the soil profile. Two fire scars were found on a single stump slab, but otherwise there was no evidence to suggest the land was regularly burned. The results were then shared with the Quinault tribe to evaluate the potential beargrass restoration site. (5) Effects of timber harvest on Dicamtodon tenebrosis larvae in streams of Northern coastal California Michael Best and Lowell Diller Amphibians have been shown to represent some value as indicators of environmental health, and may play a role in environmental impact analysis. Timber harvest is a dominant enterprise along the Northern reaches of Coastal California and the focus of this study is to assess its impacts on adjacent streams by comparing the relative abundance of giant Pacific salamander larvae within clearcuts and uncuts (set asides). Data were collected between May 24 th and July 8th, 2005 among Western Del Norte, Humboldt, and Trinity counties along the Northern coast of California within 1500 km2 timberlands privately owned by Green Diamond Resources Company. The study consisted of three paired samples within clearcuts and adjacent set asides. Streams were paired based on geographic proximity: each pair occurred within the same sub-basin drainage and were similar in geology, weather patterns, and elevation. Each stream in the design was sampled for a 300m reach based on well established sampling sites of a long term, tailed frog monitoring protocol. Thirty random samples were collected within each reach to include the abundance of Dicamptodon tenebrosis larvae, the SVL (snout-vent-length) of at least 30 specimens captured, and habitat variables such as temperature, flow, stream dimensions. These data revealed significant differences in relative abundance of Dite larvae among two of the three quasi-pairs. The third proved to be statistically insignificant. Timber harvest does impact the giant Pacific salamander, if not directly then simply due to the great disturbance to habitat. Apparent disturbance included: increased siltation (turbidity), increased erosion of banks, and a general decrease in substrate material size; i.e. gravel where there once was cobble, which may decrease the overall suitability of the habitat for stream amphibians. (6) Model efficiency for determining water movement through the Solvay wastebeds in Syracuse, NY Dan Brown, Dr. Douglas Daley Conventional landfill cover systems primarily depend on slope to shed surface water and are often not efficient in minimizing deep percolation in the long term. Byproducts from the Solvay process in NY were stored in large wastebeds in the vicinity of Onondaga Lake and wastebed leachate transports chlorides into nearby surface waters. The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model was selected to model an alternative evapotranspirative cover on Solvay Wastebed 13 in Syracuse, NY. Simulations are being carried out for the Syracuse site and a sensitivity analysis for the SHAW model is being analyzed to assess total system performance for predicting and understanding evapotranspirative (ET) covers. (7) Designing decentralized small-scale bioenergy systems based on short rotation coppice for rural poverty alleviation Thomas Buchholz, Dr. Timothy Volk Access to modern energy is crucial for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals of poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. In East Africa, increasing environmental degradation and modern energy supply are major obstacles to sustainable rural development. Small-scale bioenergy systems can supply clean, reliable, renewable, and affordable energy to rural communities while at the same time creating new job opportunities and having beneficial impacts on natural resources, especially when supplied with biomass from locally produced Short Rotation Coppice (SRC). Bioenergy systems are complex because their three components feedstock supply, conversion technology and energy allocation are influenced by environmental, economic and social factors. Assessing these factors and their interdependency is essential to determine the potential success of a project and its contribution to sustainable development as failure of one component can lead to failure of the entire system. The complex array of interactions in bioenergy systems can be addressed by applying a systems approach using a standardized decision process or Decision Support Tool (DST). DSTs enable transparent and informed decisions even when limited information is available and many participants with different expertise and interests are involved to consider all relevant criteria. This paper introduces an approach to develop a DST assessing sustainability of small-scale bioenergy systems designed for rural communities. Keywords: bio-energy management, developing countries, decision support tools (8) Influence of Forest Floor Moss Cover on Mycorrhizal Abundance in Douglas-fir Forests of the Central-Western Oregon Cascades Jed Cappellazzi, Bruce Caldwell, Dr. Thomas Horton, Dr. Robin Kimmerer, Dr. Greg McGee While mycorrhizal associations have never been observed in bryophytes (mosses), forest floor moss cover may influence mycorrhizal fungal communities on tracheophyte roots. An in situ study conducted near the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest (LTER) in Blue River, Oregon, will examine whether forest floor moss cover influences the abundance of mycorrhizae. Additionally it will assess the effects of moss-mat removal on soil phenolics, carbohydrates, and phosphatase activities. In 2005, five stands with 16, 1.5 m 2 plots were established. Tests comparing the 80 plots in terms of plant species cover, soil chemistry/moisture, moss height/weight, and the relative cover of moss species were performed. The current analysis compares individual plots based on similarities in physical and biological characteristics to determine those that are most analogous; mycorrhizal root abundances will then be compared between those analogous plots. Subsequently, the 15 cm soil cores taken from each plot in year 0 (Summer 2005) will be compared to those taken in year 1 (Summer 2006) to test the hypothesis that moss cover increases mycorrhizal abundance on tracheophyte roots. The in situ study will be supplemented by an in vitro study of Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizal status in similar greenhouse treatments. Data analyses are ongoing and mycorrhizal results will be reported elsewhere after all data have been collected. If a significant relationship exists between moss cover and mycorrhizal abundance, this data may serve as the framework for future research. (9) The Effects of Parcelization on Private Forestland in the Catskill and Delaware Watersheds Jennifer Caron, Nate Anderson, Dr. Rene Germain Parcelization occurs when large landholdings are divided into smaller parcels under different ownerships. It is among the biggest issues facing the nation's non-industrial private forestland (NIPF); national trends indicate that NIPF parcel sizes continue to decline. Forestland parcelization directly affects the potential for forest management by reducing the size of the management unit. Smaller parcel sizes create declining economies of scale for forest managers and timber harvesters, threatening the viability of the forested working landscape and in turn the wood supply. In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that landowners customarily exploit their timber assets prior to subdividing, leaving behind wooded, but high- graded parcels with reduced potential for sustained yield management. The objective of this study was to determine a difference in forest stocking and quality between parcelized and non-parcelized NIPF. The study was conducted on 138 NIPF properties distributed across the Catskill and Delaware watersheds in New York State. Half of the sample had been parcelized since 1984, while the balance had remained intact. A forest inventory was completed on all parcels. The data collected included, per acre estimates of basal area, stems and volume as well as relative density and distribution of acceptable/unacceptable growing stock. Preliminary results indicate there is no meaningful difference between parcelized and non-parcelized ownerships in the context of basal area per acre (110 sqft), volume per acre (5 mbf) and the ratio of acceptable to unacceptable growing stock by basal area (60:40). (10) Enriching Regional Science Education Through Public Service Joshua Conway, Dr. Andy Saunders D. Andrew Saunders teaches approximately 200 students each year how to develop educational materials for diverse community audiences. Within the Faculty of Environmental and Forest Biology, all the interpretation courses in the undergraduate major of Natural History and Interpretation require numerous service learning and outreach projects tailored for various community audiences. Saunders is best known for developing and advocating an interpretive process that engages students in the methods of science through the guided exploration of conservation themes and nature in the local environment. Over the years, his students have crafted more than 25 self-guiding trail booklets for regional towns, reserves and agencies, developed conservation education and science education school modules for local schools, contributed programs for The Centers for Nature Education and Beaver Lake Nature Center, and participated in the Eco-Expo at the Rosamond Gifford Zoo. Each semester his graduate students in Environmental Interpretation offer teacher workshops that aim to connect local nature to science classrooms. Most recently Saunders’ interpretive program has produced a series of short television segments about local nature that have aired on various television stations. (11) Relationship between leaf characteristics and epiphyll cover in the Daintree Tropical Rainforest, Australia Theresa Clark, Environmental Studies Program, Cazenovia College, Cazenovia, NY 13035 [email protected] Daintree National Park, a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia, hosts organisms known as epiphylls, a unique group of bryophytes and lichens that grow on the leaves of plants. The purpose of this study was to explore potential correlations between characteristics of leaf shape and epiphyll cover. I found a slight positive relationship between average leaf lateral vein angle and epiphyll cover and a slightly negative relationship between leaf surface area and epiphyll cover. (12) Fish, Periphyton and What They Tell Us About the Condition of Onondaga Creek Virginia Collins, Catherine Landis, Y Muzimi, Cheryl Whritenour, C. Willson, E Menvielle, Dr. Karin Limburg We tested the Mid-Atlantic States’ Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI; Daniels et al. 2002) and an Autotrophic Index (AI) across the rural-to-urban gradient of Onondaga Creek. Fish and periphyton were sampled, and physical parameters were measured. These data were used to assess the “health” of the stream. The mixed forest/ agricultural site had the highest IBI score, and an urban site the highest AI score. IBI scores showed a strong, negative relationship with water temperature, and strong positive relationship with indices of urbanization (e.g., total suspended solids, and periphyton ash-free dry weights). We conclude that the fish IBI is a robust indicator of stream condition for Onondaga Creek watershed, although IBI scores in small, headwater streams appear to be ranked low regardless of condition. (13) Determining appropriate sampling intensity for tree-ring studies based on intra- and inter-tree variation in ring-width correlations for Pinus resinosa and Picea abies Nan Davis, Dr. Eddie Bevilacqua When studying growth patterns in trees, the standard sampling procedure for dendrochronologists is to collect two radii from each tree being studied. There is no available research explaining this protocol. To investigate whether two radii accurately reflect year-to-year variation in growth within and between trees, ring- widths of six radii were measured on cross-sectional disks from red pine (Pinus resinosa) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). One disk, collected at stump height, from of each 10 trees of each species was used. Ring-width measurements from each radius were made using the CooReaderTM imaging program, and crossdated and standardized using CDendroTM. Repeated random samples of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 radii were selected from each disk, the equivalent of taking that many cores per tree. Inter-tree correlations and the average chronology for each tree were calculated. The variations in intra-tree correlations within a species were then compared. The mean and variance of the intra- and inter-tree correlations for each sample size were determined. (14) Canker size in transgenic poplar trees containing an antimicrobial pesticide Jennifer Deuel, Dr. Charles Maynard, Dr. William Powell Poplar trees are susceptible to many fungal agents which can cause devastating stem cankers. In this study, 100 hybrids of Poplus deltoides x Poplus nigra were planted in an orchard. Each tree was inoculated with the fungus, Spetoria musiva in two locations and agar as a control in another two locations. Roughly half of the trees were transgenic and the other half, non-transgenic. The trees were harvested after three to four months following inoculation and then stored in a cold room. The cankers were measured at the two experimental sites and two control sites inoculation on each tree. The resulting data were statistically analyzed to determine if there was a difference in canker size between the transgenic and non-transgenic trees. It was concluded that the cankers on the transgenic tree were very close in size to the control inoculations. The cankers on the non-transgenic trees were generally much larger. (15) Correlations between Water Level and Tree Growth in the Fens of Eastern Lake Ontario Rocco Anthony Devito The effect of water level changes on Tsuga canadensis in medium fen communities near Lake Ontario was measured using tree ring core analysis. The three study sites, South Sandy Pond, North pond, and Deer Creek were located in Oswego County, New York. Cores were taken from Tsuga canadensis in stands that were surrounded by northern hardwood forests. The cores were mounted and annual ring widths were measured using a microscope and analyzed with a computer program. Annual ring widths were compared to the historical water levels of Lake Ontario (Oswego monitoring station). The points of highest and lowest water level were identified and the core measurements for the ten years on either side of these years were analyzed. It was found that neither extreme hydrological condition affected North Pond most likely due to its distance from Lake Ontario. Along Deer Creek it appears that only the high water had an affect on growth. Furthermore the trees nearest the creek had the largest decrease in growth. (16) Jellyfish Deb Diehl Some fish swim next to and in Scyphozoan jellyfish without being harmed by the nematocysts, giving rise to their ability to be symbiotic with the jellyfish. While at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, I studied the interactions of the fish and jellyfish by observing them in captivity. In general, the fish follows the jellyfish anywhere during the afternoon, but during the morning and night the fish swims alone. Perhaps the fish uses the jellyfish for protection against its predators. Alternatively, the fish could be eating food that is produced by the host jellyfish because when the jellyfish dies the fish dies too. In either case, this could be a commensalistic relationship with the fish benefiting. However, if the fish presence attracts food for the jellyfish, then this could be a mutualistic relationship. (17) Bird-nest Ferns and Buttresses Amanda Dillon, Scott Maron The Bird-Nest fern (Asplenium australasicum) is a type of epiphytic basket fern that is found growing on trees throughout tropical and subtropical Australia. In the Daintree region of northern Australia, we focused on the relationship between trees with buttress roots and the fern. Assuming the buttresses give the tree structural support, we tested the hypothesis that bird-nest ferns would be more likely to be found on trees with buttress roots. There were more ferns on trees with buttress roots (χ² = 15.6, p < .001). Bird-nest ferns were also larger on trees with buttresses (p = 0.092). Taller and wider trees had more basket ferns (r = 0.34 and r = 0.24 respectively) of larger size ( r = 0.47 and r = 0.66 respectively). Bird-nest ferns were also found to be larger on lateral and crotch locations on the tree as opposed to the trunk (p = 0.00005). . (18) Crimson Rosellas Amanda Dillon, Scott Maron, Angela Tringali, Debbie Visco We studied the problem-solving behavior of the crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans), a parrot found in Lamington National Park in Queensland, Australia. We expected that flock size would influence the time it took the birds to solve problems. To observe these abilities, we conducted four different tests around their main feeding area: Lid, String and Tube, Cassette, and Sting-pull. We did not find any statistically significant correlations between flock size and time of test completion. However, excluding the Cassette test, which was difficult and only solved once, there was a trend of a decreasing time to completion as the number of trials increased. We presume that the rosellas may have been learning individually or from watching one another from one trail to the next. (19) Development and Maintenance of Diversity in Lake Ontario Coastal Wetlands Matt Distler, Dr. Donald Leopold Coastal wetlands of New York support many rare and state-protected plants, animals, and plant communities. Previous research on coastal wetland communities suggests that inter-annual water level fluctuations may be critical for maintaining their diversity over time and that water level regulation of Lake Ontario may jeopardize these communities. Neither the long-term stability of these communities nor the importance of complex disturbance regimes in their development is well characterized, however. Plant macrofossils from peat cores taken from two coastal Lake Ontario wetlands were analyzed, showing that these wetlands have been subject to periodic fires and breaching of sand dunes that otherwise separate them from Lake Ontario. Diverse shrub and sedge-dominated fen communities persist for long periods once established, but certain disturbances or changes in soil chemistry or hydrologic conditions in these wetlands may lead to long-term changes in plant community composition. Macrofossil evidence suggests that dune barrier blowouts are sometimes associated with conversions from one type of community to another. Aerial photographic analysis reveals rapid changes in wetland composition over the last 50 years, as cover of hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca) expanded concurrently with regulation of Lake Ontario water levels. Along with radiocarbon dating to determine the chronology of wetland development, further work is planned to compare the disturbance regimes and development of coastal fens to nearby inland fens, which are not affected by recent Lake Ontario regulation or the long term effects of isostatic rebound. (20) The US/ Brazil consortia: project for eastside open space Cheryl Doble, Suzanne Greinert, Marianna Pavlick The Project for Eastside Community Open Space is a three-year outreach project conducted as part of the FIPSE funded US/ Brazil Consortia student exchange involving landscape architecture students at ESF and architecture students from two Brazilian universities. Students, and faculty work hand-in-hand with Eastside Neighbors in Partnership (ENIP) and eastside residents to explore the multifaceted topic of “Sustainable Urban Design and Community-Based Resource Management.” The eastside neighborhood faces challenges associated with urban neighborhoods in many northeastern US cities. It is a remnant neighborhood, formerly populated by a multi-ethnic middle class that left the city to settle in suburban communities that ring the city. Parts of the neighborhood have been razed for the construction and parking lots and areas were cleared during the selective demolition of abandoned houses. The current population is primarily African American, with many families and individuals living below the poverty line. Home ownership rates are low and residential vacancy rates are high. Drug and gang-related crimes have been on the rise over the past 15 years. The objectives of the project were to: develop a working partnership with ENIP and community members, develop outreach strategies, workshop activities, and methods to engage residents, develop design approaches to identified action projects build broad community support to implement projects. Accomplishments include: 2003 – Developed of an urban neighborhood open space system, including front yard improvement strategies, reclamation of vacant land, creation of a community market and community garden facility, and re-creation of public housing projects. 2004 - Refined landscape and architectural design plans for open space projects, at Lexington Park and the Eastside Commons and initiation of “the Healing Project” to address the violence and community wide loss experienced in the neighborhood. 2004 – Formed broad community partnerships and strategies to implement a neighborhood market and gardens and steward proposed improvements at Lexington Park. (21) Comparing vegetation patterns along hiking trails at Clark Reservation State Park Raina Dominguez, Dr. Donald Leopold Hiking trails concentrate human activities in forests, which can greatly stress plant and animal habitats via trampling, aided dispersal of invasive species, nutrient additions, canopy gaps and other forms of disturbance. Plant species composition is typically altered near trail edges. Improved trail management will likely result from an understanding of how native and invasive plant species respond to recreational trails, and how these species affect adjacent, nontrampled habitat. Trail attributes and site characteristics of four trails at Clark Reservation State Park in central New York were measured from June through July 2005. Vascular plant species percent cover and plant species diversity were compared between plots at trail edges and into the forest interior. The gradient of vascular plant species composition from trail edges to adjacent undisturbed plots was compared with the assumption that increased disturbance experienced by trail edges would increase plant species diversity. However, data trends indicate higher diversity values at interior, undisturbed plots. Patterns of plant species abundance in relation to hiking trails are important for park management and conservation. Understanding small scale interactions along trails can aide in protecting native species integrity within state parks. (22) A unique opportunity for quantifying chemical changes in an Adirondack soil over 15 years Matthew Domser, Gretchen Miles, Charles Driscoll, Patrick McHale, David Lyons, Joyce Green Dr. Myron Mitchell The Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York State has been the site of various biogeochemical studies. The soils at HWF are characterized as haplorthod spodosols, the forest is dominated by northern hardwoods (Acer sacharum, Fagus grandifolia). Soil was removed in 1990 from the Bh horizon and homogenized. Soils were placed into soil bags and installed beneath the Oa horizon in three treatment plots; reference, and low and high ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. In 1990, chemical analyzes were performed on the homogenized soil to measure sulfate, inorganic nitrogen and carbon and base cations (Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Al+), before the bags were buried. Soil constituents were measured at 0.22 g S kg-1, 47.7 g C kg-1, 1.7 g N kg-1 and the pH was determined to be 4.3. From 1991 to 1993 chemical manipulations to plots were conducted at several sites including the HWF, as part of the Adirondack Manipulation and Modeling Project (AMMP). Soil bags were left in place for 15 years and removed in late 2005. Soils will be analyzed from each of 3 treatments under the same analysis protocols as in 1990. Comparisons will be made between soil chemical constituents from 1990 and 2005. This study presents a unique opportunity to examine soil chemical transformations over an extended period of time. The findings from this study will contribute to current understandings of forest soil processes. (23) Combining Multispectral Imagery with Ecological Descriptors to Locate Eastern Hemlock in the Catskill Mountain Region, New York Jarrod Doucette The expanding threat of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid infestation has generated interest in locating Eastern Hemlock. The goal of this study was to improve on traditional presence/absence models by developing methodology for predicting hemlock abundance. A modified decision tree program (Cubist) was employed to generate predictive models through the automatic generation of a knowledge base from both remotely sensed imagery and environmental data. Available imagery consisted of three seasons of Landsat ETM+, while basic (slope, aspect, curvature) and specific (heat and wetness indices) ecological descriptors were extracted from a digital elevation model. Percentage of hemlock basal area was calculated for 350 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain Region. Four models were generated using increasing amounts of the imagery and ecological descriptors. Mean absolute error ranged from a high of 11.5% (Leaf-Off imagery) down to 10.6% (All imagery and environmental measures). Models were affected by the presence of non-hemlock conifers; underpredicting in Hemlock/Deciduous plots, and overpredicting in mixed Coniferous/Deciduous plots. (24) Linking ecosystem restoration theory to practice at a 600 hectare superfund subsite in Solvay, NY Tony Eallonardo, Dr. Donald Leopold The Solvay waste beds are approximately 20 meters in depth by 600 hectares. They are primarily calcium carbonate industrial refuse deposited from 1881 to 1986. These wastes had a pH of 11 to 12 and conductivity of approximately 40 dS m-1 when deposited. Within 20 years of deposition the waste weathers sufficiently to allow predominately non-native vegetation to colonize much of the site. Our objectives were to vegetate barren seepage areas, increase forested area and its plant diversity, and increase wetland species diversity. In 2005 we initiated two experiments to determine what factors are limiting the survival and growth of planted and naturally occurring species on the site: (1) we observed vegetation dynamics following tilling and fencing; and, (2) on an upland to wetland gradient, we planted and observed the performance of approximately 7000 woody and herbaceous plants of 59 species. Survivorship after the first summer was greater than 70% for 21 of the 38 upland species planted. Rhus glabra and Prunus pensylvanica showed the greatest height growth. Wetland plants adapted to saline environments performed better than those adapted to alkaline environments, with Spartina alterniflora and S. patens performing best. Herbivory and competition with grasses and non-native legumes limited the establishment of woody species, however seed availability may have also been limiting. Soil chloride concentration was positively correlated with woody species mortality but chloride effects on mortality and growth varied across species. Future work includes investigating species specific responses to soil chloride, and vegetation establishment strategies for barren seepage areas. (25) Applying Physical Measurements of Hyporheic Exchange to Understand Geochemical Variability of Hyporheic Waters Rosemary Fanelli, Laura Lautz Groundwater/surface water interactions in the hyporheic zone create a chemically unique area where varied dissolved oxygen concentrations cause redox zones to develop. The development of these zones can be enhanced by in-stream features, such as steps or small dams. Because this subsurface biogeochemical cycling can significantly impact stream water chemistry, it is important to identify how in-stream features induce hyporheic exchange and influence the chemistry of streambed waters. Here we use geochemical analysis of hyporheic water to assess spatially variable redox conditions generated induced by the presence of a dam in a Wyoming stream. We compare geochemical indices of oxia/anoxia to physical estimates of exchange, such as daily temperature variability and hydraulic gradient. A 5-m by 15-m reach, which includes a 1.5-m. high log dam, was instrumented with 36 in-stream mini-piezometers. At each piezometer, we measured hydraulic gradient, collected a water sample and measured streambed temperatures in the morning and evening. Results show both nitrate generation and sulfate reduction occurring in the hyporheic zone. Zones with sulfate reduction also show iron and manganese reduction, which are chemical indicators of anoxia. These anoxic zones show low daily temperature variability, indicating low connectivity with the stream. At other sites, however, high daily temperature variability (up to 5oC) signifies higher connection with the stream. Geochemical analyses at these sites show high nitrate and low manganese and iron concentrations, indicators of oxic conditions. The presence of the small dam creates areas in the hyporheic zone that have variable rates of groundwater/surface water exchange, characterized by daily temperature variability and geochemistry of the interstitial water (26) Can target toxin producing genes and microcystin toxins be detected in gluteraldehyde preserved samples of Microcystis aeruginosa? Justin Fischedick, Dr. Gregory Boyer Microcystis aeruginosa is a cyanobacterial species in which certain strains are capable of producing a class of hepatotoxic peptides called microcystins. Microcystins are produced via a non-ribosomal-synthetase. Whole cell PCR methods can be employed to detect the genes responsible for production of microcystins. Various analytical techniques such as HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and PPIA can be utilized to detect the toxin itself in environmental samples. Gluteraldehyde is a common preservative used in the preservation of cyanobacterial samples and it would be useful to researchers if methods could be employed that allow analysis of specific cyanobacterial colonies in preserved samples. Therefore, in this experiment the effects of various concentrations of gluteraldehyde will be tested on a culture of M. aeruginosa known to contain both toxin producing genes and produce microcystins. Whole cell PCR was utilized to determine how long toxin producing genes are detectable in gluteraldehyde. HPLC was utilized to determine how long microcystin toxins can be detected in gluteraldehyde preserved samples. (27) Changes in phytoplankton biomass and composition in the central basin of Lake Erie using fatty acid analysis Sarah Fitzpatrick, Christopher Tarolli, Dr. Mark Teece Fatty acid analysis was used to indicate changes in the total biomass of phytoplankton, as well as to indicate temporal shifts in phytoplankton species in Lake Erie. Seston samples were collected aboard the R/V Lake Guardian during the summer of 2005 from the central basin, and analyzed to determine changes in concentrations of total fatty acids and of particular acids that have been noted to indicate individual species of algae. Total fatty acid content in the epilimnion was the largest in May and then decreased significantly in June, indicating a decrease in phytoplankton productivity. Biomass in the metalimnion and hypolimnion actually increased during this time period, which is likely due to sinking phytoplankton as thermal stratification became prevalent. Total fatty acids increased in July and remained relatively consistent for the remainder of the summer in the epilimnion. Shifts in the relative abundances of algal biomarker fatty acids were used to determine temporal shifts in algal species. The fatty acids 16:17 and EPA indicated that diatoms were dominant in May in the epilimnion and then sank into the lower layers of the water column by June. Thereafter, dinoflagellates became more prevalent in June, indicated by the large relative abundance of the fatty acid 18:19, but decreased in July and August as cyanobacteria and chlorophytes become dominant, indicated by a low abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In September, phytoplankton biomass was again dominated by diatoms. These changes in fatty acid composition and algal biomass indicate that dietary material available to zooplankton changes considerably over the season, therefore affecting essential fatty acids accessible to the entire food web. (28) Science trails: connecting classrooms to nature Stephen Fox, Emily Debolt, Dr. D. Andrew Saunders The Science Trail concept, an original derivative of the Stalking Science workshops, gives students of all ages an alternative to the tedium of traditional teaching by inviting them to walk in the shoes of conservation and wildlife scientists. Established stops along the way engage students in the process of science to investigate the contemporary issues from climate change to habitat fragmentation. By collecting data and processing their numbers, students can compare their studies with ongoing and published research. Teachers from disciplines other than science, e.g. art, history, and literature, may easily adapt their class exercises to take advantage of trail features as well. Students are not the only benefactors of this novel approach. Other trail users such as parents and the visiting public have an opportunity to observe firsthand the dynamic approaches community teachers are adopting in their classrooms. Illustrated self-guiding trail booklets reveal Science Trail tasks and concepts for all audiences. Science Trails produce other benefits, for example by providing nature reserve managers the means if they choose to revitalize existing nature trail themes and to renew their connections with patrons and donors. Science Trails are currently being completed at Corcoran High School in Syracuse, NY; Baltimore Woods Nature Center in Marcellus, NY; and Beaver Lake Nature Center in Baldwinsville, NY. One is already completed at the Adirondack Park Agency Visitor Interpretive Center in Newcomb, NY. Teacher workshops to educate teachers on Science Trails and natural history are also planned. It is our hope that once completed, these trails will engage students in the process of science and persuade more students to pursue future science professions, and will increase student contact with nature and natural history. (29) Understanding the relationships between natural resources, economic growth, and social well being Carol Franco, Dr. Valerie Luzadis Sustainable development is the goal of most countries of the world; but it may not be achieved without further understanding of the critical relationships between natural resources, economic growth, and social well-being. This is because economic growth-based policies have already been implemented worldwide to increase social well being. But uncertainty exists regarding the extent to which well being has actually been improved. In part, clearer understanding of this much debated issue has been impeded by ignorance regarding the measurement of well being. Different measures have been proposed, but no agreement has been achieved. Today, the most used measure of well being is the Human Development Index (HDI), even though it ignores the role of natural resources and of satisfaction with life, i.e. subjective well being or happiness. Through a nation-wide and empirically-based study in the Dominican Republic, I will test the following hypotheses: H01: The well being of the Dominican people, as measured through the HDI, did not change because of economic growth-oriented policies. I will test this hypothesis by comparing HDI indexes before and after the year 1982. H02: The inclusion of measures of natural resources into the HDI produces measures no different than those produced by the HDI alone. I will test this hypothesis firstly by adding to measures of natural resources (or their degradation) as a category to the HDI, and secondly by comparing these results with the measure of HDI alone. H03: The inclusion of measures of subjective well being into the HDI produces measures identical to those produced by the HDI alone. I will test this hypothesis by first developing a questionnaire to measure subjective well being of the Dominican people based on the latest theories of societal welfare (beyond Walrasian economics), and by using it to collect data. I will then add the subjective well being measure as a category to the HDI, and will compare the obtained results with the HDI alone. H04: The inclusion of measures of natural resources and subjective well being into the HDI produces measures identical to those produced by the HDI alone. To test this hypothesis, I will first develop a composite index that incorporates measures of natural resources and of subjective well being into the HDI, and then compare it to the HDI alone. This will be dependent on, and greatly facilitated by, the results of the previous two hypotheses. The main results of this study are going to be: (i) improved understanding of the effects of economic growth-based policies on social well being, as measured by the HDI; (ii) improved understanding of the effects of incorporating measures of natural resources and of subjective well being into the HDI to assess social well being; and (iii) the development of a comprehensive measure of well being for the Dominican people. All these results will contribute to potential shifts in current natural resource management trends and international development policies. (30) Connecting the dots: Syracuse’s energy use and GHG emissions Peter King, Nate Gagnon, Trang Tron, Frank Moses, Imran Khalid, Allan Drew, Dr. Richard Smardon Cities across the United States are investigating ways to reduce their contributions to global climate change. In this project we quantified the energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollutants of the City of Syracuse. We used the Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) model developed for the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and the Urban Forest Effects model (UFORE) developed for the US Forest Service. Our analysis of the city’s residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and waste sectors reveals a reduction in energy use over the last five years. However, this may be due to emigration rather than energy conservation. (31) Life in Oakwood Cemetery: A study of gliding bacteria (Myxobacteriaceae) on the bark of living trees Lauren Goldmann, Dr. Alexander Weir Currently placed in the order Myxococcales, myxobacteria, is the common name for a beautiful and complex group of bacteria that were first believed to be fungi. The mycologist Roland Thaxter was the first person to correctly recognize these organisms as bacteria in 1892. Coveted for their novel secondary metabolites, and sophisticated social systems, they are characterized as gliding bacteria related to the purple sulfate reducers, and found in every climatic zone where decaying organic material is abundant. This project investigates the ecological pattern of distribution of myxobacteria on 17 different tree species along a pH gradient with the effects of bark characteristics considered. Using a moist chamber approach, fifteen postage-sized pieces of bark were sampled from each tree, five times, from July 1st 2005 to December 19th 2005. The moist chambers were checked and myxobacteria species recorded every two days for three weeks. Thirteen different species within five genera were recorded. Six of these remain unidentified. A clear correlation between tree bark pH and myxobacteria abundance and diversity with an optimal pH range of approximately 5.25 – 6.40 was observed. Individuals were found on tree bark with a pH as low as 4.70 and as high as 6.61. No significant host specificity with tree species was discovered, however only Melittangium lichenicola, Melittangium stipitata and Corallococcus were found at low pH values. Melittangium was found throughout the 4.70 6.61pH range on 70% of the tree species and accounted for 34% of all individuals sampled, making it the most abundant and ecologically versatile genus. As a sub-project, vertical stratification of the myxobacteria community was investigated in a single tree species, Thuja occidentalis. The effects of the boundary layer at different heights and bark substrates, on organisms of varying scales, from mosses, lichens and myxomycetes to myxobacteria are discussed. (32) The US/ Brazil consortia: project for eastside open space Suzanne Greinert, Marianna Pavlick The Project for Eastside Community Open Space is a three-year outreach project conducted as part of the FIPSE funded US/ Brazil Consortia student exchange involving landscape architecture students at ESF and architecture students from two Brazilian universities. Students, and faculty work hand-in-hand with Eastside Neighbors in Partnership (ENIP) and eastside residents to explore the multifaceted topic of “Sustainable Urban Design and Community-Based Resource Management.” The eastside neighborhood faces challenges associated with urban neighborhoods in many northeastern US cities. It is a remnant neighborhood, formerly populated by a multi-ethnic middle class that left the city to settle in suburban communities that ring the city. Parts of the neighborhood have been razed for the construction and parking lots and areas were cleared during the selective demolition of abandoned houses. The current population is primarily African American, with many families and individuals living below the poverty line. Home ownership rates are low and residential vacancy rates are high. Drug and gang-related crimes have been on the rise over the past 15 years. The objectives of the project were to: develop a working partnership with ENIP and community members, develop outreach strategies, workshop activities, and methods to engage residents, develop design approaches to identified action projects build broad community support to implement projects. Accomplishments include: 2003 – Developed of an urban neighborhood open space system, including front yard improvement strategies, reclamation of vacant land, creation of a community market and community garden facility, and re-creation of public housing projects. 2004 - Refined landscape and architectural design plans for open space projects, at Lexington Park and the Eastside Commons and initiation of “the Healing Project” to address the violence and community wide loss experienced in the neighborhood. 2004 – Formed broad community partnerships and strategies to implement a neighborhood market and gardens and steward proposed improvements at Lexington Park. (33) Taking Account of Regional Climate Change Projections in Great Lakes Policy Deliberations with Long-Term Implications? A Pilot Study and Research Program Maria Aileen Leah G. Guzman, Harry Lambright, Hank Mullins, Steve Brechin, Dr. Jack Manno The Great Lakes of North America hold nearly one fifth of the fresh surface water on the earth. Their management is shared by two countries, eight states, two provinces, and scores of indigenous tribes and first nations and local jurisdictions. Several large-scale multi-jurisdictional policy initiatives are presently making resource management decisions that will affect the lakes long into the future. Our research asks whether and how projected ecosystem impacts of climate change are taken into account in these policy deliberations. (34) Efficiency of the Philippine Economy Maria Aileen Leah G. Guzman, Dr. Charles Hall The Philippines has one of the lowest Gross Domestic Production (GDP) among all the members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). The dwindling share of exportation from raw materials and other agricultural products and the increasing cost of importation of industrial goods affected the GDP. The world oil crisis in the 70’s magnified the negative effect on the economy. The country’s economic recovery in the 80s was hampered by the instability of the Philippine Government brought about by numerous coup attempts. A similar political instability still exists today. A specific exacerbating factor of the country’s poor economic performance was the energy crisis experienced in late 80s & early 90s. This caused industrial firms to leave the country and set-up factories in other countries as production cost increased due to high electricity prices. Thus, one of the Philippine Government’s recent strategies to improve the plight of Filipinos and hasten economic development in the Philippines is to provide stable, sustainable and cheap energy to everyone. These goals are inscribed in the Philippine Medium Term Plan and Philippine Energy Plan (PEP). PEP serves as the country’s blueprint for the advancement of the energy sector and is seen as a vital component of any economic development plan for developing countries such as the Philippines. I attempt to analyze the importance and implications of the Philippine Energy Plan to the country’s economy by scrutinizing the Philippine Energy Plan. I specifically look at the plan’s economic and energy efficiency by using a biophysical approach and a modified costs and benefits technique. (35) A Methane Cycle on Titan? Adam Effler, Marilyn Markwie, Sowmya Venkatsubramania, Dr. James Hassett With a diameter of 5150 km and a mass of 1.35e23 kg, Titan is Saturn’s largest satellite. On Jan. 14, 2005, The European Space Agency’s Huygens probe landed on the surface of Titan, completing a one-way, 4 billion km journey. Imagery from the parachute-assisted descent through the methane-dominated Titan atmosphere indicated river-like channels and possible lake surfaces, suggesting a methane cycle similar to Earth’s hydrologic cycle. We are using the ambient conditions on Titan (surface temperature, gravity, atmospheric temperature lapse rates, channel sizes) and properties of methane (viscosity, vapor pressure) to determine the possibility of a methane cycle on Titan. (36) Radioactive Degradation of Cellulose Chris Haverlock In the early months of 2006, a small team of researchers from SUNY ESF and many other affiliates are initiating a project that grapples with the problem of breaking down the crystalline structure of cellulose. Ionizing radiation, consisting of electron beams and x-rays, is being used to degrade crystalline regions of cellulose in order to make the biomass useable for widespread economic use. The main goal of this project deals with replacing petroleum fuel sources with cellulosics, which is a renewable environmentally-friendly fuel source. This will improve the environment and bring down the cost of oil per barrel. As stated in the proposal, roughly one-third of transportation fuel requirements in the United States can be met simply with cellulose and cellulose-based materials. The radiation process being developed at SUNY ESF will make cellulose more available for large scale economic use by being sufficiently lower in operating cost when compared to current cellulose conversion technologies. Another positive side to this process is that it can handle just about any type of cellulose-bearing material. Regional feedstocks can be used which only serves to further lower the conversion cost by eliminating shipping. Eliminating shipping will also boost the local business economy. The project will require $450,000 over the course of three years which is relatively cheap when compared to many other similar research projects currently in progress. In short, there is so much to gain with virtually nothing to lose. With so much potential, this is a perfect opportunity to alleviate the world’s dependence on petroleum-based polymers and ultimately change the way energy is viewed forever, ushering in a new era of conservation and environmental awareness. (37) Physical Symbolism of Power, Neighborhood Revitalization, and Historic Disempowerment in the Urban Environment: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Meghan Hazer, Dr. Kishi Animashaun, Dr. Emmanuel Carter, Dr. Myrna Hall In some American cities a pattern of historical disinvestment can be found, which has been based on systems of historic disempowerment of different groups of people. This paper investigates the story of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with regards to racial residential segregation, the consequential urban neighborhoods in decline, and some of the efforts being made today to revitalize these areas and offer real opportunities to the current residents. In order to address this issue, I first researched methods of segregation and the economic disempowerment created by the policies of the Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC). I also researched the Neighborhood Transformation Initiative (NTI), which is the city’s current program for neighborhood revitalization. I then visited neighborhoods in North Philadelphia, one of the most drastically segregated areas of the city in order to interview people about their opinions on the recent changes in the city and to what degree they personally felt their individual opinions mattered. With all of this taken into consideration, I draw some conclusions based on expressions of social, political, and economic power as expressed in the landscape in the context of a documented history of disempowerment and today’s efforts to empower residents through neighborhood change. (38) Effects of ammonium nitrate and dolomitic lime additions on understory vegetation growth and nutrient content in the Catskill Mountains, NY Laura A. Heath, Anthony S. Eallonardo Jr. and Dr. Donald Leopold The northeastern United States has been exposed to elevated levels of nitrogen through acidic deposition for over a century causing significant changes in the nutrient status of forests, including nitrogen saturation, increased levels of aluminum availability and base cation losses. The purpose of this study is to analyze nutrient limitations in the Catskill Mountains of New York, an area heavily affected by nitrogen deposition, to determine which nutrients are limiting growth of the understory vegetation. Permanent plots were treated with one of four treatments in 2003 (control, 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1 ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), 9 tons ha-1 dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) or dolomite plus ammonium nitrate) and changes in cover, density, biomass and nutrient content of understory plants were assessed yearly. Two years after treatment application, there was no significant difference in total understory biomass between treatments. Acer saccharum (sugar maple) showed a significantly higher relative growth rate increase in the dolomite plus ammonium nitrate treatment and had higher leaf Ca:Al and Mg:Al compared to the control. The increase in Acer saccharum relative growth rate was positively correlated to concentrations of calcium, magnesium and pH in the Oe horizon. Erythronium americanum (trout-lily) showed no difference in relative growth rates between treatments but exhibited a five-fold increase in root aluminum concentrations on the nitrogen treatment relative to the control. However, there was no difference in aluminum concentrations of Erythronium americanum leaves between treatments. These results show that understory responses to dolomite and ammonium nitrate are species-specific. Acer saccharum growth increased as a result of factors associate with dolomite additions while Erythronium americanum showed no growth response but a potential physiological adaptation to persisting in high nitrogen and aluminum environments. (39) Microcystin Production in Lake Ontario Amber Hotto, Mike Satchwell, Dr. Greg Boyer Outbreaks of toxic cyanobacteria have been increasing on the Great Lakes. Cyanobacteria in these toxic blooms can produce a family of hepatotoxic peptides, called microcystins. There are two hypotheses surrounding the origin of microcystin production in Lake Ontario: (1) it originates offshore and is circulated throughout the lake via water currents and (2) it is created in eutrophic embayments and is transported to the main lake. To investigate the existence and origin of microcystin production in Lake Ontario, samples were collected in embayments along the southern and eastern shores and from open water. Molecular analysis by PCR revealed the potential for microcystin production, which was then compared to actual microcystin production determined via the biochemical protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA). This information was then used to evaluate the relative contribution of embayments vs. offshore regions to microcystin production in Lake Ontario (40) Supersaturation of dissolved nitrogen gas in the hypolimnion in Onondaga Lake Craig Allen Hurteau Temporal and vertical patterns of nitrogen gas (N2) were documented for the hypolimnion of eutrophic Onondaga Lake, New York for the June to October interval of 10 years (1996-2005) in order to assess changes brought about by increased nitrification at a contributing wastewater treatment facility. It was hypothesized that increased loading of nitrate to the lake would promote N2 production through denitrification in the lake’s sediments. Concentrations of N 2 were routinely over-saturated with respect to the atmosphere and saturation values >100% were common. Percent saturation values increased from an average of 88.5% in 1996 and 1997 to 135.9% from 1998 to 2005. This increase was consistent with nitrification related upgrades at the wastewater facility in 1998. More substantial upgrades made in 2004 resulted in year-round nitrification at the facility and a 2-fold increase in nitrate concentrations in the lake at spring turnover. This change was not reflected in higher N2 concentrations during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal changes in N2 concentrations were qualitatively consistent with the timing of the denitrification process, but vertical distributions were highly variable and inconclusive with respect to identifying the sediments as a predominant source. Over-saturation of N2 with respect to the atmosphere is of concern in aquatic systems as it can cause gas bubble disease in fish. The implications of these findings for fish and other aquatic organisms are preliminarily discussed. (41) Conservation NGOs- friend or foe? The World Wildlife Fund- an exploration of indigenous issues in Brazil Ana Jamboric In December 2004, The World Watch Institute published Mac Chapin’s very controversial article titled “A Challenge to Conservationists”. The article accused large non-government organizations (NGO’s) of dominating the world’s conservation agenda through rapid growth, neglecting indigenous people, and entertaining projects and accepting funding in conflict with their conservation mission. This study explores these allegations focusing on The World Wildlife Fund-US and World Wildlife Fund-Brazil in terms of the indigenous movements and its interactions with The World Wildlife Fund (WWF). In particular focusing on the question of the existence of interaction with indigenous groups, the effects of growth and structure of WWF on collaboration with indigenous groups, and the effects of WWF’s partnerships with and acceptance of funding from corporation on indigenous interaction. The original research in the study consists of qualitative and quantitative data: eight interviews, WWF annual reports, books, documents, and other archival data. According to the findings, WWF has experienced almost exponential growth since its appeal—growing by a factor of twelve since 1984. WWF has attempted to work with indigenous groups in the past, however does not anymore. WWF has extensively in the past, and still does to a lesser extent, work closely with corporations in funding, board involvement, projects and partnerships—including resource extractive corporations. There is evidence that WWF has in the past entertained projects of conflicting interest with its mission and the goals of indigenous groups and there is evidence that they are moving away from such projects. (42)Transformation of American Elm with a plant defensin gene from Norway Spruce for increased resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Nicholas Kaczmar Nicholas Kaczmar, Armand Seguin, Charles Maynard, and William Powell. Dutch Elm Disease (DED), caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novoulmi, has pushed the American elm to the brink of extinction. Efforts to combat DED have recently focused on the development of disease-tolerant trees. Genetic transformation offers an attractive alternative to breeding because it offers the potential to transfer specific traits into selected genotypes without affecting their desirable genetic background. PgD1, a defensin gene isolated from Picea glauca, has shown to inhibit growth of several fungal pathogens. Vascular and constitutive expression of PgD1 in American elm is being attempted with hopes of increasing tolerance to DED. (43) Development of a flow through fluorometric system for the detection of phycocyanin in the lower Great Lakes Elizabeth Konopko, Dr. Gregory Boyer Cyanobacterial blooms have become common place on the Great Lakes. These blooms vary in both their spatial and temporal distribution. Monitoring for these blooms requires care in selecting the appropriate monitoring sites. A single site may not give a good representation of these blooms for the entire lake. To measure patchiness of these blooms, we have developed a flow-through system that uses the fluorescence of their chlorophyll and their accessory pigment, phycocyanin. This fluorescence system was coupled with a 6600 series YSI sonde, which measured temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll every minute. In 2004, this system was placed aboard the CCGS Limnos and used to survey both Lake Ontario and Lake Erie at 200 m intervals over a five day period. The results for phycocyanin in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie are presented here. (44) Testing the Effects of Soil Microbes on Nutrient Uptake in Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) Planted in Solvay Waste Soils. Kali Lader, Tony Eallonardo, D. Muska, Dr. Tom Horton, Dr. Donald Leopold Most plants depend on soil microbes to access nutrients and to help ease the affects of harsh conditions. In this study we were interested in looking at the affect soil microbes have on nutrient acquisition and biomass accumulation in pine seedlings grown in Calcium-carbonate waste. This bioassay was conducted in a two by two factorial design; seedlings were planted in both sterile and non-sterilized soils from each of two different aged calcium chloride waste beds. There are a total of five replications per treatment based on the five different collections sites within each of the two beds. Above ground biomass will be weighed and the phosphorous content will be analyzed using ICP. Based on observations during harvesting seedlings associated with mycorrhizal fungi has less flagging on their needles but often appeared to have less biomass. Statistical comparisons of biomass and Phosphorous levels are on going will be reported in the poster. If these soil microbes are shown to aid the seedlings in phosphorous acquisition then this implies that plant restoration efforts should include mycorrhizal inoculation to increase survival rate. (45) Computational study of the reaction between Acetylperoxy and Hydroperoxy radicals. Alyson Lanciki, Dr. Theodore Dibble The reaction between the acetylperoxy radical (CH3C(O)OO·) and the hydroperoxy radical (HOO·) has been shown to be a major source of organic acid deposition in the atmosphere. There are two main reaction pathways which contribute to the acid buildup. Pathway 1 yields peracetic acid and an oxygen molecule, while pathway 2 yields acetic acid and ozone. Pathways 1 and 2 occur in a ratio of about 3 to 1. All molecules in this experiment are built with Gaussian98, a modeling program that is also used to determine the transition states and intermediates. The program also helps determine activation energies to show kinetically how each set of products is reached. A similar study was done using a different method in the Gaussian program. A comparison between the Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) used in this experiment and the CBS-QB3 method used in the most recent research can gauge which is a more accurate method for this type of reaction. The study of a different, yet related reaction between (HOO·) and (CH(O)CH2OO·) will determine whether the position of the carbonyl in a radical chain affects the number of main reaction pathways. This information can be used for longer radicals containing carbonyls. (46) Japanese Knotweed Management along Rt. 28N, Blue Mountain Lake, New York Erik Lema, Dr. Christopher Nowak Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc.) poses a significant threat to the native biodiversity of Adirondack Park. Knotweed is currently in an early stage of invasion, making successful control possible. In spring of 2004, a study involving the New York State Department of Transportation, The Nature Conservancy’s Adirondack Chapter, Arborchem Chemicals, and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, was initiated to develop management techniques for populations along roadside rights-of-way in the hamlet of Blue Mountain Lake. The methods evaluated were cut-stump (glyphosate) and foliar (glyphosate, imazapyr, metsulfuron) herbicide applications. One year after application, knotweed cover was similar in both methods of herbicide treatment (2-3% cover) and significantly less than the untreated control plots (80% cover). Stem density was significantly reduced in the foliar plots (7,000 stems ha-1), but not different between the cut-stump and control plots (54,000 stems ha-1 and 47,000 stems ha-1, respectively). For foliar treatment only, both stem density and % cover were comparatively less in isolated populations than those connected to a larger, untreated population (0.96%, 5,900 stems ha-1 isolated versus 3.57%, 12,000 stems ha-1 connected). Light was also determined to be an interacting factor in treatment effects on stem density, with higher densities occurring in shaded areas (13,000 stems ha -1 full shade versus 2,000 stems ha-1 full sun). Monitoring of the affected areas will continue in the summer of 2006 to determine long-term treatment effects. (47) Examining policy change and development in the Coevolutionary framework: Wetlands policy of the U. S. and S. Korea Sukhyun Park, Dr. Valerie Luzadis The purpose of this study is to examine whether a punctuated equilibrium in policy process is related to a coevolutionary process between our society and ecosystem. In order to do this, I used wetlands policy in the U. S. and S. Korea as case studies. In this study, coevolution refers to an ongoing positive feedback between components of an evolving system. We are accustomed to negative feedback systems which keep systems in equilibrium. The mechanical models of the Newtonian world view, including those of neoclassical economics, must have negative feedback so that when a change occurs the models find a new equilibrium. Models of policy studies are also generally based on the twin principles of incrementalism and negative feedback – self-correcting systems, which maintain a dynamic equilibrium. However, the nonincremental nature of the allocation of problems in political systems and economics has been ignored. The coevolutionary approach has rarely dealt with evidence. This study is thus a preliminary scientific research to operationalize the concept of coevolution in social science. I started this research with the following questions: How to track down the relationships among the components of a coevolutionary framework? Would a nonincremental institutional change contribute to the coevolutionary process? Were there any nonincremental changes in wetlands policy, wetlands ecosystem, and values of wetlands? Is this dramatic change really a break point toward a new stage or back to the equilibrium? To perform this study, I collected congressional hearings and documents, interviewed, and surveyed. Both the US and Korea have had a short period of a radical change in the wetlands policy formation in the 1970s and the 1990s respectively. Based on the interim analysis, however, the punctuated equilibrium of wetlands policy would not be a break point of dynamic equilibrium. (48) Methodological considerations for capturing seed species richness at centimeter and meter scales from peat cores at South Sandy Pond, NY Aaron Marcus, Matthew Distler, Dr. Donald Leopold The paleoecological technique of macrofossil analysis lacks standardization regarding peat sample size and number of cores collected. Species variation at centimeter and meter scales may be important in choosing sample number and volume. This study investigated the number of peat cores and the sample volume that would sufficiently represent the species richness of a diverse wetland habitat for macrofossil analysis. Additionally, this research evaluated whether seed species richness varied at the centimeter or meter scales. Eight cores were collected along a 35m transect through the open Chamaedaphne/Carex community of South Sandy Pond. Six cumulative volumes were assessed from each core (1cm3, 3cm3, 5cm3, 10cm3, 15cm3, and 20cm3) at 2 to 4 cm depth. Species richness of 20cm3 cores varied from 4 to 7, while the total richness among all cores was 15. Carex chordorrhiza, C. lasiocarpa and Vaccinium macrocarpon were common aboveground, but poorly represented in the peat, demonstrating the limitations of macrofossil analysis in describing plant community richness. Accumulation curves show that seed species richness is not saturated after sampling 20cm3 of peat. A sample that accurately represents richness would need to be larger than this. Using two cores increased the species richness for the same volume sampled, and more strongly when the cores were further apart. Using multiple cores may help capture species richness associated with complex fen microtopography. More study is needed to see if seed species accumulation trends are similar at other sites and depths. (49) Using percent crown cover as a thinning guide may suffice for over-stocked, pole size brown ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) stands in Caribou, Maine. Timothy McAbee, Dr. Michael R. Bridgen, Dr. Ralph D. Nyland Seeking to better understand the ecological and silvicultural characteristics of brown ash and the tools for managing it (i.e. stocking guides) is important to the cultural preservation and economic well-being of northeastern native people and other craftsmen. Concern for the species’ conservation is a result of its reduced abundance, as has been noticed by the individuals who use brown ash logs for producing splints and baskets. This study tested the application of a brown ash stocking guide developed for the Lake States by Erdmann et al. (1987) on overstocked, pole-size brown ash stands in Caribou, Maine using a distance independent, individual tree growth model. Simulation of the plots thinned to 50, 75 and 100% crown cover, as opposed to the control plot (no cutting), showed consistently increasing volume production rates and diameter growth for brown ash over the 20-year period simulated. A percent crown cover of about 170 may represent a maximum degree of crowding. Currently, the Erdmann et al. (1987) guide is the only brown ash stocking guide and may be the best alternative for regulating stand density deliberately and effectively. (50) Innovative management structures for onsite wastewater treatment Robert P. McAfee Dr. Sharon Moran , Dr. Robert Malmsheimer Improperly functioning onsite wastewater treatment systems are causing both ground and surface water contamination in many communities. Studies have shown that onsite wastewater treatment is an appropriate method of treatment if combined with a management program. Yet despite current problems, national and state level water regulations largely focus on point sources, excluding nonpoint source onsite wastewater problems. Despite a lack of national and state level action, some local communities have developed and implemented innovative management structures for the purposes of addressing these concerns. To showcase various management structures, case studies were conducted. These case studies embody a range of management styles representing various levels of local governance: sub-division, town, county, and watershed. Common themes that appeared during case study research include the role of crisis situations and alternative technology, the influence of wealth, organizations and issue framing, and the interconnectedness of wastewater managers. (51) Soil drainage class effects longevity and species composition of trees Scott Means Forested or plantation trees are affected by a host of biotic and abiotic components. Biotic factors are like macro and microorganisms in the soil, species of trees in the over story, and whether they are deciduous or coniferous. Abiotic factors include the amount of rainfall and what season it is received, aspect, climate and temperature. The most dynamic aspect is soil drainage class or depth to water. This research demonstrates how a change in soil drainage class, from a stand of trees to another stand of trees, can hinder the ability of trees to put on wood, grow and outpace competing trees. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Northern Heiberg Forest was used as first step, depicting the cover species and relating the species to appropriate stands of trees. This image along with on the ground observations from forest measurements helped to determine tree cover types. Next the stand boundaries were digitized from a hand drawn schematic and drawn onto the DEM. Finally a USDA soil map from Cortland County compiled in 1961, was scanned over the DEM and synchronized by a process called rubber sheeting, a process matching up physiographic features with digital accuracy. On analysis of the field and map data, it was confirmed that soil drainage has a role in species composition. Red Pine, best suited to well drained soil, was planted for a dated experiment in a poorly dr ained Chippewa soil, in stand #8, white ash best in semi-poorly to poorly drained soils, was now out competing the Red Pine. (52) Willows Irrigated with Different Concentrations of Solvay Stormwater Jaconette Mirck, Dr. Timothy Volk A pot-based experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of Solvay stormwater, based on chloride concentrations (0-230 mmol l-1), on the growth of three shrub-willow varieties. The three varieties used were: Salix miyabeana (SX64), S. purpurea (9882-34) and S. sachalinensis x S. miyabeana (9870-40). Initially the plants were grown for six weeks, during which the willows were irrigated with tap water. An initial harvest was carried out to determine a benchmark for plant size, leaf length, leaf area and above and below ground biomass. During a ten-week treatment the shrub-willows were irrigated using five different dilutions of Solvay stormwater and a control (tap water). High concentrations of Solvay stormwater had a significant effect on growth, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis of the shrub-willows after 10 weeks of treatment. (53) Autohydrolysis of Sugar Maple Wood Ashutosh Mittal, G.M. Scott, Dr. Thomas E. Amidon The aim of this work is to study the kinetics of hemicellulose hydrolysis during hydrothermal pretreatment of sugar maple wood. Yields of residual xylan, xylooligomers, xylose, glucose, lignin, and the degraded products of sugars, i.e., furfural and HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural) were determined. A kinetic model is developed for hemicellulose hydrolysis based on first-order kinetics with Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in the autohydrolysis of sugar maple wood carried out under various pretreatment conditions of 145-185˚C, reaction times 0-8 h, liquor to solid ratio 20 g/g, in a batch reactor. It was also found that the hydrothermal treatments caused negligible degradation of both cellulose and lignin. (54) Nitrate, Soil Calcium, and Litter Quality: Where to Start?" for the Spotlight on Student Research and Outreach Blair Page, Dr. Myron Mitchell We recently identified two nearly adjacent catchments in the central Adirondacks that varied significantly in stream calcium (Ca2+) and nitrate (NO3-) export. After an initial evaluation of the vegetation and stream chemistry, we developed a conceptual model to describe relationships among soil Ca, litter quality, and N mineralization. To evaluate this model, we added nine additional sites selected throughout the Central Adirondacks. Among these 11 sites, we identified a calcium gradient in the forest floor (Oe/Oa horizons) and in the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil. Our data indicate that field-extracted NO3- within the forest floor is positively correlated with forest floor Ca2+. This relationship was strongest towards the end of the growing season (Sept.) as compared to earlier sampling in May and June when there is generally a greater demand for NO3-. As expected, calcium concentrations were highly correlated with pH, making a separate interpretation of these two variables difficult. When values over the three collection periods were averaged, the relative basal area of American basswood (Tilia americana) was the most significant predictor of forest floor NO3-. The relative basal area of basswood and forest floor Ca 2+ were also significantly related. Given the substantial influence of basswood on nitrogen cycling in these sites and its apparent demand for Ca2+, continued depletion of base cations associated with acidic deposition could dramatically alter nitrogen cycling through changes in species composition and an associated reduction in litter quality. (55) Assessing Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Soil Characteristics in Natural and Restored Wetlands of Central New York Erin Page, Dr. Thomas Horton, Dr. Richard Smardon, Dr. Russell Briggs The science behind wetland restoration and compensatory mitigation is still very new. Because nutrient availability to native plants is important in restoration, the purpose of this study is to look at wetland restoration from a below ground perspective. By assessing below ground biotic properties in remnant and restored wetlands in central New York, we hope to understand if there is a quantifiable difference in mycorrhizal colonization among plant species present at study sites. Percent mycorrhizal colonization was quantified from plant samples in each plot. There are many wetland plants that have not been described as mycorrhizal, although it is estimated that 80% of land plants have mycorrhizal symbioses. The study revealed twenty plants colonized by mycorrhizal fungi that to our knowledge have not been reported as mycorrhizal. Previous research has shown that mycorrhizal colonization is highest in the growing season. Therefore, we estimate that summer samples will reveal a higher colonization rate of mycorrhizal fungi. (56) Understanding the Impact of Forest Cover on Water Quality in the Catskill-Delaware Watersheds Prajjwal Panday, Dr. Charles Hall, Dr. Myrna Hall Water quality is basically a function of land use, defined broadly. Understanding land use and land cover (LULC) change dynamics can contribute important information to understanding and predicting water quality and quantity, especially when linked to a land use change projection model. To understand this relationship better in the Catskill-Delaware system, the water supply for New York City, we used the following data: the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) 1987-2003 water quality monitoring data set, 1987, 1991, and 2002 satellite-derived land use, road density, and soil factors, average concentrations of total phosphorous, soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonia, nitrate plus nitrite, total nitrogen, and total suspended solids (TP, SRP, NO3NO2, TKN, NH4, and TSS) This relatively large DEP database from 75 sampling sites allowed the comparison of streams of different degrees of deforestation. When we plotted the data as a time series of individual measurements for each sampling station, there were no readily apparent trends and we found this data inadequate for our long-term LULC/water quality analysis. This was true for two reasons: (1) many species had not been sampled over the entire period of time; (2) the majority of sampling had been done under relatively uninteresting low flows rather than during relatively more important run-off events. We were able to get around this problem by normalizing the flows to the maximum flow observed. Then we found (1) no relation between percent of maximum discharge and concentration, and (2) that any decrease in forest cover is reflected in an increase in total inorganic nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous. This was true for all subcatchments in each major basin (Cannonsville, Schoharie, Ashokan, Rondout, Neversink, and Pepacton). There appears to be no threshold at which forest cover does not impact water quality positively. . A diminution of only 1-2% forest cover per sub-basin (regardless of size) resulted in higher TDP and NO3NO2 concentrations and we consistently found an inverse relationship between % forest cover and the 2001-2003 TDP (ug/L) average and NO3NO2 (u/g/L) average across watersheds. The results for sediments are more ambiguous but broadly similar Keywords: Water Quality, Land Use, Forest Cover, New York City Watersheds (57) Examining the Dynamics of Environmental Policy Change in the Coevolutionary Framework Seohyun Park , Dr. Valerie Luzadis The purpose of this study is to examine whether a punctuated equilibrium in policy process is related to a coevolutionary process between our society and ecosystem. In order to do this, I used wetlands policy in the U. S. and S. Korea as case studies. In this study, coevolution refers to an ongoing positive feedback between components of an evolving system. We are accustomed to negative feedback systems which keep systems in equilibrium. The mechanical models of the Newtonian world view, including those of neoclassical economics, must have negative feedback so that when a change occurs the models find a new equilibrium. Models of policy studies are also generally based on the twin principles of incrementalism and negative feedback – self-correcting systems, which maintain a dynamic equilibrium. However, the nonincremental nature of the allocation of problems in political systems and economics has been ignored. The coevolutionary approach has rarely dealt with evidence. This study is thus a preliminary scientific research to operationalize the concept of coevolution in social science. I started this research with the following questions: How to track down the relationships among the components of a coevolutionary framework? Would a nonincremental institutional change contribute to the coevolutionary process? Were there any nonincremental changes in wetlands policy, wetlands ecosystem, and values of wetlands? Is this dramatic change really a break point toward a new stage or back to the equilibrium? To perform this study, I collected congressional hearings and documents, interviewed, and surveyed. Both the US and Korea have had a short period of a radical change in the wetlands policy formation in the 1970s and the 1990s respectively. Based on the interim analysis, however, the punctuated equilibrium of wetlands policy would not be a break point of dynamic equilibrium. (58) From Take-Out Culture to Dioxin Risks: Who Should Take Responsibility? Seohyun Park and Dr. Brenda Nordenstam Dioxins are unintentional products generated from chlorine-containing materials (e.g. Styrofoam, plastic vinyl products). Dioxin risks are closely related to our material and convenience oriented life style, for example, using disposable plastic materials in take-out restaurants and wasteful consumption behavior. Individual dioxin body burden is also associated with smoking and dietary behavior since cigarettes and fatty-foods contain certain amounts of dioxins. In Korea, the generation of plastic waste has increased significantly since the introduction of the _take-out_ culture, which began around 1998. In response, Korean society has developed a different approach to dioxin risk management in comparison to the United States, where public policy is more likely to overestimate dioxin cancer risks, engage in site-centered and regulatory-oriented risk management, and generate expensive social costs. This research examines what people know about dioxin generation and associated risks in Korea, and which members of society they believe should take responsibility for dioxin risk reduction. The study utilized a survey research methods design, consisting of a written questionnaire administered to 334 respondents. Respondents showed a high rate of risk reduction responses, including the use of voluntary behaviors, such as the adoption of reusable mugs in take-out coffee shops. The results indicate that respondents are highly aware of dioxin risks (94.7%), and have a high level of knowledge about the relationship between the _take-out_ culture, dioxin travel pathways, and exposure risk. A majority of the respondents (75.3%) answered that -all members of society- should take responsibility for reduction of dioxin risks. (59) Flow-through systems for the detection of cyanobacteria Margaret Pavlac, Dr. Gregory Boyer Monitoring for harmful cyanobacterial blooms is important for protecting drinking and recreational waters. However, monitoring techniques can be time intensive. In a simplified method, we are looking at using chlorophyll fluorescence as an alternative monitoring tool. This study evaluates the ability of four different fluorometers (Hydrolab, Turner Designs 10AU, Turner Designs Algaewatch, and Turner Designs Cyanowatch) to measure chlorophyll in a flowing system. The effects of flow rate and varying chlorophyll concentrations were measured using natural algae. Information from these studies is essential in determining the optimal method for using fluorescence to monitor cyanobacteria in buoy or hutbased systems. (60) Total synthesis of Spiculoic Acid A Atahualpa Pinto, Christopher Boddy Spiculoic Acid A is a natural product recently isolated from the marine sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus, with shown promise as an anticancer agent in vitro. The molecule consists of a peculiar fused bicyclic framework and belongs to the polyketide class of metabolites whose biosynthesis is known to resemble that of fatty acids. Its biosynthesis likely involves the formation of a linear tetraene polyketide followed by a Diels-Alder type reaction to form the bicyclic structure. One of two possible isomeric linear structures, differing only in electronic character, is thought to give rise to Spiculoic Acid A. To examine their viability as biosynthetic precursors, their total synthesis is being carried out. Our strategy involves the convergent synthesis of the putative linear chains, for which two fragments are at present being elaborated from commercially available transcinnamaldehyde and 2,5-dihydrofuran. The outcome of our studies will give insight on the conserved nature and predictability of the Polyketide Synthase enzyme. (61) Modeling soil erosion in Skaneateles Lake Watershed: Application of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in GIS. Soni Pradhanang, Dr. Lee Herrington, Dr. Russell Briggs Skaneateles Lake is the primary source of drinking water for the Syracuse metropolitan area. Continued maintenance of water quality is essential as this water supply is one of a limited number of lakes and reservoirs in New York that are not filtered before distribution to users. Soil erosion, a serious environmental problem, reduces soil productivity and impairs water quality. Soil erosion models facilitate quantitative assessment of the impacts of a variety of potential interventions for minimizing sediment and nutrient loads to surface waters. These models require input data describing terrain, soil type, cropping system and conservation practices. We are using Geographic Information System (GIS) in combination with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to model soil erosion in the Skaneateles Lake watershed in Upstate New York. RUSLE, an empirical model, is widely used to predict the average annual rate of soil erosion. The input data for five major factors of RUSLE are obtained from digital elevation models (DEMs), land cover maps, and soil maps within a GIS environment. Ultimately, we intend to quantify the reduction in sediment and nutrient loads that can be attained using agricultural best management practices. (62) Clustering in mixtures of rigid and flexible polymers Darya Prokhorova, Dr. Avik Chatterjee We investigate mixtures of flexible and rigid polymers using a computational model. Our study focuses on thermal interactions between rigid particles dispersed among flexible macromolecules. A close relationship is found between the critical concentrations of the rigid particles and their effective second virial coefficients. (63) Diversity and distribution pattern of bryophytes and vascular plants in two rich fens of the Fall Creek Watershed, NY Stephen Reynolds, Jennifer Gillrich, Dr. Robin Kimmerer, Dr. Donald Leopold Rich fens, minerotrophic peatlands with circumneutral to alkaline pH, support diverse bryophyte and vascular plant communities due to the interaction of numerous biotic and abiotic factors at multiple spatial and temporal scales. These unique wetlands are of high conservation priority, yet they lack comprehensive legal protection. Bryophyte and vascular plant diversity and distribution were described in two rich fens, Jacob’s Fen and the Route 90 Peatland Complex, in the Fall Creek Watershed, NY. Vascular plant cover was surveyed in 1m2 plots and bryophyte cover was sampled within 47cm2 nested subplots (n=256). Microtopographic heterogeneity, substrate composition, and water depth were quantified at each plot. Water samples were taken from a series of adjacent groundwater wells and surface pits and analyzed for major cation concentrations, pH, and specific conductivity. Ordination techniques were used to explore vascular and nonvascular community associations, while correlations between plant composition and environmental factors were examined using regression analysis. Conservationists rarely have the resources required to comprehensively examine bryophytes, a taxonomically difficult group. Therefore, these results may provide an efficient method to evaluate rich fen bryophyte communities using vascular plant composition and environmental data as indicators. (64) Influence of Species Composition on Groundwater Solute Concentrations in a Coastal Medium Fen Chuck Schirmer, Dr. Donald Leopold Wetlands are important ecosystems for the storage, transformation and uptake of nutrients. Excesses in nutrient loading and availability have been shown to affect species composition and plant community structure. Nitrogen has received considerable attention in relation to its effects on plant communities and water quality. Wetland plant communities dominated by nitrogen-fixing species may locally influence groundwater chemistry, thereby impacting nitrogen dynamics on the landscape and possibly water quality of adjacent surface waters. Few studies exist investigating the effects of N-fixing species on groundwater in medium fens, which harbor a large number of plant species including some plant species of concern for conservation. In order to quantify differences in local groundwater chemistry among communities dominated by two N-fixing species (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa and Myrica gale) and communities absent of N-fixing species, groundwater samples were collected and their chemistry analyzed throughout two growing seasons. The study was conducted at South Sandy Fen, a medium fen adjacent to the southeastern portion of Lake Ontario, New York. In June of 2004, wells were installed at two depths (30 and 80 cm) at six locations within the fen (n = 12). Each pair of wells, replicated twice, were placed approximately 30 cm apart in the three distinct plant community assemblages (Alnus, Myrica, and graminoid-dominated). Wells were sampled at monthly intervals from July 2004 to December 2004. Sampling resumed in June 2005 and continues at present. Nitrate was significantly different among species, whereas ammonium was not. Nitrate and ammonium were not significantly different between well depths. There was no significant interaction between plant community type and well depth. These results indicate that N-fixing species locally influence nitrogen inputs to groundwater in medium fen communities. (65) Assessing BMP Effectiveness on the Skaneateles Lake Watershed Christian Schmidt, Dr. Chuck Kroll The purpose of the study is to implement field level monitoring of the site specific BMPs in order to quantify changes in nutrient concentrations loads between the time of no implementation and post-implementation of the BMP and to assess the effectiveness of the implementation. The first field season will be used to build baseline data on several of the study sites in order to compare them to the observations post-implementation. This project will examine the water quality variables of total dissolved P (TDP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), nitrate-N, ammonium-N, and sediment. In addition, on one farm where sampling will be direct from a perennial stream, bacteria counts will be examined. The results of this study should be to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs as a proactive measure to preserve the water quality of Skaneateles Lake. That the concentration of nutrient loading may be found to be significantly decreased through implementation of farm specific BMPs. (66) Chemotaxonomic analysis of the genus Euphorbia Timothy Schroeder Euphorbia is a large and complex genus of flowering plants comprising about 1600 species worldwide. A defining characteristic of the genus is the latex formed by the aerial portions of the plant. There is a large amount of chemical diversity found among the latexes of different Euphorbia species. Our research deals with whether the members of the genus Euphorbia can be taxonomically classified by chemical analysis of the triterpenoids produced in the latex. We have selected twenty-five species representing different geographic areas and varying morphological characteristics for analysis. The latex is collected and then separated using chromatographic methods. The latex fractions are then analyzed using 600 MHz NMR. A library of NMR spectra of triterpenoids was created for comparison to the spectra of our analyzed samples. (67) An integrated approach to brownfield site characterization of Hunt’s Point, Bronx, NY through the use of GIS and Sanborn Fire Insurance maps Megan Scott, Suzanne Greiner, Gregory Liberman, Dr. Douglas Daley, Dr. Preston Gilbert A brownfield is defined as a potentially hazardous contaminated or polluted parcel of land.1 These stigmatized properties are unattractive to potential investors, which induces people to purchase pristine land instead. This reduces greenspace in a given community. Through the use of Sanborn Fire Insurance maps, these sites can be characterized more easily, contributing to the process of remediation. Sanborn maps show property uses for a given year. Examining past uses of properties during different increments allows the researcher to identify possible contaminants and possible methods of remediation. (68) Randomized controlled trial presentations at SAEM 2005:A downward trend? Ariel Shippee, William D Grant Objectives: To determine if previously reported rising trends in the proportion of RCTs presented at national emergency medicine meetings has continued. Methods: Published abstracts for the 2005 Society of Academic Emergency Medicine annual meeting as found in the May 2005 Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Vol. 12, No. 5, Suppl. 1 were reviewed and classified by presentation type, study design, and population studied. A structured data extraction process was employed. Interrater reliability was measured. A Medline search was conducted to identify additional relevant reference studies. Results: A total of 497 of 502 abstracts at the 2005 annual SAEM meeting were included for analysis with 9% found to be randomized controlled trials. Results were compared to a study by Singer et al.4 evaluating the trends in study designs of abstracts presented at academic emergency medicine meetings. Conclusions: The proportion of abstracts describing RCTs at the 2005 SAEM meeting was significantly lower than reported by Singer et al.4 as presented in 1997, but not significantly lower than their analysis of presentations made in 1989. Several explanations for the differences can be postulated. (69) Relating habitat structure, thermal quality and massasauga habitat use in Central New York: implications for management Kevin Shoemaker, Kevin Johnson, Dr. James Gibbs The eastern massasauga rattlesnake is a state-listed endangered subspecies known from just two locations in New York State. Anecdotal information suggests that the massasauga population at Cicero Swamp Wildlife Management Area (CSWMA) near Syracuse, NY is declining. Although the decline of massasaugas at Cicero Swamp and elsewhere is likely the result of insufficient or unsuitable habitat, we currently lack the information necessary to determine which habitat element(s) may limit this subspecies. Previous researchers have speculated that gravid female massasaugas at CSWMA may be limited by the availability of open-canopy gestation sites, and that active vegetation removal would therefore reduce the extirpation risk for this population. To assess this theory, we distributed operative temperature models within the primary massasauga habitat at CSWMA (determined from previous research) and calculated multiple metrics of thermal quality for each model location. We then used a set of microhabitat variables recorded at each model location to build a predictive model of thermal quality. Finally, we used information from a previous study at CSWMA to assess the degree to which the habitat choice of gravid massasaugas could be explained by variation in thermal quality, as estimated from our model. Preliminary analysis suggests that microhabitat structure was able to explain some of the variability in thermal quality at CSWMA, but that estimated thermal quality had a negligible ability to discriminate between gravid massasauga locations and random locations. Our results suggest that gravid female massasaugas are responding to (and possibly limited by) habitat elements other than thermal quality. Management actions designed to improve thermal quality at CSWMA may be unwarranted at this time. (70) Bridging the energy gap: Blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) feeding during their spawning run in the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers Paul Simonin, Leonard Machut, Dr. Karin Limburg The historic range of the anadromous blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) extends from Florida to Nova Scotia, including the Hudson River in New York. Since the mid 1900’s, this species has been observed moving farther upstream through the Erie Canal and Mohawk River system. Mainly planktivorous, blueback herring were thought to cease feeding and rely on lipid reserves during their spring spawning run. Adult blueback herring were collected during the 1999, 2002, and 2004 spawning runs from sites on the Hudson (N = 18 fish) and Mohawk (N = 78 fish) Rivers, and gut contents were analyzed. A total of 34 fish were found to contain food material. Of the Mohawk River samples, 41% contained food items, while 11% of Hudson River fish contained food. Prey items found in 1999 were predominantly zooplankton, while in 2002 and 2004 benthic macroinvertebrates were consumed in large quantities as well, and included Baetidae, Ephemeridae, and Chironomidae. It is likely that blueback herring in this system are now facing increased energy requirements as they migrate farther upstream during spawning runs. This previously undocumented feeding behavior appears to be providing blueback herring the energy subsidy needed to maintain fitness over their expanded migratory range. (71) The Saturated Permeability of Composite Pulp Fiber and Filler Mats Ramesh Singh The Permeability of the pulp is the physical parameter that characterizes the degree of resistance to water-flow through pulp fibers. Permeability predicts sheet performance in the press-section of papermaking, which can be used for design of modern press-sections. A number of researchers have used Darcy’s law to calculate the wet permeability of pulp-pad, which is then used to calculate the specific surface of pulp-pad and specific volume of the swollen wet fiber. Among the different permeability models that correlate the permeability of porous medium with parameter of its pore structure (specific surface area and specific volume), the Kozeny -Carman approach was found to be particularly popular in the permeability study of pulp pad. The current research is aimed at understanding the influence of Albacar and Albafil PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) fillers on the permeability of different softwood and hardwood pulps using Kozeny-Carman equation. Albacar is Scalenohedral shaped mineral fillers with an average particle size of 2.0 micron and specific surface area of 7.4 m2/g. Albafil is Prismatic shaped mineral fillers with an average particle size of 0.8 micron and specific surface area of 9.77 m2/g. We are developing a model to explain the change in specific surface area with PCC filler loading, which accounts for the factors like charge on the fiber and fillers particles as well as shape and size of the filler particles. Pulmac setup was used to perform permeability experiments on the pulp pads. (72) Three Dimensional (3D) Model of Fiber Network of Paper Sharad Singh A theoretical fiber network model of paper is proposed. The 2D version of the model has been implemented and 3D model is in development stage. The fibre length distribution is obtained from the results of Kajani testing. The orientation of fiber is random; number of fiber depends on the grammage of paper under investigation. The resulting fiber network gives pore area , perimeter, pore size distribution and hence hydraulic radius data of paper structure with a particular grammage . The 3D model under development will incorporate essential features needed to describe paper structure. Bending and consolidation of fiber will be modeled. The statistical properties of fiber network, transport of fluid through the network will be studied. The results will be compared with experimental data. (73) Recommended Urban Forest Mixtures to Optimize Selected Environmental Benefits John Domm, Eric Ripley, Janet Tordesillas, Richard Greene, Dr. Allan Drew, Dr Richard Smardon Past research has shown that urban forests can have beneficial effects on greenhouse gas concentrations. Urban forests reduce greenhouse gases via respiratory processes and reduce energy usage through shade and windshield. The objective of this study was to determine an optimal urban forest mix for reduction of carbon dioxide and reduction of ozone forming volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, specifically isoprene and monoterpenes. A further goal was to demonstrate how proper urban forest planning can reduce energy usage resulting in a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from power generation. In order to reach these objectives, we analyzed data taken from a USDA Forest Service UFORE study of Syracuse along with urban forest management practices to determine an optimal forest mix. To demonstrate potential energy savings, we referenced a study done on the Greater Toronto Area. Using species already found in Syracuse, we found that different mixes of trees can improve carbon sequestration while minimizing isoprene and monoterpene emissions. In addition, a forest mix optimized for both functions, while taking into account urban forest management recommendations, can significantly reduce isoprene and monoterpene emissions with only a slight reduction in carbon sequestration as compared to current conditions. Finally, proper urban forest planning can lead to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions due to reductions in energy use. (74) Effects of microcystins, a cyanobacterial toxin, on burrowing mayfly (Hexagenia) suvival and hatching success Juliette Smith, Dr. Greg Boyer, Dr. Kim Schulz Burrowing mayflies, genus Hexagenia, were virtually eliminated from the major water bodies of North America in the early 1950’s, paralleling an increase in eutrophication and sediment pollution. The burrowing mayflies have begun recolonization in isolated areas of Lake Erie and major river systems, but remain absent in former habitats such as Oneida Lake, New York. To investigate toxic cyanobacteria blooms as a cause for mayfly eradication, unexplained absence, or patchy distribution, larvae and fertile eggs were tested for survival and hatching success in the presence of cyanobacteria extract, and purified microcystin-LR, a common cyanobacterial hepatotoxin. Large nymphs (> 17 mm), collected from the western basin of Lake Erie, appeared tolerant of purified microcystin-LR at all doses administered (0.001 – 10.0 g mL-1), showing no mortality over 7 days of constant exposure. Small, newly-hatched nymphs (< 1 mm) showed 100% mortality at the two highest concentrations, 10.0 g mL-1 and 20.0 g mL-1, after 120h and 96h exposure, respectively. Mayfly eggs showed a trend for decrease in total hatching percentage at the highest microcystin-LR dose (0.1 g mL-1) and hatching was significantly delayed by one day. Lower microcystin-LR concentrations (0.001 g mL-1, 0.01 g mL-1) and toxic cyanobacteria extract (5 x 106 cells mL-1) did not appear to have a negative effect on hatching success. These results suggest that high concentrations of microcystin-LR have a detrimental effect on the survival of new mayfly hatchlings and egg hatching success, therefore, having possible negative implications on recruitment and establishment. Large nymphs, however, survived high concentrations of the dissolved toxin, (3 orders of magnitude higher than natural Lake Erie concentrations) indicating a higher tolerance than other aquatic invertebrates, including mosquito larvae, Daphnia, and copepods. (75) Effects of zooplankton fatty acid content on interpretation of stable carbon isotope food web diagrams of lake ecosystems Peter Smyntek Stable isotopes, particularly 13C and 15N, are increasingly utilized to investigate aquatic food web structure, follow the flow of primary production through higher trophic levels, and model the diets of planktivorous fish. A diverse variety of zooplankton can compose the trophic links between phytoplankton and fish. There have been many reports of zooplankton with much lower stable carbon 13C) than both their presumed food sources and predators, and these differences can greatly confound the interpretation of stable isotope food web diagrams and dietary mixing models. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that some zooplankton store large quantities of fatty acids, which 13C values relative to other biochemical constituents such have more as proteins. This hypothesis was tested by collecting a range of zooplankton species from nine lakes of diverse sizes and productivities including Lakes Erie, Michigan, Ontario, and Champlain as well as several English lakes, and 13C values before and after extracting 13C Ex-Non) of up to 5‰ 13C values of pre- versus post-extracted zooplankton samples were observed, and the fatty acid content of two types of zooplankton, calanoid and 13C Ex-Non. Mass balance correction models for fatty acid content using atomic C/N ratios were tested and 13C values, thereby clarifying f the relationships between zooplankton with their food sources or predators. These correction models should be employed for calanoid and cyclopoid copepods with atomic C/N ratios of 5.5 or higher. (76) The effect of vegetation type on bird call volume Deb Visco The vegetation of a forest is denser than that of a field. This physical structure causes noise volumes to decrease as they travel. To compensate for this factor, I predicted that bird calls would be louder in a forest habitat than in a field. I estimated the amplitude (volume) of bird calls in forest versus field habitats. I measured decibel levels of bird calls in both habitats and calculated my distance from each bird. I found that after controlling for distance, the mean decibel level of bird songs in the forest was significantly greater than the mean decibel level in the fields. (77) Radial growth responses of host and non-host tree species to hemlock woolly adelgid infestation in Connecticut Kelly Walton, David Orwig, Dr. Eddie Bevilacqua Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae, is an invasive insect from Japan that has slowly spread across the eastern United States since it entered Virginia in 1950. HWA is a little understood pest that is causing a gradual decline of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, on the east coast. To increase our understanding of forest dynamics following longterm HWA infestation, seven eastern hemlock stands in south-central Connecticut were visited. At each site increment cores of hemlock and hardwood trees were collected to look for radial growth trends in response to continued HWA infestations. In the lab, increment cores were sanded and annual ring-widths measured. For each core, the observed growth trend prior to infestation was fitted to a mathematical model and extended into the postinfestation period using the EXTRAP software program. Ring width indices (RWI), based on the ratio of observed to expected growth, were calculated for the post-infestation period, with a RWI value of 1 represented expected growth. A one sample t-test was used to determine whether post-infestation growth was significantly different from expected growth. Between fifty-six and one hundred percent of the trees at each site showed a statistical difference in RWI, with hardwood ring widths increasing and hemlock ring widths decreasing due to HWA. Results showed that hemlock had decreased growth during and following HWA infestation, while the hardwood species present in the understory before HWA infestation are taking advantage of the canopy gaps and showing a positive growth response. (78) Characterization of a guard-cell-associated (CGA7) enhancer trap line of Arabidopsis thaliana Laura Wayne, William Moskal, Dr. Lawrence Smart Guard cells play an important role in regulating water-use efficiency by maintaining the balance between carbon dioxide intake and water loss. Our objective was to identify enhancer trap tagged Arabidopsis thaliana lines displaying reporter gene expression patterns associated with guard cell development or function. Seven-thousand two-hundred enhancer trap tagged lines of A. thaliana were screened for β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in cotyledons, leaves, and flowers. Seven lines were found to exhibit guard-cellassociated (GCA) patterns of expression. One line in particular (gca7) was isolated from a mixed seed pool, and the staining pattern was further characterized. Staining of GUS was shown in gca7 specifically in the guard cells of mature and young leaves, as well as light staining in the mesophyll, epidermis, vascular bundle, hydathodes, stigma of inflorescence, and around areas of senescence. A PCR-based genome walking method is currently being used to amplify the DNA sequences flanking the T-DNA insertion in gca7. The identification and characterization of the guard-cell-associated gene tagged in gca7 will aid in the understanding of stomatal physiology. (79) The macroinvertebrate communities of two headwater streams in forests of different composition. James Willacker, Betsy Colburn, Bill Sobczak, Dr. Neil Ringler Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a common riparian species in the eastern United States that is being replaced across its range by deciduous species as a result of the invasion of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, an exotic forest pathogen. The conversion of forests from hemlock to deciduous species may have serious implications for headwater streams flowing through these forests. In this study I examined the macroinvertebrate communities of two headwater streams in central Massachusetts with differing hemlock influences. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from four riffle and four soft-bottomed habitats in each stream using a ½ m2 quadrat and kicknets. Samples were live picked in the field and sorted by genus and functional feeding group. Total taxa richness and taxa unique to the stream were greater in the deciduous than in the hemlock stream. The deciduous stream had a higher number of individuals per sample, and a statistically higher mean taxa richness. Differences in the distribution of functional feeding groups between streams were found; the hemlock stream had a greater percentage of collectors, while the hardwood stream had a greater percentage of shredders. These findings suggest that there are differences in the macroinvertebrate communities of hemlock and deciduous streams, and that the loss of hemlock stands could significantly change the functioning of stream ecosystems. (80) Soil-landscape influences on nitrogen cycling in cropland and riparian buffers Eric Young, Dr. Russell Briggs Nitrogen (N) applied in excess of crop uptake can result in significant nitrate (NO3-) leaching and poses ecological and human health risks. We restored riparian buffers at two agricultural sites in Onondaga County by increasing widths of existing grass buffers, and establishing willow (Salix discolor) riparian buffer strips along stream reaches in 2003. Soil solution and shallow ground water were sampled in cropland, the restored buffers, and established forested buffers. Cropland ground water NO3- was highest for corn on outwash soils, whereas imperfectly drained alluvial soils under corn had lower NO3-. Soil solution NO3- at 50 cm and dissolved oxygen (DO) explained 64% of average cropland ground water NO3- variability. Average NO3- attenuation based on Darcian NO3- fluxes among cropland and buffers varied widely (- 470 to 100%), with poorly drained riparian soils maintaining significantly lower NO3-. Forested buffers were distinguished by poorly to very poorly drained soils, low DO concentrations, elevated NH4+, and the highest soil organic matter contents. Study average buffer ground water DO and water table depth explained 84% of riparian buffer NO3- variability, though predictive ability at low NO3- concentrations was weak. Chloride patterns indicated that significant dilution occurred in only two of sixteen buffers, suggesting the importance of denitrification losses. Soil series and drainage class significantly influenced N transport from cropland soils through simultaneous impacts on leaching and denitrification, while also influencing NO 3removal in buffers by constraining water table depths, denitrification, and the potential for plant uptake. Results also highlight the need for accurate representation of cropland-riparian soil series variability in modeling NO3transport. (81) SUNY-ESF international education and service learning at the Archbold Center in Dominica, W.I. Megan Scott, Mary Gifford, Dr. Donald Stewart, Dr. Allen Drew Tropical Ecology, a 3-credit hour spring semester course offered to undergraduate and graduate students, is taught on the SUNY-ESF campus and at the Archbold Tropical Research & Education Center on the Caribbean island of Dominica over students’ spring break. The focal point of the course are student organized individual research projects conducted at the rain forest field station. Sixteen students prepare research outlines on ecological topics in advance of the 10-day field trip, then undertake their studies in residence under the guidance of the two course instructors. Trips around the island include visits to tropical dry forest, montane and lowland rain forest, littoral and elfin forests as well as marine coral reefs. A $2100 course fee covers travel costs, room and board and travel while in Dominica. Upon return to Syracuse, students analyze field data and make oral presentations. In January, 2005, as a service learning project, the SUNY-ESF student chapter of Engineers Without Borders installed a micro-hydro system for streamwater generation of electricity at the Archbold Center. The venture was a service learning project done in conjunction with students from the University of Vermont and the Gund Institute for Ecological Economics. The turbine generator has the capacity to supply 30 percent of the electrical energy needs of the Archbold Center, a demonstration of sustainable energy technology to island residents and an improvement over diesel generated power.