1 SUDAN Image 1.: Flag [1] Image 2: map of Sudan[1] Image 3: map

Image 1.: Flag
Image 2: map of Sudan[1]
Image 3: map of Sudan[1]
1. Introduction
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated nation al
politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two
prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts
were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out
again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four
million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million
deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002 -04 with
the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace
Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for
six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The
referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for
independence. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in
2003, has displaced nearly two million people and cau sed an estimated 200,000 to
400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from
the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize
the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought
instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from
neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport
infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructe. [2] After
many years of fighting South Sudan made itself independent from the republic of Sudan.
2. Basic information
2.1. General[1,2]
Original name: Republic of the Sudan
(Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān)
Area: 1,861,484 sq km
Population: 45,047,502 (2011) (inc. South)
Relief: Kinyeti 3,187 m – Red Sea 0 m
Name: Sudan
Capital: Khartoum
Location: 15°38′N 032°32′E
Land use:
arable land: N/A
permanent crops: N/A
other: N/A
Geobiomes: A desert dominates the north, while Climate: hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season
south has swaps, forests and other vegetation varies by region (April to November)
(Dinder national park)
2.2. Political status
Established: 1 January 1956 (independence
from Egypt and the UK) , 2011 (South Sudan
Regions: 17 states
Integration: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO,
WMO, WTO (observer)
Government type: Government of National Unity
Time: UTC +3
HDI: 0.408 (2011)
3. Maps skills
Cites: Khartoum, Aroma, Port Sudan
Dinder National Park
4. Population and Settlement
4.1. Demographics
The population of Sudan, was approximately 45 million (63 inhabitants per square kilometer), with
a ratio of men to women of 1.03 and 40% of total population is defined as urban.
Sudan's maternal mortality is 750 deaths per 100,000 live births (2008) which is the 14th highest
moternal mortality rate in the world. In the 2011 the annual population growth rate was 2.484%
and life expectancy is 55.42.
There are following Ethnic groups:
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%)
Native African tribes: Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
Image. 4: A group of Sudanese girls.[4]
4.2. Religion
Sunni Muslim, Christian, Animism.
4.3. Language
The official languages of Sudan are Arabic and English. Other strongly present languages are
Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur. Note that there is a program of "Arabization" in process . [2]
4.4 Political situation
The National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a
power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP,
which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulated
national elections in 2009, but these were subsequently rescheduled; elections took place in April
2010 and the NCP was elected as the majority party; due to the CPA stipulations, there is also an
autonomous government in Southern Sudan where SPLM holds the majority of positions. [2]
5. Economy (agriculture, industry, services, transportation)
Since 1997, Sudan has been working with the IMF to implement macroeconomic reforms
including a managed float of the exchange rate and a large reserve of foreign exchange. A
new currency, the Sudanese Pound, was introduced in January 2007 at an initial
exchange rate of $1.00 equals 2 Sudanese Pounds. Sudan began exporting crude oil in
the last quarter of 1999 and the economy boomed on the back of increases in oil
production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment until the
second half of 2008. The Darfur conflict, the aftermath of two decades of civil war in the
south, the lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and a reliance by much of the
population on subsistence agriculture ensure much of the population will remain at or
below the poverty line for years to come despite rapid rises in average per capita income.
Sudan's real GDP expanded by 5.2% during 2010, an improvement over 2009's 4.2%
growth but significantly below the more than 10% per year growth experienced prior to the
global financial crisis in 2006 and 2007. While the oil sector continues to drive growth,
services and utilities play an increasingly important role in the economy with agriculture
production remaining important as it employs 80% of the work force and contributes a third
of GDP. In the lead up to the referendum on southern secession, which took place in
January 2011, Sudan saw its currency depreciate considerably on the black market with
the Central Bank's official rate also losing value as the Sudanese people started to hoard
foreign currency. The Central Bank of Sudan intervened heavily in the currency market to
defend the value of the pound and the Sudanese government introduced a number of
measures to restrain excess local demand for hard currency, but uncertainty about the
secession has meant that foreign exchange remains in heavy demand. [2]
 Agricultural products:
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava
(tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep and other livestock
 Industries:
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum
refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly[2]
Natural resources:
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten,
mica, silver, gold; hydropower [2]
6.5 Key studies – Issues
6.5.1 Disputes - international:
The effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since
the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; as of 2006, Chad,
Ethiopia, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda
provided shelter for over half a million Sudanese refugees, which includes 240,000 Darfur
residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military
forces; as of January 2011, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 138,700 Eritreans, 43,000
Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting
Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed
slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto
administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel
boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights
persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African
Republic [2]
6.5.2 Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 162,000 (Eritrea); 43,000 (Chad); 11,009 (Ethiopia)
IDPs: more than 4 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region) (2007)[2]
6.5.3 Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and
children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls,
particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, are vulnerable to forced
labor as domestic workers in homes throughout the country; some of these women and girls
are subsequently sexually abused by male occupants of the household or forced to engage
in commercial sex acts; Sudanese women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude in
Middle Eastern countries, such as Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar, and to forced sex
trafficking in European countries; some Sudanese men who voluntarily migrate to the
Middle East as low-skilled laborers face conditions indicative of forced labor; Sudanese
children transit Yemen en route to Saudi Arabia, where they are used in forced begging and
street vending, and reportedly work in exploitative labor situations for Sudanese traders in
the Central African Republic; Sudan is a transit and destination country for Ethiopian and
Eritrean women subjected to domestic servitude in Sudan and Middle Eastern countries;
Sudan is a destination for Ethiopian, Somali, and possibly Thai women subjected to forced
tier rating: Tier 3 - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the
elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; while the
government took some steps to identify, demobilize, and reintegrate child soldiers during
the reporting period, combating human trafficking through law enforcement, protection, or
prevention measures was not a priority (2011)[2]
7. Images
Image 5 (up): Sudan's flag raised at independence ceremony
in the 1st of January 1956 by the Prime Minister Isma'il Alazhari
and in presence of opposition leader Mohamed Ahmed
Almahjoub [1
Image 6 (→):8:
Sudan President Omar al-Bashir
(January 2009) [1]
Image 7: Sudan's flag raised at independence ceremony
and in presence of opposition leader Mohamed Ahmed Almahjoub [1]
in the 1st of January 1956 by the Prime Minister Isma'il Alazhari
8. Videos
Sudanese music
Water for Sudan
9. Tasks
What are the relationships between north and South Sudan?
Can you explain low tourism in Sudan?
Do you know something about problems with drinking water?
Are there any charity organizations trying to solve drinking water problems?
Why is English an official language?
10. Dictionary
Comprehensive Peace Agreement, drinking water, independence
1) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan
2) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2028.html
3) http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/07/south-sudan-the-newest-nation-in-theworld/100103/
4) http://heyokamagazine.com/HEYOKA.2.FOTOS.GORIL%20BOOTHE.htm
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