AP BIO EMERGENCY LESSON PLANS

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RAY-BELL EMERGENCY
AP BIO Lesson Plans
Instructions: In the event that school is closed due to illness, please complete the following:
Evolution Unit
Name ________________________________ Pd. ______
Date ______________
Directions: To complete the Evolution Unit, you should have
1. Read Chapters 22-26 (taking notes would be helpful for preparing for the test)
2. Completed the Evolution Unit Study Guide Terms and Questions
Evolution Unit Study Guide Terms and Questions
Directions: Define the following terms and answer the questions on a separate sheet of paper. Label your
answer sheets according the chapter, key terms and questions. You do not have to rewrite the question.
Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
KEY TERMS
biological evolution
James Hutton
Charles Lyell
natural selection
Thomas Malthus
artificial selection
comparative anatomy
vestigial
Jean Baptist de Lamarck
catastrophism
Alfred Russell Wallace
survival of the fittest
variation
biogeography
homologous
comparative embryology
inheritance of acquired characteristics
uniformitarianism
Charles Darwin
adaptation
evidence for evolution
fossils
analogous
molecular biology
QUESTIONS
1. Explain Charles Darwin's contributions to evolutionary ideas. Give the basic assumptions upon which
Darwin's theory rests. Indicate the types of evidence that Darwin used in formulating his theory.
2. List the processes that can lead to genetic variation.
3. Explain why changes in somatic cells cannot bring about evolution.
4. Contrast Lamarck's theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics with Darwin's theory of natural
selection.
5. Describe the Darwin theory of natural selection. What is meant by "survival of the fittest"?
6. Name a vestigial structure found in Homo sapiens and suggest the functional structure from which it
evolved.
Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations
KEY TERMS
microevolution
genetic equilibrium
genetic drift
bottleneck effect
polymorphism
neutral variation
stabilizing selection
gene pool
genotype frequencies
mutation pressure
founder effect
heterozygote advantage
frequency dependent selection
balanced polymorphism
allelic frequency
Hardy-Weinberg Law
gene flow
selection pressure
directional selection
disruptive selection
QUESTIONS
1. Explain the concept of the gene pool. Given the frequencies of two alleles, calculate the ratios of the
genotypes produced by them.
2. State the Hardy-Weinberg Law, and discuss its four conditions for maintenance of genetic equilibrium.
Why are these conditions rarely met in nature?
3. Explain how natural selection in one generation can affect the genotype of the next generation.
4. Using diagrams, contrast directional selection, stabilizing selection and disruptive selection.
5. Contrast the roles of selection and mutation in directing evolutionary change.
6. Explain how a characteristic can have both positive and negative effects and indicate what determines
whether or not a trait will increase or decrease in a population.
PROBLEMS
1. A certain homozygous recessive geneotype occurs in 4% of a population. What is the frequency of its
two alleles, T and t?
2. What percentage of the population is heterozygous (Tt) ?
3. In a certain species of plant where red and white flowers are determined by a single pair of alleles, R
(red) and r (white), a grower counted 90 white flowering plants in a field of 1000. If random pollination is
occurring, what proportion of the field is heterozygous?
4. In the United States, 16% of the population is Rh-, due to a homozygous recessive pair of alleles. From
this data, determine:
a. the frequency of the recessive gene
b. the frequency of the dominant gene
c. the percentage of heterozygotes in the population
5. A certain gene (k) is recessive; the dominant gene (K) is one of the genes necessary to produce
chlorophyll in plant leaves. In a particular variety of corn, 36% of the seedlings are found to lack
chlorophyll and appear yellow when they sprout, then die. Determine:
a. the frequency of K
b. the frequency of k
c. the percentage of individuals that are Kk
6. About 1 in 10,000 Caucasians born in the U.S.A. have the homozygous recessive condition where they
lack the ability to produce the enzyme PKU. Without treatment, this is a fatal condition.
a. What is the frequency of the recessive gene?
b. What percentage of individuals are heterozygous?
Chapter 24: The Origin of Species
species
anagenesis
cladogenesis
races
speciation
microevolution
macroevolution
phyletic evolution
biological species concept
prezygotic barriers
habitat isolation
temporal isolation
behavioral isolation
mechanical isolation
gametic isolation
postzygotic barriers
hybrid inviability
hybrid sterility
hybrid breakdown
morphological species concept cohesion species concept
ecological species concept
evolutionary species concept
allopatric speciation
sympatric speciation
adaptive radiation
polyploidy
autopolyploid
alloopolyploid
hybrid zone
punctuated equilibrium
gradualism
novel features
QUESTIONS
1. Give a biological definition of species.
2. Describe speciation by polyploidy.
3. Explain what is meant by adaptive radiation, and discuss the evidence for this phenomenon.
4. Compare the hypotheses of gradualism and punctuated equilibrium, and give an example supporting
each hypothesis.
5. Explain why the modern concept of the species is difficult to apply to sexual organisms, fossil
organisms, populations at an intermediate stage of divergence and allopatric populations.
6. Discuss allopatric speciation.
7. Compare and contrast punctuated equilibrium and gradualism. How would you support your favorite
theory?
8. Discuss and give an example of how each of the following isolating mechanisms contributes to
speciation in organisms:
A. Geographical barriers
B. Ecological (including seasonal) isolation
C. Behavioral isolation
D. Polyploidy
Chapter 26: Tracing Phylogeny
KEY TERMS
Carolus Linneaus
systematics
phylogeny
heirarchy
Kingdom
Phylum(Division)
Order
Family
Species
binomial nomenclature
radiometric data
mass extinction
monophyletic
polyphyletic
analogy
convergent evolution
cladistics
cladogram
derived characters (synamorphies)
taxonomy
taxon (pl. taxa)
Class
Genus
fossil record
phylogenetic tree
homology
phenetics
clade
primitive characters
QUESTIONS
1. Why does a taxonomist need an in depth understanding of biological evolution?
2. What can cladograms tell us? What can’t they tell us?
3. List types of criteria that are used to classify organisms. Include in your answer a discussion of
homology and analogy.
4. Describe the Linnean system of classification.
5. Name the five Kingdoms, give examples and list the characteristics of each.
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