UDC 574:502 BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: A MODERN STATE CLOSE AND DISTANT PROSPECTS OF STORAGE, DESTRUCTION AND ENRICHMENT K.M. Sytnik Institute of Botany. MG Cold NAS of Ukraine, vul. Tereshchenkivska 2, GSP-1, 01601 Kyiv, [email protected] This paper presents a new science - "diversitology", which methods and methodological approaches must provide information obtaining and ways of analysis in the following areas: biotic components composition (species, populations, ecomorphous groups, etc.), ecosystems of different levels, qualitative ratios, relative abundance of these elements and characteristics of environment for different biological systems. A new ideology is proposed - environmentalism as a basis of science for environment. Keywords: biotic diversity, principle of emergent properties, diversitology, IUCN Red List species Foreword Relatively small part of many biological laws, postulates, laws joined the outlook of most of humanity. At least three concepts can be distinguished. The first one is a Redi principle formulated Italian scientist Francesco Redi in XVII century - Omne vivum e vivo - Every living from the living. In the nineteenth century, this idea was proven by Louis Pasteur. Another revolutionary biological concept, which awoke an echo in the views of not only the natural but also the social problems became theory of the origin of species by Charles Darwin. The third concept that expanded beyond biology, does not have its author, or has many authors among botanists, zoologists, microbiologists, virologists and paleontologists. This is the concept of biodiversity. The idea of biodiversity has become not only one of the key concepts in the environmental, but entered the realm of politics and political science. The 1992 World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro adopted the Convention on Biological Diversity. It has been ratified by most countries. In 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Declaration, which set the goals of the international community in the twenty-first century. One of these goals aimed at reducing the rate of loss of many indicators biodiversity. Obviously, to at least suspend a constant, steady and growing increase in the number of endangered species of plants and animals, biomes and even landscapes United Nations decided to declare 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity. Biological diversity is a diversity of Earth's living organisms at all levels of organization of living in all spatially confined habitats (terrestrial, freshwater, marine). There are varieties of plants (phytodiversity), diversity of animals (zoodiversity) and fungi (mikodiversity). The main object of biodiversity, according to most biologists, are really existing in nature populations (a set of individuals of one species of animal or plant organisms, especially in certain areas) of species of living organisms that are the most homogeneous and have the ability to regenerate itself. As the population structure of most species is insufficiently studied at the present stage florists and faunists assess biotic diversity mainly at species level. The basic unit of assessment biotic diversity is the total number of species of eukaryotes (plants, animals, fungi) and prokaryotes (viruses, bacteria Blue-green algae). In the above-mentioned Convention on Biodiversity, the term in the literal translation is defined as variability of living organisms. This concept includes diversity within species, between species and between ecosystems. Some, but not all scientists include in the definition of biodiversity biodiversity ecosystems, plant and animal communities (biocenosis, zoocenozy, phytocenosises) and life forms of organisms (trees, shrubs, grasses) that create the dominant aspect of the group and largely govern biodiversity. Some researchers believe it possible to determine also genetic, physiological, biochemical, molecular and genetic biodiversity. Biodiversity on the planet has been still insufficiently studied. 1.7 million species of organisms have been described already. Prognostic evaluation suggests the existence of from 5 to 100 million species. Most abundant biodiversity ecosystems are forests (especially tropical forests), which concentrated to 90% of all Earth organisms. In Ukraine, scientists who study the fauna and flora in the botanical and ecological divisions academic and branch institutes and relevant university departments almost completely studied biotic diversity of vascular plants, mosses, lichens and vertebrates and published multivolume fundamental work "Flora of the Ukrainian SSR" and "Fauna of the Ukrainian SSR". Less studied are algae, fungi, micromycetes, insects, worms and protozoa, bacteria and viruses are very little studied. Ukraine has 35% of Europe's biodiversity. Biota our country has 70 thousand species of flora more than 27 thousand species, fauna - more than 45 thousand species are among them. In 1980 the first one-volume edition of the Red Book of Ukraine was published and it included 151 species of vascular plants and 85 animal species. The second edition of the Red Book of Ukraine was published in two volumes: the first volume of "Animal World", published in 1994, consisted of 382 species; the second "Flora" appeared in 1996 and consisted of 541 species. Finally, the third edition was published 13 years later (in late 2009) after the issue of the second volume of the second edition. The third edition of the Red Book of Ukraine which reflects the current state of biodiversity is an official document of the state, which provides information on 826 species of plants and fungi and 542 species that are endangered, or in need of protection. The book provides Ukrainian and Latin names of each species, taxonomic affiliation, protected status, scientific value, habitat type and its dissemination on the territory of Ukraine, the size and structure of populations and other data and materials. The authors believe that the data of endangered species of flora and fauna in Ukraine is a measure of preserving the diversity of flora and fauna. In my opinion, it is difficult to agree because, the third edition of the Red Book of Ukraine contains twice the number of species of plants and animals and demonstrates an ecological inefficiency of the Ukrainian government and Ukrainian society, its harmful activity and inactivity. They contributed to the disappearance of the Red Book species which are invaluable rarity gene pool and for which it should be timely developed and introduced a special regime effective protection. Academic research institutions and university biological departments of the country had to annually inform the authorities of the state of biodiversity, and make proposals for activity by state and local governments to address the causes of the rapid depletion of biodiversity and allocate funs needed for the protection, primarily phytogenous pool of Ukraine. A more in-depth consideration of scientists, botanists and zoologists is required for not only inventorization and registration of Red Book species, but also studying the dissemination, abundance, vitality and practical use of individual populations. It is also important the study of biology, intraspecific structure, methods of reproduction and storage of Red Book species in national parks, botanical gardens, parks, research institutions, etc. There is no doubt that the country should be grateful to education, academic and research workers of Ukraine, Ministry of Ukraine, Ukrainian Environmental League activists and other environmental public association that created and who made it possible to publish the Red Book of Ukraine. However, it should be noted that it is very desirable that section on the scientific basis preservation and enrichment of biological diversity has taken its rightful place in this book. It is necessary to develop measures which take into account the specific features of species of animals and plants that having a protected status: such that disappeared, lost in nature, being under critical threat, vulnerability, close to threatening condition, are under great threat. Flora of Ukraine has about 27 thousand species of plants, including about 5 thousand vascular plants, where 4523 are wild-growing; mikodiversity has about 15 thousand mushrooms and micromycetes. Algal flora includes 4720 species of algae, bryoflora - about 800 species of moss and lichen flora - 1322 species of lichens. The fauna of Ukraine includes are over 45 thousand species of animals, including birds - 400 species, fishes - 200 species, insects - over 35 thousand species. Human activity greatly affects biotic diversity. It destroys or significantly alters eko niche of organisms, or excessively uses valuable plant and animal species, excluding or neglecting and ignoring their everlasting capabilities. Barbaric deforestation, plowing, draining wetlands, creation of reservoirs under pseudoscientific grounds, pollution, fragmentation of ecosystems highways, construction areas, etc. - all of these things negatively affect the flora and fauna, hinder conservation of vibrant biotic diversity. UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, concluded his appeal to the world community on November 9, 2009, dedicated to this event, with the words: "Biodiversity is living. Biodiversity is our living!" Thus, it was emphasized that studying and conservation of biodiversity comes down not only to care for the animal and plant life and it is an important condition for the existence of human life on the planet, the existence of human society and its development and steady progress. Its present and future. Very interesting information about the rate of species extinction, which in the twenty first century is 50-100 times higher than the natural, can be found in the reports of UN. Nearly 34,000 species, 52,000 animals, nearly 30% of major livestock breeds are under threat. Not only individual species but entire ecosystems disappear or endangered disappear. The change of landscapes, basins creates real threat to biodiversity. Over the last century nearly 50% of the forests were destroyed in the world. Negative changes in biodiversity is one of the important components of environmental crisis. And this phenomenon is subject to careful scrutiny, because any action to preserve the environment should provide the necessary scientific basis. At this stage of scientific development questions about the need for generalizations in the study of biodiversity also arias. It is necessary to draw attention to one of the most important environmental principles, namely the principle emergentness. It can be interpreted in a thematic aspect of this: the sum of information on biodiversity in the regions of a scale and the biosphere as a whole can not give us a clear picture of the value of biodiversity to local ecological and biospheric processes. Such generalizations can be made on the basis of new principles in the framework of a new scientific discipline. None of the existing traditional biological disciplines involved with diversity as a separate phenomenon. Although some elements study fundumental sciences: zoology, botany, ecology. Together with O Protassov (2010), we initiated a new science and gave it a name "diversity science" (from the English. Diversity) . Each scientific discipline has its unique paradigm, its object and purpose of the study, its own particular research methods. Paradigm diversity science can be formulated now as follows: biodiversity as one of the most important components of the diversity of the biosphere is the precondition and basis for its existence and sustainable development. The object of diversity science is composition and quantitative relationships of biotic elements of ecosystems, biomes and living Earth cover (living matter by Vernadsky VI). The subject of this discipline should be considered as the process of biodiversity formation, its relations with the diversity of habitats of biotic systems, mechanisms maintaining a stable existence of systems of different levels - from the group to the biosphere. Research Methods of diversity science can not be sharply separated from the many other methods of biological or environmental studies. These methods and instructional techniques should provide most of the information and how to analyze it in the following areas: composition of biotic components (species, populations, ekomorph groups, etc.), ecosystems at different levels; quantitative value, the relative abundance of these elements; characteristic of various biological systems habitat. One of the conceptual framework, principles of diversity science is figuring out that biodiversity is not only the number of elements of the system, the number of species in communities, the biosphere as a whole. Diversity is a two-component system and consists of variety of system components and the so-called uniformity, it is determined not only by the amount of elements, but the frequency of occurrence, relative abundance. One of the main tasks of diversity science is the answer to the question what exactly is diversity? The world is diverse, it is one of its integral and important properties. But biological systems have their peculiarities of diversity. You can not distinguish between two water molecules, but each species of any group has its own individual and unique features. This was pointed out by V.I. Vernadsky in his conceptual positions on living matter of the biosphere. Although the concept and the term "biodiversity" is enshrined in international instruments (Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992) - "Biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources ..." - A simple statement of fact that biodiversity is the variety can not arrange researchers in terms of systematic knowledge as a phenomenon of nature. Therefore, an important section of diversity science is' a problem of figuring levels of biodiversity. Presumably, that here is the "law of general diversity" and may be at least two approaches - deductive and inductive. More appropriate, in our view, is the concept of diversity levels, based on the teachings of V.I. Vernadsky on diversity matter of the biosphere. Living matter as the totality of all living beings exist only in a nearly infinite variety of individuals, united in various associations, which in turn - with the various elements of the environment, including a variety of each substance creates diverse ecosystems. A set of similar ecosystems creates biomes, which are elements of the biosphere. The circle closes. Thus, the system level diversity in the biosphere is cyclical. An important issue of diversity science is the relationship of biotic diversity and variety of elements and environmental factors. The study of this interaction reveals important horizons of biodiversity management through changes in abiotic ecosystems block. Although there are many data on positive communication performance of systems with biodiversity, the issue is quite complex and requires not only theoretical but also generalizations of field research and experimental work. Practical experience and research results indicate that the biomass of different groups increased in parallel with increasing dominance of one species, i.e. with decreasing uniformity. The idea of biodiversity conservation can forever become nothing more than a nice humanistic slogan without the development of theoretical principles and practical recommendations for actions. The "simple" way is attractive in this direction, namely, complete removal of the negative anthropogenic impact, creating at least locally stable, so-called "favorable environment" that will automatically lead to preservation, or even better – up to growth of biodiversity. But theoretical developments, such as secondary violations hypothesis, empirical data indicate that the maximum diversity can be expected under moderate stress, moderate, middle trophicity. The very "moderation" needs careful study on the basis of deep research. It should again be emphasized that the idea of biodiversity conservation is extremely important. It is an echo of mankind's desire to live in a harmonious, safe and rich world. But it can all become just a beautiful idea if not backed up by scientific developments of the highest quality. There are all possibilities of successful carrying out of such research in the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. And the International Year of Biodiversity has become a year of deep concern of botanists and zoologists of Academy for the preservation and enrichment of biodiversity in Ukraine. Famous Ukrainian botanist Y.R. Shelyag-Sosonko believes that biodiversity has a universal appeal to the world community as it forms in it and each person all the basic modules of its manner of life - both material and spiritual, including the world . In his opinion, the value of biodiversity, which reached global proportions, led to globalization and degradation of humanity. Although not everyone may agree with it, but he also argues that the level of civilization is determined not by scientific advances and limits the growth of world population and biodiversity. Conclusions Undoubtedly, the destruction of the biosphere, i.e. all biotic diversity lead to self-destruction of mankind. The only alternative to this self-destruction of homo sapiens species is, in my opinion, the mastery of new ideology by mankind, a new outlook - environmentalism that underlies environmental science environmentalism . Literature 1. Sytnik K.M. International Year of Biodiversity and prospects for diversity science / K.M. Sitnik, O.O. Protasov / / Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2010. № 3. pp. 13-16. 2. Shelyag- Sosonko Y.R. Biodiversity: the concept of culture and the role of science / Y.R. Shelyah-Sosonko / / Ukr. botany. journal - 2008. - № 1. - pp. 3-26. 3. Sytnik K.M. Of environmental crisis: evaluation, development and possible consequences / KM Sytnik / / Ukr. botany. journal - 1994. - № 6. - pp. 3-17.