Organizational Communications

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Specialized management
PREPARED BY
DR RUSHDY .A WADY
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Organizational Communications
Internal Communications
External Communications
. By internal communications, we mean the steps groups take to keep their
members, donors, and supporters informed about their work.
Internal communications tools include newsletters, web sites, mailings,
magazines and other publications, and hotlines.
By external communications, we mean the publicity relations activities groups
rely upon to deliver their message to their target audiences (which may include
members and supporters, but also include key decision-makers, other
organizations and individuals, and the media). External communications tools
include news releases, media events, speaking engagements, advertising
campaigns, public service announcement campaigns, brochures, fact sheets and
reports.
Purpose of this Document
Texts on organizational communications tend to first examine basics concepts
such as "communications", "sender", "receivers", "encoders", etc. They go on to
examine aspects of communications, e.g., downward, upward, body, verbal,
written, formal and informal, interpersonal and group, etc.
Some texts include various means to analyze effectiveness of communications.
Some writers include public relations and media relations in organizational
communications.
Common Causes of Problems in Internal Communications:1. If I know it, then everyone must know it
. Perhaps the most common communications problem is managements' (leaders'
and managers') assumption that because they are aware of some piece of
information, than everyone else is, too. Usually staff aren't aware unless
management makes a deliberate attempt to carefully convey information.
2. We hate bureaucracy -- we're "lean and mean."
When organizations are just getting started, their leaders can often prize
themselves on not being burdened with what seems as bureaucratic overhead,
that is, as extensive written policies and procedures. Writing something down
can be seen as a sign of bureaucracy and to be avoided.
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As the organization grows, it needs more communications and feedback to
remain healthy, but this communication isn't valued. As a result, increasing
confusion ensues -- unless management matures and realizes the need for
increased, reliable communications.
3. I told everyone, or some people, or ...?
Another frequent problem is managements' not really valuing communications or
assuming that it just happens. So they're not aware of what they told to whom -even when they intended for everyone to know the information.
4. Did you hear what I meant for you to hear?
With today's increasingly diverse workforce, it's easy to believe you've conveyed
information to someone, but you aren't aware that they interpreted you
differently than you intended. Unfortunately, you won't be aware of this problem
until a major problem or issue arises out of the confusion.
5. Our problems are too big to have to listen to each other! Particularly when
personnel are tired or under stress, it's easy to do what's urgent rather than what's
important. So people misunderstand others' points or understand their intentions.
This problem usually gets discovered too late, too.
6. So what's to talk about? Lastly, communications problems can arise when
inexperienced management interprets its job to be solving problems and if they're
aren't any problems/crises, then there's nothing that needs to be communicated.
8. There's data and there's information. As organizations grow, their management
tends to focus on matters of efficiency. They often generate systems that produce
substantial amount of data -- raw information that doesn't seem to really be
important.
9. If I need your opinion, I'll tell it to you. Lastly, communications problems can
arise when management simply sees no value whatsoever in communicating with
subordinates, believing subordinates should shut up and do their jobs.
Key Principles to Effective Internal Organizational Communications
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1. Unless management comprehends and fully supports the premise that
organizations must have high degrees of communications (like people needing
lots of water), the organization will remain stilted.
2. Effective internal communications start with effective skills in
communications, including basic skills in listening, speaking, questioning and
sharing feedback. These can developed with some concerted review and practice
3. Sound meeting management skills go a long way toward ensuring effective
communications, too
4.-A key ingredient to developing effective communications in any organization
is each person taking responsibility to assert when they don't understand a
communication or to suggest when and how someone could communicate more
effectively.
Basic Structures/Policies to Support Effective Internal Communications
This communication can be looked at as communications downward and
upward.
Downward Communications:
1. Ensure every employee receives a copy of the strategic plan, which includes
the organization's mission, vision, values statement, strategic goals and strategies
about how those goals will be reached.
2. Ensure every employee receives an employee handbook that contains all upto-date personnel policies.
3. Develop a basic set of procedures for how routine tasks are conducted and
include them in standard operating manual.
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4. Ensure every employee has a copy of their job description and the
organization chart.
5. Regularly hold management meetings (at least every two weeks), even if
there's nothing pressing to report. If you hold meetings only when you believe
there's something to report, then communications will occur only when you have
something to say -- communications will be one way and the organization will
suffer.
6. Hold full staff meetings every month to report how the organization is doing,
major accomplishments, concerns, announcements about staff, etc.
7. Leaders and managers should have face-to-face contact with employees at
least once a week. Even if the organization is over 20 employees (large for a
nonprofit), management should stroll by once in a while.
8. Regularly hold meetings to celebrate major accomplishments. This helps
employees perceive what's important, gives them a sense of direction and
fulfillment, and let's them know that leadership is on top of things.
9. Ensure all employees receive yearly performance reviews, including their
goals for the year, updated job descriptions, accomplishments, needs for
improvement, and plans to help the employee accomplish the improvements. If
the nonprofit has sufficient resources (a realistic concern), develop a career plan
with the employee, too.
Upward Communications:
1. Ensure all employees give regular status reports to their supervisors. Include a
section for what they did last week, will do next week and any actions/issues to
address.
2. Ensure all supervisors meet one-on-one at least once a month with their
employees to discuss how its' going, hear any current concerns from the
employee, etc. Even if the meeting is chit-chat, it cultivates an important
relationship between supervisor and employee.
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3. Use management and staff meetings to solicit feedback. Ask how it's going.
Do a round table approach to hear from each person.
4. Act on feedback from others. Write it down. Get back to it -- if only to say you
can't do anything about the reported problem or suggestion, etc.
5. Respect the "grapevine." It's probably one of the most prevalent and reliable
forms of communications. Major "movements" in the organization usually first
appear when employees feel it safe to venture their feelings or opinions to peers.
Supervisor and Employee Communications
There are several basic and regular activities which provide a solid foundation
for effective supervision. These basics ensure that everyone is working together - as important, that staff feel they are working together -- towards a common
cause.
1. Have all employees provide weekly written status reports to their supervisors
2. Hold monthly meetings with all staff together - building a feeling of teamwork
among staff.
3. Hold weekly or biweekly meetings with all staff together if the organization is
small (e.g., under 10 people); otherwise, with all managers together.
4. Have supervisors meet with their direct reports in one-on-one meetings every
month -.
Develop a Basic Communications Plan
Whether planning your internal or external communications efforts, it helps a
great deal to develop a communications plan, either informally or formally. For
example, consider:
1. What key messages do you want to convey?
2. To what key stakeholders do you want to convey the key messages (e.g.,
consider clients, founders, community leaders, service providers, etc.)?
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3. What's the best approach to reach each key stakeholder, including who/how
should the message be conveyed?
4. How will you know if you're reaching these stakeholders or not?
Understanding Your Communications Style
There are three basic communication styles:
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Aggressive
Passive
Assertive
Discovering which style best fits you can be done in a number of ways including
personality tests such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), psychological
assessments, and self-assessments. However, to get a general idea of your
communication style, the following descriptions of the three basic types can
help.
Elements of the Aggressive Style
1. Mottos and Beliefs
o "Everyone should be like me."
o "I am never wrong."
o "I've got rights, but you don't."
2. Communication Style
o Close minded
o Poor listener
o Has difficulty seeing the other person's point of view
o Interrupts
o Monopolizing
3. Characteristics
o Achieves goals, often at others' expense
o Domineering, bullying
o Patronizing
o Condescending, sarcastic
4. Behavior
o Puts others down
o Doesn't ever think they are wrong
o Bossy
o Moves into people's space, overpowers
o Jumps on others, pushes people around
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Know-it-all attitude
o Doesn't show appreciation
Nonverbal Cues
o Points, shakes finger
o Frowns
o Squints eyes critically
o Glares
o Stares
o Rigid posture
o Critical, loud, yelling tone of voice
o Fast, clipped speech
Verbal Cues
o "You must (should, ought better)."
o "Don't ask why. Just do it."
o Verbal abuse
Confrontation and Problem Solving
o Must win arguments, threatens, attacks
o Operates from win/lose position
Feelings Felt
o Anger
o Hostility
o Frustration
o Impatience
Effects
o Provokes counter aggression, alienation from others, ill health
o Wastes time and energy over supervising others
o Pays high price in human relationships
o Fosters resistance, defiance, sabotaging, striking back, forming
alliances, lying, covering up
o Forces compliance with resentment
o
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Elements of the Passive Style
1. Mottoes and Beliefs
o "Don't express your true feelings."
o "Don't make waves."
o "Don't disagree."
o "Others have more rights than I do."
2. Communication Style
o Indirect
o Always agrees
o Doesn't speak up
o Hesitant
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3. Characteristics
o Apologetic, self-conscious
o Trusts others, but not self
o Doesn't express own wants and feelings
o Allows others to make decisions for self
o Doesn't get what he or she wants
4. Behaviors
o Sighs a lot
o Tries to sit on both sides of the fence to avoid conflict
o Clams up when feeling treated unfairly
o Asks permission unnecessarily
o Complains instead of taking action
o Lets others make choices
o Has difficulty implementing plans
o Self-effacing
5. Nonverbal Cues
o Fidgets
o Nods head often; comes across as pleading
o Lack of facial animation
o Smiles and nods in agreement
o Downcast eyes
o Slumped posture
o Low volume, meek
o Up talk
o Fast, when anxious; slow, hesitant, when doubtful
6. Verbal Cues
o "You should do it."
o "You have more experience than I do."
o "I can't......"
o "This is probably wrong, but..."
o "I'll try..."
o Monotone, low energy
7. Confrontation and Problem Solving
o Avoids, ignores, leaves, postpones
o Withdraws, is sullen and silent
o Agrees externally, while disagreeing internally
o Expends energy to avoid conflicts that are anxiety provoking
o Spends too much time asking for advice, supervision
o Agrees too often
8. Feelings Felt
o Powerlessness
o Wonders why doesn't receive credit for good work
o Chalks lack of recognition to others' inabilities
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9. Effects
o Gives up being him or herself
o Builds dependency relationships
o Doesn't know where he or she stands
o Slowly loses self esteem
o Promotes others' causes
o Is not well-liked
Elements of the Assertive Style
1. Mottoes and Beliefs
o Believes self and others are valuable
o Knowing that assertiveness doesn't mean you always win, but that
you handled the situation as effectively as possible
o "I have rights and so do others."
2. Communication Style
o Effective, active listener
o States limits, expectations
o States observations, no labels or judgments
o Expresses self directly, honestly, and as soon as possible about
feelings and wants
o Checks on others feelings
3. Characteristics
o Non-judgmental
o Observes behavior rather than labeling it
o Trusts self and others
o Confident
o Self-aware
o Open, flexible, versatile
o Playful, sense of humor
o Decisive
o Proactive, initiating
4. Behavior
o Operates from choice
o Knows what it is needed and develops a plan to get it
o Action-oriented
o Firm
o Realistic in her expectations
o Fair, just
o Consistent
o Takes appropriate action toward getting what she wants without
denying rights of others
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5. Nonverbal Cues
o Open, natural gestures
o Attentive, interested facial expression
o Direct eye contact
o Confident or relaxed posture
o Vocal volume appropriate, expressive
o Varied rate of speech
6. Verbal Cues
o "I choose to..."
o "What are my options?"
o "What alternatives do we have?"
7. Confrontation and Problem Solving
o Negotiates, bargains, trades off, compromises
o Confronts problems at the time they happen
o Doesn't let negative feelings build up
8. Feelings Felt
o Enthusiasm
o Well being
o Even tempered
9. Effects
o Increased self-esteem and self-confidence
o Increased self-esteem of others
o Feels motivated and understood
o Others know where they stand
Clearly, the assertive style is the one to strive for. Keep in mind that very few
people are all one or another style. In fact, the aggressive style is essential at
certain times such as:
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when a decision has to be made quickly;
during emergencies;
when you know you're right and that fact is crucial;
stimulating creativity by designing competitions destined for use in
training or to increase productivity.
Passiveness also has its critical applications:
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when an issue is minor;
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when the problems caused by the conflict are greater than the conflict
itself;
when emotions are running high and it makes sense to take a break in
order to calm down and regain perspective;
when your power is much lower than the other party's;
when the other's position is impossible to change for all practical purposes
(i.e., government policies, etc.).
Remaining aware of your own communication style and fine-tuning it as time
goes by gives you the best chance of success in business and life.
20 Ways to Communicate With Your Employees
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Include affected employees in goal setting.
Give frequent and meaningful recognition for a job well done.
Interact with employees on an informal basis.
Go to staff's work area. Meet them on their own turf.
Ask for staff's opinions and listen with an open mind. Try to understand
their point of view.
6. Share non-confidential information with staff, and ask for their input and
response on issues.
7. Offset demoralizing actions and events by emphasizing what went well,
and use the experience as a learning opportunity.
8. Listen 80% of the time and talk 20%.
9. Ask staff what rumors they have heard, and address them.
10.. Get into the "trenches" with staff. Look for opportunities to understand
employees' jobs better.
11.. Give information to staff after management meetings.
12.. Ask staff. "Have I made our vision, mission, and goals clear and
understandable?
13.. Ask staff, "What can I do to help you with your job, and what am I
doing that gets in your way?"
14.. Ask staff "What is making our clients/customers the most and/or the
least satisfied?"
15.. Praise in public and give feedback in private.
16.. Find something to like about each staff member with whom you work.
17.. Actively make a point of speaking to all employees seen each day.
18.. Build bridges with people with whom you are uncomfortable.
19.. Set goals each month on ways to accomplish "Managing by Walking
Around."
20.. Occasionally have lunch with staff members. Use this as an opportunity
to build trust.
Barriers to Communication
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Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to
communication. Many physical and psychological barriers exist.
Culture, background, and bias - We allow our past experiences to change the
meaning of the message. Our culture, background, and bias can be good as they
allow us use our past experiences to understand something new, it is when they
change the meaning of the message then they interfere with the communication
process.
Noise - Equipment or environmental noise impede clear communication. The
sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being
sent to each other.
Ourselves - Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to
confusion and conflict. The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective
communication. Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel
someone is attacking us), superiority (we feel we know more that the other),
and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity).
Perception - If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not
articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person. Also our preconceived
attitudes affect our ability to listen. We listen uncritically to persons of high
status and dismiss those of low status.
Message - Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea.
Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions. Semantic
distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. For
example, the word chairman instead of chairperson, may cause you to focus on
the word and not the message.
Environmental - Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other
stimulus provides a potential distraction.
Smothering - We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information
is automatic. Not true! Too often we believe that certain information has no
value to others or they are already aware of the facts.
Stress - People do not see things the same way when under stress. What we see
and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of
references - our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, and goals.
These barriers can be thought of as filters, that is, the message leaves the sender,
goes through the above filters, and is then heard by the receiver. These filters
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muffle the message. And the way to overcome filters is through active listening
and feedback.
Active Listening
Hearing and listening are not the same thing. Hearing is the act of perceiving
sound..
Listening is a selective activity which involves the reception and the
interpretation of aural stimuli. It involves decoding the sound into meaning.
Listening is divided into two main categories: passive and active. Passive
listening is little more than hearing. It occurs when the receiver or the message
has little motivation to listen carefully, such as music, story telling, television, or
being polite.
The following are a few traits of active listeners:
Spends more time listening than talking.
Does not finish the sentence of others.
Does not answer questions with questions.
Are aware of biases. We all have them...we need to control them.
Never daydreams or become preoccupied with their own thoughts when others
talk.
Lets the other speaker talk. Does not dominate the conversation.
Plans responses after the other person has finished speaking...NOT while they
are speaking.
Provides feedback, but does not interrupt incessantly.
Analyzes by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended
questions. Walks the person through your analysis (summarize).
Keeps the conversation on what the speaker says...NOT on what interests
them.
Takes brief notes. This forces them to concentrate on what is being said.
Feedback
The purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the intention of the
original communicator is understood by the second communicator. It includes
verbal and nonverbal responses to another person's message.
Carl Roger listed five main categories of feedback. They are listed in the order in
which they occur most frequently in daily conversations. Notice that we make
judgments more often than we try to understand:
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1. Evaluative: Making a judgment about the worth, goodness, or
appropriateness of the other person's statement.
2. Interpretive: Paraphrasing - attempting to explain what the other person's
statement means.
3. Supportive: Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator.
4. Probing: Attempting to gain additional information, continue the
discussion, or clarify a point.
5. Understanding: Attempting to discover completely what the other
communicator means by her statements.
Imagine how much better daily communications would be if listeners tried to
understand first, before they tried to evaluate what someone is saying.
Nonverbal Behaviors of Communication
To deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbal behaviors to raise the
channel of interpersonal communication:
Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals
interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. People who make eye
contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern,
warmth, and credibility.
Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness,
friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will be
perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often
contagious and people will react favorably. They will be more comfortable
around you and will want to listen more.
Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring
and stiff. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention, makes the
conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding.
Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by the
way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates to
listeners that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Interpersonal
closeness results when you and the listener face each other. Speaking with
your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it
communicates disinterest.
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Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with
others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other
person's space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze
aversion.
Vocal: Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such
vocal elements as: tone, pitch, rhythm, timbre, loudness, and inflection. For
maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your
voice. One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a
monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull.
Speaking Hints
When speaking or trying to explain something, ask the listeners if they are
following you.
Ensure the receiver has a chance to comment or ask questions.
Try to put yourself in the other person's shoes - Consider the feelings of the
receiver.
Be clear about what you say.
Look at the receiver.
Make sure your words match your tone and body language (Nonverbal
Behaviors).
Vary your tone and pace.
Do not be vague, but on the other hand, Do not complicate what you are
saying with too much detail.
Do not ignore signs of confusion.
The SEVEN CHALLENGES Cooperative Communication Skills Workbook
-- Table of Contents
Challenge One: Listening more carefully and more responsively acknowledging the feelings and wants that others are expressing compassionately allowing people to feel whatever they feel (which sets the
example for others to hear & accept my feelings, also).
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Challenge Two: Explaining my conversational intent and
inviting consent by using conversational openers such as,
"Right now I would like to take a few minutes and ask you
about... [subject]." The more important the conversation, the
more important it is to know & share the overall goal.
Challenge Three: Expressing myself more clearly and more
completely - giving my listeners the information they need to
understand (mentally reconstruct) my experiences. One good
way is to use "the five I-messages": what/how I observe, feel,
interpret/evaluate, want, and hope for.
Challenge Four: Translating my criticisms and
complaints into requests & explaining the
positive results of having my request granted - doing this for both my own complaints and
the complaints that others bring to me.
Challenge Five: Asking questions more "open-ended" and
more creatively. "How did you like that movie?" is an openended question that invites a wide range of answers. "Did you
like it?" suggests only "yes" or "no" as answers and does not
encourage discussion. (How do you feel about this suggestion?)
Challenge Six: Thanking. Expressing more appreciation,
gratitude, encouragement and delight. In a world full of
problems, look for opportunities to give praise. Both at home &
at work, it is the bond of appreciation that makes relationships
strong enough to allow for problem-solving.
Challenge Seven: Making the effort... Making better
communication an important part of my everyday life... by
seeing each conversation as an opportunity to grow in skill,
awareness and compassion and turning each opponent into a
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learning and
problem-solving partner
public and media Relations and sales
Before you learn more about public and media relations, you should get a basic
impression of what they are.
Basic Definitions:
Advertising, Marketing, Promotion,
Public Relations and Publicity, and Sales
It's easy to become confused about these terms: advertising, marketing,
promotion, public relations and publicity, and sales. The terms are often used
interchangeably. However, they refer to different -- but similar activities. Some
basic definitions are provided below. A short example is also provided hopefully
to help make the terms more clear to the reader.
One Definition of Advertising
Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and
current customers. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures,
commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc.
One Definition of Promotion
Promotion keeps the product in the minds of the customer and helps stimulate
demand for the product. Promotion involves ongoing advertising and publicity
(mention in the press). The ongoing activities of advertising, sales and public
relations are often considered aspects of promotions.
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One Definition of Marketing
Marketing is the wide range of activities involved in making sure that you're
continuing to meet the needs of your customers and getting value in return.
These activities include market research to find out, for example, what groups of
potential customers exist, what their needs are, which of those needs you can
meet, how you should meet them, etc. Marketing also includes analyzing the
competition, positioning your new product or service (finding your market
niche), pricing your products and services, and promoting them through
continued advertising, promotions, public relations and sales.
One Definition of Public relations
Public relations includes ongoing activities to ensure the company has a strong
public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to understand
the company and its products. Often, public relations are conducted through the
media, that is, newspapers, television, magazines, etc. As noted above, public
relations is often considered as one of the primary activities included in
promotions.
One Definition of Publicity
Publicity is mention in the media. Organizations usually have little control over
the message in the media, at least, not as they do in advertising. Regarding
publicity, reporters and writers decide what will be said.
One Definition of Sales
Sales involves most or many of the following activities, including cultivating
prospective buyers (or leads) in a market segment; conveying the features,
advantages and benefits of a product or service to the lead; and closing the sale
(or coming to agreement on pricing and services).
An Example of the Definitions
The following example may help to make the above five concepts more clear. I
recently read that the story comes from the Reader's Digest, a quote found in
"Promoting Issues and Ideas" by M. Booth and Associates, Inc
"... if the circus is coming to town and you paint a sign saying 'Circus Coming to
the Fairground Saturday', that's advertising. If you put the sign on the back of an
elephant and walk it into town, that's promotion. If the elephant walks through
the mayor's flower bed, that's publicity. And if you get the mayor to laugh about
it, that's public relations." If the town's citizens go the circus, you show them the
many entertainment booths, explain how much fun they'll have spending money
at the booths, answer their questions and ultimately, they spend a lot at the
circus, that's sales.
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Public relations includes ongoing activities to ensure the organization has a
strong public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to
understand the organization and its products. Similar to effective advertising and
promotions, effective public relations often depends on designing and
implementing a well-designed public relations plan. The plan often includes
description of what you want to convey to whom, how you plan to convey it,
who is responsible for various activities and by when, and how much money is
budgeted to fund these activities. Similar to advertising and promotions, a media
plan and calendar can be very useful, which specifies what media methods that
are used and when.
Often, public relations are conducted through the media, that is, newspapers,
television, magazines, etc. Publicity is mention in the media. Organizations
usually have little control over the message in the media, at least, not as much as
they do in advertising. Regarding publicity, reporters and writers decide what
will be said.
Regarding public relations, consider: What groups of stakeholders do we want to
appeal to and how? What impressions do you want each of your stakeholder to
have? What communications media do they see or prefer the most? Consider
advertising, collaborations, annual reports, networking, TV, radio, newsletters,
classifieds, displays/signs, posters, word of mouth, direct mail, special events,
brochures, neighborhood newsletters, etc. What media is most practical for you
to use in terms of access and affordability? What messages are most appealing to
each stakeholder group?
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Quality
Basic
Overviews
of
Concept
of
Management
Quality
Achieving Continuous Quality Improvement
Why Quality Must be Measured
Why Consider Customers of Competitors
Exit Interviews & Huge Profit Increases
What is Quality
The TQM philosophy of management is customer-oriented. All members of a total quality
management (control) organization strive to systematically manage the improvement of the
organization through the ongoing participation of all employees in problem solving efforts
across functional and hierarchical boundaries.
TQM incorporates the concepts of product quality, process control, quality
assurance, and quality improvement. Consequently, it is the control of all transformation
processes of an organization to better satisfy customer needs in the most economical way.
Total quality management is based on internal or self-control, which is embedded in each
unit of the work system (technology and people). Pushing problem solving and decisionmaking down in the organization allows people who do the work to both measure and take
corrective action in order to deliver a product or service that meets the needs of their
customer
The primary dimensions of product quality include:
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Performance
Features
Reliability
Conformance
Durability
Serviceability
Aesthetics
Perceived Quality
Increasingly, however, service quality is attracting equal or more attention.
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Responsiveness
Reliability
Accuracy
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
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Knowledge of Employees
Courtesy
Consistency
Speed
These listed dimensions of product and service quality are, in a broad sense, generic to
most situations. However, every business is unique, and if customer satisfaction
measurements are to be meaningful, expectations should be phrased in the language of
customers for each distinct market segment.
Also, some needs are more critical than others and it is wise to determine the relative
importance of each need. After measuring satisfaction levels, emphasis can then be placed
on improving performance in areas important to the customer but where the organization
may be lacking in comparison to the quality delivered by competitors.
Achieving Continuous Quality Improvement
Continuous quality improvement begins by identifying customer expectations for all key
"moments of truth" - the critical interactions customers have with the organization. This can
include contact with, for example, internal support groups, collection individuals, sales
representatives, management, or direct service providers.
The best way to understand customer expectations is to listen to customers using qualitative
research techniques. This usually requires skillful probing by someone practiced in
customer satisfaction measurement.
After identifying expectations, customer satisfaction can readily be measured.
However, this requires the customer to answer specific questions about how he or she feels
about the company's performance. This is why it is so important to capture their interest
and build the credibility needed to gain their cooperation. The task is made considerably
easier by speaking the customer's language and presenting only issues that are truly
significant.
Why Quality Must be Measured
More and more, quality is being measured. Companies are coming to the conclusion that if
they can measure it, they can manage it and, consequently, can improve it.
The best performing organizations are allowing customer expectations to drive their quality
initiative. They recognize customers define quality by judging them in relation to
competitors.
Organizations that constantly measure themselves in relation to competitors
(Benchmarking) are able to quickly capitalize on their emerging strengths and address
weaknesses before they become problems.
22
Why Include Customers of Competitors
The rationale for including non-customer (customers of competitors) benchmarking is that
without the non-customer data customer satisfaction levels are arbitrary. Both sets of data
allow an organization to exploit its strengths, and put initiatives in place to narrow and
eliminate any gaps between expectations and performance.
In fact, the best performing organizations benchmark themselves against:



their best competitor
the industry average
a world class supplier in a similar industry
Future measurements permit the organization to objectively assess how well the
initiatives are working.
How Exit Interviews Can Translate into Huge Profit Increases
By measuring only customer satisfaction levels, organizations miss former customers who
have left ... because they no longer had the need for, or were unhappy with the products or
services being offered. Measuring customer retention, on the other hand, relates directly to
the bottom line. Long term customers spend more, refer new clients and are less costly to
do business with.
Ironically, past customers present every company with an opportunity. They can tell the
organization exactly what parts of the business to fix in order to reduce the number of
customers at risk. This improves customer retention and, subsequently, profitability.
An average organization loses about 15% of its customers every year. But if this can be
reduced to 10%, bottom line profits improve 35% to 85%.
Finding out why customers leave can often be difficult since the majority of unhappy
customers don't complain, they simply quit. Exit interviews solve this problem.
Total Quality Management is an approach to the art of management that originated in
Japanese industry in the 1950's and has become steadily more popular in the West
since the early 1980's.
Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company
that aims to provide, and continue to provide, its customers with products and services
that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company's
operations, with things being done right first time, and defects and waste eradicated
from operations.
Many companies have difficulties in implementing TQM. Surveys by consulting firms
have found that only 20-36% of companies that have undertaken TQM have achieved
23
either significant or even tangible improvements in quality, productivity,
competitiveness or financial return. As a result many people are sceptical about TQM.
However, when you look at successful companies you find a much higher percentage
of successful TQM implementation.
Some useful messages from results of TQM implementations:
*f you want to be a first-rate company, don't focus on the second-rate companies who
can't handle TQM, look at the world-class companies that have adopted it
*he most effective way to spend TQM introduction funds is by training top
management, people involved in new product development, and people involved with
customers
Important aspects of TQM include customer-driven quality, top management
leadership and commitment, continuous improvement, fast response, actions based on
facts, employee participation, and a TQM culture.
Customer-driven quality
TQM has a customer-first orientation. The customer, not internal activities and
constraints, comes first. Customer satisfaction is seen as the company's highest
priority. The company believes it will only be successful if customers are satisfied.
The TQM company is sensitive to customer requirements and responds rapidly to
them. In the TQM context, `being sensitive to customer requirements' goes beyond
defect and error reduction, and merely meeting specifications or reducing customer
complaints. The concept of requirements is expanded to take in not only product and
service attributes that meet basic requirements, but also those that enhance and
differentiate them for competitive advantage.
Each part of the company is involved in Total Quality, operating as a customer to
some functions and as a supplier to others. The Engineering Department is a supplier
to downstream functions such as Manufacturing and Field Service, and has to treat
these internal customers with the same sensitivity and responsiveness as it would
external customers.
TQM leadership from top management
TQM is a way of life for a company. It has to be introduced and led by top
management. This is a key point. Attempts to implement TQM often fail because top
management doesn't lead and get committed - instead it delegates and pays lip service.
Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in creating
and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the
company, and in creating and deploying well defined systems, methods and
performance measures for achieving those goals. These systems and methods guide all
24
quality activities and encourage participation by all employees. The development and
use of performance indicators is linked, directly or indirectly, to customer
requirements and satisfaction, and to management and employee remuneration.
Continuous improvement
Continuous improvement of all operations and activities is at the heart of TQM. Once
it is recognized that customer satisfaction can only be obtained by providing a highquality product, continuous improvement of the quality of the product is seen as the
only way to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction. As well as recognizing the
link between product quality and customer satisfaction, TQM also recognizes that
product quality is the result of process quality. As a result, there is a focus on
continuous improvement of the company's processes. This will lead to an
improvement in process quality. In turn this will lead to an improvement in product
quality, and to an increase in customer satisfaction. Improvement cycles are
encouraged for all the company's activities such as product development, use of
EDM/PDM, and the way customer relationships are managed. This implies that all
activities include measurement and monitoring of cycle time and responsiveness as a
basis for seeking opportunities for improvement.
Elimination of waste is a major component of the continuous improvement approach.
There is also a strong emphasis on prevention rather than detection, and an emphasis
on quality at the design stage. The customer-driven approach helps to prevent errors
and achieve defect-free production. When problems do occur within the product
development process, they are generally discovered and resolved before they can get
to the next internal customer.
Fast response
To achieve customer satisfaction, the company has to respond rapidly to customer
needs. This implies short product and service introduction cycles. These can be
achieved with customer-driven and process-oriented product development because the
resulting simplicity and efficiency greatly reduce the time involved. Simplicity is
gained through concurrent product and process development. Efficiencies are realized
from the elimination of non-value-adding effort such as re-design. The result is a
dramatic improvement in the elapsed time from product concept to first shipment.
Actions based on facts
The statistical analysis of engineering and manufacturing facts is an important part of
TQM. Facts and analysis provide the basis for planning, review and performance
tracking, improvement of operations, and comparison of performance with
competitors. The TQM approach is based on the use of objective data, and provides a
rational rather than an emotional basis for decision making. The statistical approach to
process management in both engineering and manufacturing recognizes that most
problems are system-related, and are not caused by particular employees. In practice,
data is collected and put in the hands of the people who are in the best position to
analyze it and then take the appropriate action to reduce costs and prevent non25
conformance. Usually these people are not managers but workers in the process. If the
right information is not available, then the analysis, whether it be of shop floor data, or
engineering test results, can't take place, errors can't be identified, and so errors can't
be corrected.
Employee participation
A successful TQM environment requires a committed and well-trained work force that
participates fully in quality improvement activities. Such participation is reinforced by
reward and recognition systems which emphasize the achievement of quality
objectives. On-going education and training of all employees supports the drive for
quality. Employees are encouraged to take more responsibility, communicate more
effectively, act creatively, and innovate. As people behave the way they are measured
and remunerated, TQM links remuneration to customer satisfaction metrics.
A TQM culture
It's not easy to introduce TQM. An open, cooperative culture has to be created by
management. Employees have to be made to feel that they are responsible for
customer satisfaction. They are not going to feel this if they are excluded from the
development of visions, strategies, and plans. It's important they participate in these
activities. They are unlikely to behave in a responsible way if they see management
behaving irresponsibly - saying one thing and doing the opposite.
Product development in a TQM environment
Product development in a TQM environment is very different to product development
in a non-TQM environment. Without a TQM approach, product development is
usually carried on in a confliction atmosphere where each department acts
independently. Short-term results drive behavior so scrap, changes, work-a rounds,
waste, and rework are normal practice. Management focuses on supervising
individuals, and fire-fighting is necessary and rewarded.
Product development in a TQM environment is customer-driven and focused on
quality. Teams are process-oriented, and interact with their internal customers to
deliver the required results. Management's focus is on controlling the overall process,
and rewarding teamwork.
Awards for Quality achievement
The Deming Prize has been awarded annually since 1951 by the Japanese Union of
Scientists and Engineers in recognition of outstanding achievement in quality strategy,
management and execution
26
Most people and organizations choose insurance as the way to protect them
selves against pure risk. Even with insurance, however, there is still the risk that
the insured’s house will be destroyed by fire or that the firm’s delivery truck will
slide into a ditch. What the insurance company does, within the limits of the
policy issued, is reimburse the owners for all part of their losses.
Principles of insurance
The insurance business is based on a set of seven principles. Insurance
companies have learned that if they follow these principles, they can both pay
damage claims on insured losses and earned money for shareholders. Let’s at
each of these seven principles.
1-The principle of indemnity
The aim of insurance is to protect the insured against loss. As we have said,
insurance is not speculation or gambling. The principles of indemnity says
that the insured person or firm cannot collect more in
damage claims than the dollar loss that it has sustained.
2-law of large numbers:
the second principle of insurance is the law of large numbers. Because of this
principle, insurance companies are to predict the probability that a particular
loss-causing event will occur. The event could be flood, hurricane, or death.
27
Insurance companies, from statistical or actuarial tables, know roughly how
many houses will burn down this year in the united states and how many
automobile accidents will occur in a
Particular city.
3- definite and measurable risk: Insurance companies protect against measurable losses that result directly
from a specific event, such as a collision with another car or the theft of a car
from a firm’s fleet. Insurance protection does not apply to losses that occur
gradually over time, such as the gradual loss in value resulting from the daily
operating of a company car.
Insurance companies also need to know when the loss occurred and the extend
of loss involved. In the case of an automobile accident, the company must
know the time of the accident and the estimated cost of repairing or replacing
the damaged vehicle.
4- low of adverse selection: Insurance companies would like to believe there is an equal proportion of
good risk and bad risks in any group of people or organizations that they
insure. Unfortunately, this is not the case. People or organizations that are
more likely to need insurance are also more likely insurance. For example,
people who are unhealthy or who work in hazardous occupations are more
likely to want health insurance than are other people.
5- accidental loss: According to the principle of accidental loss, only a loss that may or may not
happen is insurable. That is, it must be accidental. If an insurance company
knew that an arsonist was planning to burn down a building, it would not
insure that building against fire loss.
6- loss not subject to catastrophic hazard:Insurance companies expect losses to occur, and they expect to pay damage
claims to some of the people they insure. They do not expect to pay everyone
at once. Therefore, they spread risk so that no single disaster forces to pay all
their clients at the same time. Many insurance companies have violated this
principle and have paid for doing so.
7- insurable insert: As for the last principle of insurance, buyers of insurance policies must show
that they would suffer financial loss from an accident of the type covered by
the policy.
Sources of insurance: 28
The tow basic sources of insurance are the Federal government and private
insurance companies.
Types of insurance: Insurance can be classified in many ways. We have divided insurance into six
categories: property, liability, loss of earning power, employee, directors and
officers insurance, and life insurance. This table describes the protection
provided by each type of insurance.
Policy
Protects against
Property
Fire
Losses to building and contents from fire and
subsequent smoke and water damage.
Extended coverage
Losses to building and contents from nine major risks,
including windstorm, hail, and civil commotion.
Marine
Losses to ships and property being moved from one
place to another.
Automobile
Damages to people and property from automobile
accidents.
Burglary, robbery, and
theft
Liability
Public liability
Product/Service
liability
Loss of earning power
Business income
Losses from crimes involving either employees or
nonemployees.
Losses relating to the ownership and maintenance of
property and the acts of a company’s employees.
Damage from products or services purchased by
consumers.
Losses from not being able to sell a product because of
some extraordinary event.
Extra expense
The high cost of keeping a business operating after a
major accident has occurred.
Rain
Employee
Fidelity bond
Losses resulting from rain.
Losses resulting from dishonest employee.
29
Workers’ compensation Accidents to employees or work-related diseases.
Health
Expenses related to the loss of health.
Disability Income
Loss of income resulting from illness, disease, or
injury.
Losses to company directors and officers from
stockholders suit.
Directors and Officers
Life
Term life
Losses from premature death.
Whole life
Losses from premature death, and creates a cash value
for the insured.
Endowment life
Losses from premature death, and creates a retirement
fund.
Universal life
Losses from premature death, and creates a variable
rate cash value for the insured.
1-property insurance: It would be very risky for a business to operates without adequate property
insurance. Some businesses probably could not operate at all.
A- fire
B- extended coverage: Extended coverage protects a building and its contents against windstorm,
hail, explosion, smoke, civil strife, riot resulting from a strike, and damage
from aircraft, automobiles, and trucks. The firm’s cost of protecting itself
against these risks with an extended policy is much less than if a policy for
each were purchased separately.
C- Marine: Ocean marine is the oldest form of insurance, and it protects shipowners against
damage to vessels and property being transported by ships at sea.
D- automobile
There are many types of automobile insurance available like: 30
1- bodily injury liability: provides money to protect the policyholder against
claims from injuries to pedestrians, passengers, or people in other cars.
2- medical payments insurance: covers medical expenses resulting from an
automobile accident injury.
3- uninsured motorist coverage: pays the owner of the car and any family
member for medical expenses resulting from an accident caused by any
uninsured motorist or a hitand-run driver.
4- property damage liability: pays the cost of damage, resulting from an auto
accident, to other people’s property.
5- collision insurance: pays for damage to the policyholder’s car in the event of
an accident.
6- comprehensive insurance: covers expenses resulting from the theft of an
automobile.
7- no-fault insurance: a new type of automobile insurance which developed in
response to the high costs of automobile insurance.
E- burglary, robbery, and theft: It is a very expensive problem.
Burglary defined as forced entry, and robbery, defined as the taking of
property by force.
2- Liability insurance: An important risk for all businesses is loss resulting from legal liability for harm
caused to an individual. A business’s employees are protected through workers’
compensation. But a firm needs to protect itself against damage claims field by
the public.
Let’s identify two forms of liability:
a- A- public liability: this covers the normal forms of business risktypically, the ownership and maintenance of property. If a customer in
a retail store stumbles on torn carpeting and breaks a leg, the retailer is
usually held responsible for the injury.
B- product or service liability: until a few years ago, manufacturers were held
responsible only for product defects and breaches of warranty. Today, courts
hold manufacturers liable for product safety even when the
victim contributes to the injury.
3- loss of-Earning-Power Insurance: Many businesses buy insurance to protect themselves against loss of Earning
Power Insurance because of some unusual event. An accident may occur which
not only destroys the property of a business but also makes it impossible for the
business to meet its regular expenses. The most common form of loss of Earning
Power Insurance is business-income insurance. Let’s take a closer look at this
type of insurance, as well as extra-expense insurance and rain insurance.
31
A- Business-Income Insurance: Business face many types of risk. One type of
risk is that uncontrollable events will temporarily disrupt a business’s regular
operations.
B- Extra-Expense Insurance: Certain businesses cannot afford to shut down
when their facilities are destroyed or heavily damaged. Banks, newspapers,
public utilities, oil dealers, and dairies must somehow continue to make their
services available. Even a short-term shutdown of any one of these businesses
would injure the public.
C- Rain Insurance: April showers bring May flowers, but they can also drown a
firm’s profits, no matter in which month the showers occur.
4- Employee Insurance: Most business executive believe in the importance of holding employee
insurance. This insurance not only protects the health and safety of employees
but also protects the firm from employee dishonesty.
A- Fidelity Bonds: Fidelity Bonds protect an employer from losses resulting
from a dishonest employee. They are particularly important for business
handling a great deal of cash.
B- Workers’ Compensation: Workers’ Compensation insurance protects
employees from job-related accidents and disease. The following forms of
protection are usually provided:
Medical-payment for hospital, doctor, and other medical expenses.*
Disability-payments of lost income to an injured employee unable to * work.
Rehabilitation-payment of the cost of therapy designed to return the * injured
worker to the job.
Survivor benefits-payment to surviving family members in the case of * death
resulting from a work-related accident or disease.
C- Health Insurance: Many businesses offer their employees and families free
health insurance, or at least an opportunity to buy health insurance at reduced
rates. Five types of health insurance benefits may be offered as separate or
combined contracts.
* Hospitalization.
* Surgical.
* Regular medical.
* Major medical.
* Dental.
D- Disability-Income Insurance: Another form of insurance is Disability-Income
Insurance. Under this form of insurance, the issuing company pays all or part of
a person’s salary when that person is unable to work because of illness, disease,
or injury.
5- Directors and Officers Insurance: 32
Directors and officers (d&o) insurance is purchased to protect the directors and
officers of a corporation from being personally used by stockholders. D&o
insurance is very expensive and is difficult to obtain for most small firms. In
addition, the insurance is normally written with a substantial deductible. D&o
insurance does not protect the directors and officers of a firm from lawsuits if
they conspire to or engage in illegal actions.
6- life insurance:
most families cannot afford to buy enough life insurance to protect themselves
completely against the loss of income resulting from the death of the primary
wage earner. To help provide adequate coverage, many firms offer their
employees the opportunity to purchase some form of life insurance through
group planes. In families where both parties have good-paying jobs and
substantial assets, complete protection may be less important.
Life insurance comes in various forms. Let’s look at them: A- term life insurance: term life insurance is the simplest type of life insurance.
It is “pure” life insurance in that it consists of only a monthly, quarterly, or
annual premium and the death benefit.
B- whole life insurance: whole life insurance protects the insured person for his
or her lifetime. Unlike term insurance, a whole life policy does not automatically
expire after a certain numbers of years.
Whole life insurance comes in two forms. Under ordinary (or straight) life
contract insurance, the policy holder pays premiums for life. Under a limited-life
policy, the policyholder pays higher premium but only until the policy is paid up.
Most limited-life policies are fully paid up in 20 or 30 years.
One advantage of whole life insurance is that it generates a cash value for the
insured.
33
CHIFE EXECTIVE OFFICER
Management is a dynamic process in which the agent of activity and change in
an Organization . today s manager and executives require a high capacity for
identifying appropriate problem , isolating their causes , marshaling resources ,
and initiating the action of colleagues and subordinates.
Executive and manager are best used to denote those businessmen , business
leaders , or managerial employees who provide direction , coordination , and
control in the organization .
The executive at higher levels of a business organization are frequently referred
to as “Top management” .OR the executive who is responsible for and had
accountable for the performance of the organization as a whole .
Figure 1.1: EXECUTIVE AND MANAGERS BY
LVEL
Stockholders
Board of directors
Corporate
officers
Chairman of the board
President
(Chief executive officer)
Vice -- president
Major department
(OR) Division heads
Middle
management
Branch plant
] mangers
General mangers
D
Office managers
Supervisory
management
Superintendents
General foremen
Foremen
34
THE BELIEFS OF CHIEF EXECUTIVE :
1- Most mangers do not carry out their responsibility for the
development of other mangers properly ; if left to themselves not
much of value would happen.
2- It is therefore necessary to set up systems for management
development through which the processes of developing mangers
are organized and planned.
3- The effectiveness of such system depends to very large degree on
the commitment of top management ; that commitment is often
difficult to obtain .
4- Mangers can not be expected to enjoy the formal disciplines
involved in planned development .
5- The results achieved by planned management development are so
obvious that there is no need to set clear objective and monitor
result.
Three key characteristic:
1- The CEO articulates a strategic vision for the
cooperation. The COE evasions the company not as it
currently is , but as it can become . the CEO’s vision
brings to activates and conflicts gives renewed
meaning to every –one’s work and enables employees
to see beyond the details of their own jobs to the
functioning of the total corporation .
2- The CEO presents a role :the CEO’s altitudes and
values concerning the corporation’s purpose and
activities are clear cut .
3- The CEO communicates high performance standards
but also shows confidence in the followers abilities .
WHAT ARE THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF TOP MANAGEMENT ?
The top management especially those of the CEO involve getting thing
accomplished through and with others in order to meet the corporate
objectives .
Top management job is thus multimensional and is oriented toward the
welfare of the total organization specific top management tasks vary from
firm to firm and are developed from an analysis of the mission objectives
strategies and key activities of the cooperation .
35
General Responsibilities of a Chief Executive
NOTE: References to a Boards of Directors in the following are in regard to
chief executive officers of corporations, whether for-profit or nonprofit.
LEADER
·
Advises
the
Board
· Advocates / promotes organization and stakeholder change related to
organization
mission
· Supports motivation of employees in organization products/programs and
operations
VISIONARY
/
INFORMATION
BEARER
· Ensures staff and Board have sufficient and up-to-date information
·
Looks
to
the
future
for
change
opportunities
·
Interfaces
between
Board
and
employees
·
Interfaces
between
organization
and
community
DECISION
MAKER
· Formulates policies and planning recommendations to the Board
· Decides or guides courses of action in operations by staff
MANAGER
·
Oversees
operations
of
organization
·
Implements
plans
·
Manages
human
resources
of
organization
·
Manages
financial
and
physical
resources
BOARD
DEVELOPER
· Assists in the selection and evaluation of board members
· Makes recommendations, supports Board during orientation and selfevaluation
· Supports Board's evaluation of Chief Executive
Other STRATEGIG MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES OF MANAGERS:
1- Establishing the mission .
2- Formulating a company philosophy.
3- Establishing policies .
4- Planning the organization structure .
5- Setting objectives .
6- Developing strategy .
7- Providing personnel recruting .
8- Establishing procedures .
9- Providing facilities .
10 - Providing capital .
11 - Setting standards .
12 - Establishing management programs and operational plans .
13 - Providing control information .
14 - Activating people.
36
Responsibility to \
Responsibility to society :
Society allocates to executive the management of a large share of our economic
and social resources .
government sets up a framework of property right , legal codes , and regulation
of many kinds , but for the most part , executive are free within those limits to
make decisions which ultimately have a considerable effect upon vast number of
people.
In return , executive must accept the responsibilities that such power entails.
Responsibility to consumers :
Goods and services are produced so that they may ultimately reach a consumer
or a client Therefore the executive or administrator finds that in much of his
decision making he is concerned with the customers or clients .
To win the favor of those who use the organizations products or services , the
organization need to provide an acceptable price – and- quality relatationship and
products or services that are safe and well designed .
Responsibility to the community:
Today , executives are more and more conscious of responsibilities toward
the community .
Many companies today have department heads or vice – presidents in charge
of community and public relation .
Responsibility to owners :
Owners exercise control over executives by direct personal supervision . the
chief executive plays a crucial part in the success of these arrangement .
Responsibility to employment:
Only in the last three decades has management exhibited a strong interest in
its relationships with employees . The specific responsibilities of executive to
workers are numerous , but safety , job security , work satisfaction , and
adequate monetary and psychological rewards number among the most
important .
Responsibility to the management profession:
Executive have responsibilities
to the profusion of which they are apart . These include helping to develop
and maintain professional standards for the performance of executive and
managerial activities .
37
The role of the executive :
Our taskforce examined the role of the executive. We mainly focused on the
distribution of power, the role of the staff worker and the process of choosing or
selecting a new executive.
When examining the question of power and the executive it is important to
remember that all power comes from God and that He must be at the root of all
of our thoughts, actions and decisions. However at times, our responsibilities as
leaders before God cause us to forget the most important aspect our job: serving
those we lead.
We as leaders are not only responsible for making decisions but going out of our
way to ensure that members of our chapter are given every available opportunity,
even if it is at the cost of our inconvenience, to grow, to participate and to be
heard. We are thankful for the gifts that God has placed in each individual in our
chapters, and feel privileged to have been called upon as leaders to serve them.
Training , other qualification and advancement :
The formal education and experience of top executives varies as widely as the
nature of their responsibilities. Many top executives have a bachelor’s or higher
degree in business administration or liberal arts. College presidents typically
have a doctorate in the field in which they originally taught, and school
superintendents often have a master’s degree in education administration. (For
information on lower level managers in educational services, A brokerage office
manager needs a strong background in securities and finance, and department
store executives generally have extensive experience in retail trade.
Some top executives in the public sector have a background in public
administration or liberal arts. Others might have a background related to their
jobs. For example, a health commissioner might have a graduate degree in health
services administration or business administration. (For information on lower
level managers in health services
Because many top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced,
lower level managers when an opening occurs, many top managers have been
promoted from within the organization. In industries such as retail trade or
transportation, for instance, it is possible for individuals without a college degree
to work their way up within the company and become managers. However, many
companies prefer that their top executives have specialized backgrounds and,
therefore, hire individuals who have been managers in other organizations.
Top executives must have highly developed personal skills. An analytical mind
able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important,
as is the ability to consider and evaluate the interrelationships of numerous
factors. Top executives also must be able to communicate clearly and
38
persuasively. Other qualities critical for managerial success include leadership,
self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexibility, sound business judgment,
and determination.
how the managers spend their time
7
chief executive one study spent 78% percent
of their time in oral communication activities such as attending meeting ,
talking on the telephone , and touring their plants .
all levels tend to spend about 80% of their time working with other people
and consider such activities the most important element in effective
management CEOs tend to spend over half their time with people outside
their organization .
The managerial task :
1- he is a dynamic component of system , the creator as well as the
creature of it.
2- The executive task , therefore , becomes one of making decisions ,
climbing the organizational hierarchy , participating in the social
system of the company and community , and following a career as
it tasks him from one level to another .
3- The executive is in part a deviser and controller of the system and
in part its victim and its tool .
Typical Major Functions of Chief Executive Officer of a Corporation:
There is no standardized list of the major functions and responsibilities carried
out by position of chief executive officer. The following list is one perspective
and includes the major functions typically addressed by job descriptions of chief
executive officers.
1. Board Administration and Support
Supports operations and administration of Board by advising and informing
Board members, interfacing between Board and staff, and supporting Board's
evaluation of chief executive
2. Program, Product and Service Delivery
Oversees design, marketing, promotion, delivery and quality of programs,
products and services
3. Financial, Tax, Risk and Facilities Management
Recommends yearly budget for Board approval and prudently manages
organization's resources within those budget guidelines according to current laws
and regulations
39
4. Human Resource Management
Effectively manages the human resources of the organization according to
authorized personnel policies and procedures that fully conform to current laws
and regulations
5. Community and Public Relations
Assures the organization and its mission, programs, products and services are
consistently presented in strong, positive image to relevant stakeholders
6. Fundraising (nonprofit-specific)
Oversees fundraising planning and implementation, including identifying
resource requirements, researching funding sources, establishing strategies to
approach funders, submitting proposals and administrating fundraising records
and documentation
On-Line Discussion Groups, Newsletters, etc.
There are a large number of on-line discussion groups, newsletters , etc. in the
overall areas of management, business and organization development.
Participants, subscribers, etc., can get answers to their questions and learn a lot
just by posing the questions to the groups, sharing insights about their
experiences, etc. Join some groups and sign up for some newsletters!
40
Executive
function
Planning
Organizing
Controlling
Representing
Executive action
Result
Speaking
Efficiency
Writing
Productivity
Reading
Organization
Change
Signing
Schedules
Traveling
Assembling
resources
Interviewing
Coordinating
Convening
Plans
Processes
Organization
structure
Goals
Deciding
Meeting
Policies
Delegating
Attending
Quotas
Evaluating
Meeting
Ideas
Criticisms
Creating
Telephoning
Problems
Leading
Etc…..
Expansion
Turn –over
Etc……
Invention
Order
Etc….
41
Understanding Tourism Terminology
Tourism
Business of providing travel, accommodation, food entertainment for the people
who are on travel, tours, trade etc. It is a phenomenon where a number of people
meet one another at a particular area, locality site, place etc. Tourism can be
promoted in various ways. e.g. Cultural tourism, adventure tourism, pilgrimage
tourism, wild life tourism.
tourism may be broadly divided into domestic tourism and International tourism.
In domestic tourism people move within their own country. There are no
currency or documentation barriers. In International tourism the barriers exist.
Tour
Journey to various places and coming back in the end to the place the journey
started form. Tour can be of many types such as package tour, guided tour,
holiday tour. Strictly speaking a tour is undertaken for a period of more then 24
hours.
Tour Operator:
Persons or company which organizes & sells tour, destination, travel, fixes
itinerary.
Tourist :
Person who goes on holiday to visit places away form his home .There are 2
kinds of tourists. foreign tourists and domestic tourists.
A foreign tourist : is a person visiting for example India on a foreign passport
staying at least 24 hours in India, purpose of whose journey can be classified as
under:
(a) Leisure - recreation, holiday, health, study .
(b) Business, family, music, meeting.
A domestic tourist: is a person who travels within the country to a place other
than his usual place of residence and stays at hotels or other rented place, uses
the sight seeing facilities for a duration of not less than 24 hours. One night &
not more than 6 months .
industry has created a demand for new professionals; persons who are committed
to professional careers in the industry .
Tourist And Tourism :
The large sum of money spent and immense value of travel are indicative of the
important of tourism. But, what exactly is a tourist and what is tourism?
Tourist : is one who seeks to get away from home for a change (even a change
of place). The family that spends a week in a tent at the same area campground
every year may not see themselves as tourists . For example, would school
children on a Canoe expeditions in a remote part of a national park look upon
themselves as tourists .
42
Tourism : is the business of attracting visitors and catering to their needs and
expectations .
The following is an overview of the major components of the tourism and travel
industry .
1. Tourist destinations .
(a) Government promotion offices .
(b) Regional promotion offices .
(c) Resort areas, convention centers .
2. Transportation
(a) Airlines .
(i) Major .
(ii) National .
(iii) Regional .
(iv) Nonscheduled/ charter .
(b) Ground Transporter .
(i) Rent-a-car .
(ii) Motor/ coach .
(iii) Railroad .
3. Accommodation .
(a) Hotels .
(b) Motels .
(c) Resorts .
(d) Cruise Lines .
4. Tourist Attractions .
(a) Attractions .
(b) Theme parks .
(c) Museums .
5. Travel Brokers .
(a) Travel agents .
(b) Travel wholesalers .
(c) Tour and charter operators .
(d) Ground operators .
(e) Travel incentive companies .
6. Travel Related Services .
(a) Financial (credit card, travellers cheques, travel insurance).
(b) Travel publications guide books .
Planning for Tourism :
The fact that few Third world governments have been successful in managing
tourism for the overall benefit of their populations should come as no surprise in
a situation where they have little control over the influences determining the size
and character of the industry. This reality is not confined to tourism and applies
to other sectors of world trade where many suppliers compete with each other for
a share of a plentiful resource . As we know one warm place is very much like
43
another when the product involved is made up of surf, sand, sun, and a wide gulf
exists between what Third World governments would like to see in their
domestic industry and what is realistically possible .
Tourism Potential :
Most development specialists agree that tourism must be included in the plans
and strategies for national growth and governments are cautioned to stop the
industry expanding at a rate beyond local capabilities to control . Such an
approach will help to minimize potential conflicts between competing land uses
and demands that tourism resources are categorized according to their impact on
the physical and human environment . In Fiji the Eighth National Development
Plan 1981-85 adopted four island categories based on their capacity to
accommodate different types of tourism :
1. Tourism resort island which provide permanent overnight accommodation of
international standard as the major economic activity .
2. Day visit island which are uninhabited and tourist facilities are required to be
related to environmental (carrying) capacity and designed for foreign and local
visitors .
3. Local subsistence island that are populated and depend mainly on agriculture
and fishing. No major tourism to be encouraged though small- scale alternative
forms, such as "back-packing", are possible .
4. Island reserves that possess unique natural features which would be destroyed
by development. Tourism is not permitted.
Need for Tourism Planning :
Planning is concerned with anticipating and regulating change in a system, to
promote orderly development so as to increase the social, economic and
environmental benefits of the development process . To do this, planning
becomes " an ordered sequence of operations, designed to lead to the
achievement of either a single goal or to a balance between several goals " . Thus
all planning required goals to provide a frame of reference for the detailed
physical planning and day to day management decisions .
Goals for Tourism Planning:
Planning is concerned with anticipating and regulating change in a system, to
promote orderly development so as to increase the social, economic and
environmental benefits of the development process . To do this , planning
becomes " an ordered sequence of operations, designed to lead to the
achievements of either a single goal or to a balance between several goals" .
44
Government Role in Tourism Planning :
Governments have to create a favorable climate for investment through
regulations and fiscal measures to make tourism plan work . Government interest
in tourism also stems from concern over its economic significance, particularly
its sources of revenue. Governments at national and regional levels have been
actively promoting tourism and aiding facility development through the
provision of grants and subsidies. Governments also invest large amount of
public and private capital in tourism infrastructure and facilities to provide
employment and raise living standards.
Tourism Marketing:
Tourism is a very special and complex industry because of its multi-faceted
activities which together produce the tourist product and various sub-sectors that
are themselves complete industries, if considered independently. Its complexity
further more , lies mostly in the fact that tourist promotion in its various forms
has to be directed at a large number of people in various lands of different socioeconomic structure , having different needs , tastes. Attitudes expectation and
behavior patterns.
Marketing in tourism is to be understood as the systematic and coordinated
executions of business policy by tourist undertaking whether private or state
owned at local regional national r international level to achieve the optional
satisfaction of the needs of identifiable consumer group and in doing so to
achieve an appropriate return".
In planning to market a tourist destination, four variables popularly known in
marketing jargon. "Four p's" are manipulated in an effective manner.
1. Product: The services which should be offered to the tourist.
2. Place: The most suitable channels of distribution.
3. Price: The optimum rate at which to offer the services.
4. Promotion: The tools of persuasive communication that are used to "push" the
product through the distribution channels.
Tourism Promotion:
The tourism promotion activities embrace all measures accentuating product
differentiation and are sub-divided into three major categories:
1. Advertising- These are paid public messages designed to describe or praise a
product.
2. Specific Marketing activity- these include all those promotional activities
designed to tourism it to the public all information concerning the tourist
services to be promoted and includes sale policies training of staff at all levels ,
sales calls, sales solicitation etc .
3. Public Relations- support all marketing activities and include an entire range
of non-commercial media publicity.
45
E- Commerce
What is e- commerce?
Electronic commerce covers the range of on- line business activities for products
and service both business –to-business and business –to consumer thought the
Internet.
We can break e-commerce into:
On line shopping: the scope of information and activities that provide the
customer with in information buying decision.
On line purchasing: the technology infrastructure for the exchange of data and
the purchase of product over the Internet.
What do I Need to Start an E-Commerce Site?
. First of all, you obviously need a product or service to sell. Then you need a
Web site. This can either be an existing Website to which you can add ECommerce capabilities or you can build the site from scratch. Next you need
some way of accepting
On-line payments. This normally means credit cards, although there are other
options for very small or low-Volume sites. Lastly, but most importantly, you
need to have a strategy for marketing your site and attracting customers. This is
far harder than you might think
How can company benefit from e-commerce?
The Internet brings you closer to your customer since customer and partner can
acces information directly through the Internet.
-Make the size of company irrelevant:
Large and small companies have the same acces to customer and can create the
same kind of Internet presence.
-Make the location of company irrelevant:
Customers located anywhere can easily acces your company’s site, you can
support customer out site of your geographic area.
-Increases feed back:
You have instaneous acces to your customer and feed back when you publish
new marketing and pricing program and new product on your website.
Can small companies compete with big companies?
E-commerce makes it easy for companies to provide customer with aworld wide
presence.
-The Internet presence is easily to establish for small and large companies.
46
-Because of amore level playing field, the Internet is
Proportionally advantageous for smaller companies.
-Asmall companies flexible, innovative management style provides acompetitive
advantages in the ever-changing world of the Internet.
What is an Extranet site?
An Extranet provides you with an Internet site that is accessible to aselect group
of people.
*An Extranet provides you with the ability to create applications that associates
and customers can access, but that are not accessible to the general public.
*Extranet can use encryption and password protection to secure access to the
size.
*For business-to-business transaction, Extranet enable secure electronic
commerce.
*An Extranet can automate information sharing by providing access to specific
information and controlled access to internal databases.
How does the Internet affect the way we work?
The Internet is changing the way people work
-Digitization: Employee now have the ability to store many type of information
on computer.
-Globalization: The Internet provides aglobal community employee and partners
may located anywhere.
-Mobility: Employee now has acces to information where ever they go.
-Work groups: Employee from different locations can collaborate on projects.
-Immediacy: Employee can have real-time acces to information where ever they
are.
47
Disintermidiation:
Is the process of becoming closer to your customer by eliminating the
middleman.
-Time: when your company automates procedure, time may be the middleman
that is being disintermi.
-People: Automation of procedures can disintermediate people currently
handling the procedure.
-Distribution channel: providing on line purchasing site can disintermediate an
existing distribution channel.
Will your company change when you integrate e-commerce into your bus.
direction?
Integrating e-commerce into your website is adesired corporate direction, not just
atechnology decision. By providing e-commerce on the web, you make
aprofound decision to change the way your company will conduct business.
-When making this type of change, you should understand the effect it will have
on your company.
-To obtain maximum advantage of this new direction, you must thoroughly
understand and integrate it into all aspect of your organization.
-Many areas of your company will be affected by this change.
-The department most noticeably affect will be senior staff, sales, marketing,
information service, support, accounting, and operations.
Are companies really making money on their e-commerce site?
Many companies are just beginning to use the Internet for commerce.
Newspapers are full of Internet companies that have billion- dollar market
capitalization and haven’t yet made profit .The reality is:
-Many companies have successful e-commerce.
-Since the technology is new,people are convervative when purchasing over the
internet, financial reward of doing business transaction over the internet are
growing fast.
-You will need to integrate e-commerce into your over all marketing and sales
strategy to make it lucrative.
48
Is your product agood candidate for e-commerce?
The first step in building an e-commerce site is determining whether your goods
are appropriate to be sold over Internet
-The most obvious products to sell over Internet are
recognizeable commodities or brand man products.
-Is product is easily available in the market place, there must be some addition
and compelling reason for someone to want to purchase their product from
awebsite.
-If your product is for aniche market, the decisive reason to sell it over the
Internet may be the access to abroader market.
-If your company has created and international or regional reputation, you should
use this reputation to expand your market when selling over the Internet.
-Be sure that there are no legal limitations to selling your product over the
Internet.
Is your service agood candidate for e-commerce?
Selling service over the Internet is similar to selling products, To sell service
over Internet you must be able to adequately explain your service on line.
-The best service for e-commerce don’t require personal interaction, such as
those found in construction, car detailing, personal delivery, or alarm
installation.
-If your service requires personal interaction with acustomer, you can still have
asuccessfull e-commerce site by limiting the site to geographic area.
-There needs to be compelling reason for people to purchase your service over
the Internet.
-Documents needs to be created so that there are records of all transactions.
Is on line shopping right for your company?
On line shopping is aprocess that provides your customers with the information
they need to make abuying decision about your products or services.
49
-To create an effective e-commerce site, you must provide your on line visitors
with the information they need to understand your product or service.
-It important to determine how much and what type of information you will need
to provide to your customers.
How will your customer respond to your e-commerce service?
In order to anticipate potential customer’s acceptance of your proposed ecommerce service, poll your existing and prospective customers to gain abetter
understanding of their access to and use of the inter net.
-For your services to be asucces, your customers need acces to the internet.
-It takes more than Internet access for acustomer to buy on-line. Buying online is
still in secure about purchasing on line.
-Even if your customer base doesn’t appear to be ready for e-commerce, build
your company’s Internet presence to open new door.
50
Organizational culture
Introduction :Organizational culture refers to the values and patterns of belief and behavior
that are accepted and practiced by the members of a particular organization.
Because each organization develops its own unique culture even organizations
within the same industry and city will exhibit distinctly different ways of
operating. The following sections discuss the
Evolution of organizational culture the impact organizational culture.
A general understanding of the concept of organizational culture
An initial examination of the concept of organizational culture seems an
appropriate next step in the exieting scholarly literature.
Organization culture is a central aim and activity of the whole of this study.
Turning to the concept of organizational culture its origins are unclear because of
the multiplicity of meanings with which the concept is presently imbued.
The confused applications and meaning of the term organizational culture is a
significant issue. These vary along a continuum and at one pole a definition
might be those patterns of behavior which some or all organization members
have in common.
The concept of organization culture a brief chronology :
The culture of the factory is its customary and traditional way of thinking and of
doing things which is shared to a greater or lesser degree by all its members and
which new members must learn and partially accept to be accepted into service
in the firm. Culture in this sense covers a wide range of behavior the methods in
production job skills and technical knowledge attitudes towards discipline and
punishment the customs and habits of managerial behavior the objectives of the
concern its way of doing business the methods of payment the values placed on
different types of work beliefs in democratic living and joint consultation and the
less conscious conventions and taboos.
Organizational culture:
1_ the dominant values espoused by an organization, such as "product quality" or
"price leadership".
2_The rules of the game for getting along in the organization.
3_ the feeling or climate that is conveyed in an organization by the physical lay
out and the way in which member of the organization interact with cuss tomes or
other outsiders.
51
The power of culture:
Most managers as a consequence of their own experiences and of reading case
studies in the business press accept that an organizations culture is
an important contributor.
The basic philosophy, spirit, and desire of an organization have far more to do
with its relative achievements than do technological or economic
resources. Organization structure innovation and timing all these
things weigh heavily on success. But they are I think transcended by
how strongly the people in the organization believe in its basic
precepts and how faithfully they carry them out.
The way we do things around here seems also to be understandable interpreted
by different authorities in the literature. So, Handy (1985) suggested
that organizations may be understood as having one of four different
organization cultures:
* Power culture.
* Role culture.
* Task culture.

People culture.

Two ways of linking organizational culture with strategy formulation comprise:
1_ the manufacture of strategy as a consequence of agreeing how to interpret the
date is also problematic.
2_ different sub groups within an organization will see different priorities, each
based upon its own, partial, perceptions of how best scarce
resources within the organization should best be allocated.
Culture refers to the underlying values, beliefs and principles that serve as a
foundation for an organizations management system as well as set
of management practices and behaviors that both exemplify and
reinforce those basic principles.
Denison seems to be suggesting that only the management may have values,
beliefs and principles that could serve as a basis for an organizations
culture.
The evolution of culture:
The purpose of organizational culture is to enable a firm to adapt to
environmental changes and to coordinate and integrate its internal operations.
But how do appropriate values behaviors and beliefs develop to enable the
organization to accomplish these ends.
52
Impact of culture on strategy:
Organizational culture can facilitate or hinder the firm's strategic actions. One
study showed that firms with strategically appropriate cultures the successful
firms experienced an average revenue increase of 682 percent their stock prices
rose by 901 percent and growth in their net income outpaced the other firms by
765 percent to1percent. These successful firms had developed cultures that
emphasized three key groups of stakeholders .customers .stokholders and
employees. Is that the culture of a successful firm must be appropriate to and
supportive of that firms strategy . furthermore the culture must contain values
that can help the firm adapt to environmental change
.
How leaders shape culture:
ceos other than the founder can be influential in shaping the organizations
culture so that it becomes more appropriate for its present or anticipated
environment.
organizational culture refers to the values and patterns of belief and behavior that
are accepted and practiced by the members of an organization . An organizations
culture can facilitate or hinder the firms strategic actions. successful strategy
implementation requires a strategiclly appropriate culture one that is appropriate
to and supportive of the firms strategy . That culture must contain values that can
help the firm adapt to environmental change.
Fostering a strategy supportive climate and culture:
Strategy implementers have to be out front in promoting a strategy supportive
organizational climate and culture .when major strategic changes and promoting
needed culture adjustments
In general organizational cultures need major overhaul every 5 to 25 years
depending on how fast events the company business environment move . When
only strategic fine-tuning is being implemented it takes less time and effort to
bring values and culture into alignment with strategy but there is still a lead role
for the manager to play in pushing ahead and prodding for continuous
improvements . successful strategy leaders recognize it is their responsibility to
convince people that the chosen strategy is right and that implementing it to the
best of the organization ability is top priority.
53
The single most visible factor that distinguishes successful culture change efforts
from failed attempts is competent leadership at the top. Effective management
action to match culture and strategy has several attributes:
1- A stakeholders are king philosophy that links the need to change to the need to
serve the long term best interests of all key constituencies.
2- An openness to new ideas
3- Challenging the status quo with very basic questions are we giving customers
what they really need and want?
Some more recent aspects of the debate about organizational cultures:
Makes an important series of assumptions about organizational change and
development:
1- That organizational cultures will respond to well directed attempts to alter
them as opposed 2- only senior management will be able to initiate .
3- That all the outcomes will have been anticipated rather than some were and
others were not anticipated .
General understanding of the concept of organization culture
An initial examination of the concept of organizational culture seems an
appropriate next step in the existing scholarly literature
Organization culture is a central aim and activity of the whole of this study
Turning to the concept of organizational culture its origins are unclear because of
the multiplicity of meanings with which the concept is presently imbued
The confused applications and meanings of the term organizational culture is a
significant issue these vary along a continuum and at one pole a definition might
be those patterns of behavior which some or all organization members have in
common
the culture of the factory is its customary and traditional way of thinking and of
doing things which is shared to a greater or lesser degree by all its members and
which new members must learn and partially accept to be accepted into service
in the firm culture in this sense covers a wide range of behavior : the methods in
production job skills and technical knowledge attitudes towards discipline and
punishment the customs and habits of managerial behavior the objectives of the
concern its way of doing business the methods of payment the values placed on
different types of work beliefs in democratic living and joint consultation and the
less conscious conventions and laboos
54
six ways of linking organizational culture with strategy formulation comprise
:include
1- the manufacture of strategy as a consequence of agreeing how to interpret the
data is also problematic
2- different sub groups within an organization will see different priorities each
based upon its own partial perceptions of how best scarce resources within the
organization should best be allocated
culture refers to the underlying values beliefs and principles that serve as a
foundation for an organizations management system as well as the set of
management practices and behaviors that both exemplify and reinforce those
basic principles
denison seems to be suggesting that only the management may have values
beliefs and principles that could serve as a basis for an organizations culture
turning to browns second key theme his view of what generates culture and how
this process proceeds there is another six point typology the focus is described by
brown as practical approaches that have been devised for managing
organizational culture several of the elements may be dealt with routinely but
others are worth a more extended consideration
1- He develops a simple framework for managing culture
2- Brown examines an integrative model which endeavors to explain the
management of culture change
3- He attempts to synthesis the key issues identified throughout the above five
areas of interest
Makes an important series of assumptions about organizational change and
development:
1- That organizational cultures will respond to well directed attempts to alter
them as opposed.
2- Only senior management will be able to initiate such changes as really make a
difference whether they choose to locate their attempts towards the bottom
middle or top of the organizational hierarchy.
3- That all the outcomes will have been anticipated rather than some were and
others not anticipate
55
Reference:
\
Jay,M.Shafrit2,J.Steven ott,Classics of organization theory , The Dorsey press,
1987. 12- Peter Wright ,Mark ,J,Kroll ,John,A, Parnell,Strategic management concepts
,Fovrth Edition 1998.
3-Peter Elsmore,Organizational culture,Organizational Change,BurlingtonVT
05401 USA. ,
56
Meeting Management
Careful planning and preparation are essential to maximizing meeting
effectiveness. Because governmental bodies and other groups and organizations
must conduct much of their business through meetings, it is important that these
sessions be meaningful and productive. Those who participate in these groups
are busy people who may be willing to become more involved if they know their
time will be well spent
Basic Guide to Conducting Effective Meetings
The process used in a meeting depends on the kind of meeting you plan to have,
e.g., staff meeting, planning meeting, problem solving meeting, etc. However,
there are certain basics that are common to various types of meetings. These
basics are described below.
1.
Selecting Participants
The decision about who is to attend depends on what you want to accomplish in
the meeting. This may seem too obvious to state, but it's surprising how many
meetings occur without the right people there.
Don't depend on your own judgment about who should come. Ask several other
people for their opinion as well.
If possible, call each person to tell them about the meeting, it's overall purpose
and why their attendance is important.
Follow-up your call with a meeting notice, including the purpose of the meeting,
where it will be held and when, the list of participants and whom to contact if
they have questions.
2.
Send out a copy of the proposed agenda along with the meeting notice.
Have someone designated to record important actions, assignments and due
dates during the meeting. This person should ensure that this information is
distributed to all participants shortly after the meeting.
3.
Developing Agendas
Develop the agenda together with key participants in the meeting. Think of
what overall outcome you want from the meeting and what activities need to
occur to reach that outcome. The agenda should be organized so that these
activities are conducted during the meeting.
In the agenda, state the overall outcome that you want from the meeting
Design the agenda so that participants get involved early by having something
for them to do right away and so they come on time.
Next to each major topic, include the type of action needed, the type of output
expected (decision, vote, action assigned to someone), and time estimates for
addressing each topic
Ask participants if they'll commit to the agenda.
Keep the agenda posted at all times.
57
Don't overly design meetings; be willing to adapt the meeting agenda if
members are making progress in the planning process.
Think about how you label an event, so people come in with that mindset; it
may pay to have a short dialogue around the label to develop a common
mindset among attendees, particularly if they include representatives from
various cultures.
4.
Opening Meetings
- Always start on time; this respects those who showed up on time and reminds
late-comers that the scheduling is serious.
- Welcome attendees and thank them for their time.
- Review the agenda at the beginning of each meeting, giving participants a
chance to understand all proposed major topics, change them and accept them.
- Note that a meeting recorder if used will take minutes and provide them back
to each participant shortly after the meeting.
Model the kind of energy and participant needed by meeting participants.
- Clarify your role(s) in the meeting.
5.
Establishing Ground Rules for Meetings
You don't need to develop new ground rules each time you have a meeting,
surely. However, it pays to have a few basic ground rules that can be used for
most of your meetings. These ground rules cultivate the basic ingredients needed
for a successful meeting.
Four powerful ground rules are: participate, get focus, maintain momentum and
reach closure. (You may want a ground rule about confidentiality.)
List your primary ground rules on the agenda.
If you have new attendees who are not used to your meetings, you might review
each ground rule. Keep the ground rules posted at all times.
6.
Time Management
One of the most difficult facilitation tasks is time management -- time
seems to run out before tasks are completed. Therefore, the biggest
challenge is keeping momentum to keep the process moving.
You might ask attendees to help you keep track of the time.
If the planned time on the agenda is getting out of hand, present it to the
group and ask for their input as to a resolution. (Also see Time
Management.)
7- Evaluations of Meeting Process
It's amazing how often people will complain about a meeting being a
complete waste of time -- but they only say so after the meeting. Get their
feedback during the meeting when you can improve the meeting process
right away. Evaluating a meeting only at the end of the meeting is usually
too late to do anything about participants' feedback.
Every couple of hours, conduct 5-10 minutes "satisfaction checks".
In a round-table approach, quickly have each participant indicate how they
58
think the meeting is going.
7.
Evaluating the Overall Meeting
Leave 5-10 minutes at the end of the meeting to evaluate the meeting; don't
skip this portion of the meeting.
Have each member rank the meeting from 1-5, with 5 as the highest, and
have each member explain their ranking
Have the chief executive rank the meeting last.
8.
Closing Meetings
Always end meetings on time and attempt to end on a positive note. At the
end of a meeting, review actions and assignments, and set the time for the
next meeting and ask each person if they can make it or not (to get their
commitment)
Clarify that meeting minutes and/or actions will be reported back to
members in at most a week (this helps to keep momentum going).
Establishing Meeting Procedures
Who is responsible for meeting productivity? The chairperson should be in
charge of planning, and he or she may delegate some duties to other
individuals. But everyone who attends the meeting should be prepared to
participate and contribute to the business at hand.
Ideally, a meeting should have a standard scheduled date and starting time.
The length of the meeting may be fixed (that is, have a specified ending
time), or it may be determined by the volume of business to conduct. At its
first meeting, the group should decide whether to set an ending time. It is
important that the leader adhere to these times in subsequent meetings.
One of the most important parts of meeting planning is preparing the
agenda. The agenda is a helpful tool for guiding discussion. (For more
information about developing an agenda, see the fact, also in this series.)
The chairperson may have one or two members summarize the discussion to
ensure that all meeting participants clearly understand the decisions made.
When decisions and/or recommendations have been made, everyone needs
to support them. For this reason, unmistakable recommendations have been
made, everyone needs to support them. For this reason, unmistakable
communication is critical. Members not only need to speak clearly, but they
also need to be active listeners. Repeating or summarizing someone’s
contribution can be beneficial to the group’s efficiency.
59
Selecting a Meeting Site
In addition to planning the agenda, the leader should make sure the meeting
site has a favorable environment. Meeting participants will contribute to
and get more from the meeting if they are comfortable. There are several
factors to consider.



Remember the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and
make sure there are no barriers to discourage or prevent some
individuals from participating. Parking and room location also
need to be considered. If the meeting site is an unfamiliar
location, give directions and parking instructions as necessary.
Moreover, make sure that others at the location know about the
meeting.
How tables and chairs are arranged can help or hinder meeting
effectiveness. If people can see one another—in particular, if
they can see facial expressions or body language—they will
communicate more readily and clearly. Once the meeting has
ended, be sure to leave the room and facilities as they were
found.
The acoustics, lighting, temperature, and noise level of the room
also affect the participants’ comfort. Furthermore, the meeting
room should have capabilities (such as electrical outlets,
projection screen, and the like) that will allow for operating any
equipment that might be needed.
Understanding Leader Responsibilities








Have materials ready and know what needs to be said.
Speak clearly.
Be confident and enthusiastic.
Assign someone to take attendance and minutes.
Encourage input from everyone.
Keep everyone focused on the specific item of discussion.
Make sure everyone understands what has been decided.
Close on a positive note.
Although group leaders are ultimately responsible for these tasks, they
should delegate specific jobs to other group members.
60
Understanding Members Responsibilities
Just as the leader has specific responsibilities, so do the other members of
the group. Members can do several things to improve meeting efficiency:








Be prepared to report or discuss meeting topics.
Stay focused on the discussion.
Demonstrate loyalty to the group by sacrificing, compromising,
and accepting group decisions.
Be active listeners.
Support colleagues and demonstrate that their contributions are
appreciated.
Practice confidentiality.
Criticize ideas, not individuals.
Feel free to disagree during the discussion, but support the
group decision once a consensus has been reached. If a member
cannot support the final decision, she or he should ask that the
minutes reflect that a minority report will be filed.
Agenda Item Proposers
It is very important that you let people know what you’re going to bring up
as early as possible and as clearly as possible!
It will take some time for you to include all this information, but if you don’t
you will take twenty other people’s time.
Putting an item on the agenda is not something to be done carelessly. It is a
request that over twenty busy people talk
about something you think is important. If it’s really that important, then it
should warrant an expenditure of time from you. This way more people can
give feedback, ultimately leading to a better, faster decision and a more
informed community (hopefully).

 Agenda items As soon as you think of an item for the meeting
write it down on the agenda (preferably no later than a day or
two before the meeting). Be sure to do the following:
 Indicate whether this is an announcement, an action
item, or a discussion item.
 Announcements require only you to speak; there
should be no need for response or discussion.
 Action items are issues about which you have
already formulated a fairly concrete proposal.
 Discussion items are issues you’d like to bring up to
the institute for discussion, but don’t have enough
61
Principals of meeting management
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What does preparation mean? For a start, it means different things at
different stages. Initially it is about setting the
Meeting up and this involves:












Determining the purpose.
Preparing an agenda (perhaps a draft one at this stage).
Deciding who should be present, and why.
Deciding when and where the meeting will be held. (Make sure
the room is big enough.)
Deciding the start time and the finish time.
Deciding what, if any, information should be distributed in
advance.
Deciding if any specific presentations are to be made.
Check that the people who are due to come will be able to do so.
Distribute any information needed in advance of the meeting.
Make sure that any equipment you need will be available.
Make sure that someone will be taking minutes.
Think about how you wish to open the meeting.

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





Confirm date, start and finish time, and place.
Send the draft timed agenda to all attendees in good time.
Consider listing agenda items as questions. (e.g. How do we cut
costs?)
Send out any documents that should be read in advance of the
meeting.
Confirm time-slots for any presentations with the presenters.
Ask attendees to let you have any particular points they want
covered.
Set a date for responses so that you can send out a final agenda.
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62






Arrive early and make sure the room is set out as you wish.
If necessary, plan the seating.
Start promptly on time. (People will get used to this.)
Let any latecomers know that you have noticed their late arrival.
(Some Chairmen only let latecomers in at a suitable break.)
Ask for mobiles to be switched off (unless someone has a very good
reason).
Tell everyone that the meeting will finish on time.


Effective meeting management
Open with a welcome and introduce anyone that's new.
 Summaries the purpose of the meeting, and the specific goals.
 Take each item on the agenda, and stick to the time slot.
 Listen more than you talk.
 Ask questions, and encourage others to do so.
 Ensure that everyone gets the chance to make a contribution.
 Maintain pace.
 Make summaries, particularly before decision points.
 Don't allow anyone to dominate.
 Do not hesitate to interject if someone is taking too long to make a
point.
 Ensure that no-one is embarrassed or loses face.
 Be focused, but adopt a friendly style. Smile sometimes!
Diffuse any personal hostilities that arise.


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


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What decisions have been made?
What actions are agreed?
Who has responsibility for these actions?
Clarification of any linkage, authority, confidentiality and
communication issues.
Any specific guidance given at the meeting.
When will the actions be taken?
The form of report back to the next meeting, if there is to be one.
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63
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Effective management meeting
Careful planning and preparation are essential to maximizing meeting
effectiveness. Because governmental bodies and other groups and organizations
must conduct much of their business through meetings, it is important that these
sessions be meaningful and productive
Who is responsible for meeting productivity? The chairperson should be in
charge of planning, and he or she may delegate some duties to other individuals.
But everyone who attends the meeting should be prepared to participate and
contribute to the business at hand.
Selecting a Meeting Site
In addition to planning the agenda, the leader should make sure the meeting site
has a favorable environment. Meeting participants will contribute to and get
more from the meeting if they are comfortable. There are several factors to
consider.



Remember the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and make
sure there are no barriers to discourage or prevent some individuals
from participating. Parking and room location also need to be
considered. If the meeting site is an unfamiliar location, give
directions and parking instructions as necessary. Moreover, make
sure that others at the location know about the meeting.
How tables and chairs are arranged can help or hinder meeting
effectiveness. If people can see one another—in particular, if they
can see facial expressions or body language—they will
communicate more readily and clearly. Once the meeting has ended,
be sure to leave the room and facilities as they were found.
The acoustics, lighting, temperature, and noise level of the room
also affect the participants’ comfort. Furthermore, the meeting room
should have capabilities (such as electrical outlets, projection
64
screen, and the like) that will allow for operating any equipment that
might be needed.
Understanding Leader Responsibilities
In addition to preparing the agenda and adhering to procedures (such as starting
and stopping times), the leader performs a number of tasks to ensure meeting
effectiveness. The leader’s responsibilities include the following:
Have materials ready and know what needs to be said.
Speak clearly.
Be confident and enthusiastic.
Assign someone to take attendance and minutes.
Encourage input from everyone.
Keep everyone focused on the specific item of discussion.
Make sure everyone understands what has been decided.
Close on a positive note.
Although group leaders are ultimately responsible for these tasks, they should
delegate specific jobs to other group members.
Understanding Member Responsibilities
Just as the leader has specific responsibilities, so do the other members of the
group. Members can do several things to improve meeting efficiency:
Be prepared to report or discuss meeting topics.
Stay focused on the discussion.
Demonstrate loyalty to the group by sacrificing, compromising, and accepting
group decisions.
Be active listeners.
Support colleagues and demonstrate that their contributions are appreciated.
Practice confidentiality.
Criticize ideas, not individuals.
65
Feel free to disagree during the discussion, but support the group decision once a
consensus has been reached. If a member cannot support the final decision, she
or he should ask that the minutes reflect that a minority report will
Understanding Member Responsibilities
Just as the leader has specific responsibilities, so do the other members of the
group. Members can do several things to improve meeting efficiency:
Be prepared to report or discuss meeting topics.
Stay focused on the discussion.
Demonstrate loyalty to the group by sacrificing, compromising, and accepting
group decisions.
Be active listeners.
Support colleagues and demonstrate that their contributions are appreciated.
Practice confidentiality.
Criticize ideas, not individuals.
The State Of Meetings Nowadays
Meetings dominate the way in which we do business today. In fact,
approximately 11 million meetings occur in the U.S. each and every day.1
Although many of us complain about meetings, we can all expect to spend our
careers deeply immersed in them. Most professionals attend a total of 61.8
meetings per month2 and research indicates that over 50 percent of this meeting
time is wasted.3 Assuming each of these meetings is one hour long, professionals
lose 31 hours per month in unproductive meetings, or approximately four work
days. Considering these statistics, it's no surprise that meetings have such a bad
reputation.
How Are Unproductive Meetings Affecting Us?
Most professionals who meet on a regular basis admit to daydreaming (91%),
missing meetings (96%) or missing parts of meetings (95%). A large percentage
(73%) say they have brought other work to meetings and 39% say they have
dozed during meetings.4 One might be tempted to snicker at these statistics… but
have you seriously considered how these inefficiencies affect you and your
organization?
***** Some direct effects of unproductive meetings include:
 meetings are longer, less efficient and generate fewer results.
66
 more meetings are needed to accomplish objectives
 with so much time spent in ineffective meetings, employees have
less time to get their own work done.
 ineffective meetings create frustration at all staff levels.
 information generated in unproductive meetings usually isn't
managed properly
 ineffective meetings create frustration at all staff levels
 information generated in unproductive meetings usually isn't
managed properly.
 inefficient meetings cost organizations billions of dollars each year
in otherwise productive employee work time.
What Can Be Done to Improve Meetings?
A. Learn and Communicate the Basics
The first step to improving meetings is to start with the basics, which means
training everyone in the organization about effective meetings. Because meetings
are such an integral part of business, everyone in the organization should
understand the fundamentals of an effective meeting and how to achieve their
goals each and every time they meet. Giving employees access to meeting
information helps them understand the effect of unproductive meetings on their
work lives and gives them the power to improve unproductive meeting
situations.
B. Apply Effective Meeting Techniques
Once everyone in the organization understands the importance of improving
meeting effectiveness and has learned the appropriate techniques, incentives
must be created to motivate employees to apply what they've learned. Support of
management or group leaders will also assist in the implementation and
commitment to new meeting methods.
C. Implement Technological Tools to Make Meeting Easier
i. In the Meeting
The emphasis on teamwork in today's workplace has created a movement
towards implementing collaborative technology in the meeting room. This
technology includes computers, LCD projectors and interactive whiteboards.
Employing these technologies will allow meeting participants to access
computer-based information, share data and automatically save information
generated during their meetings – all functionality for enhanced group
collaboration.
ii. At the Desktop
Like other areas of business, technology is helping make meetings easier and
more efficient. In many organizations today, e-mail is being used as a quick and
67
easy method of communicating information internally without the need for
meeting.
iii. At a Distance
Many organizations are adopting videoconferencing to communicate across
distances.
68
TIME MANAGEMENT
DEFINITION
Time Management is the effective use of a your time and that of your
subordinates which means organising yourself first and then your subordinates.
OBJECTIVES
1) To introduce participants to the concept of Time Management.
2) To enable participants to enhance their own management of time and guide
their subordinates in the effective use of their time.
3)
To look at specific Time Management problems and possible ways of
handling them.
TIME MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES
DELEGATION
 Delegate whenever possible - downwards, upwards and sideways.
 Delegate tasks but do not abdicate them. If it is your task, you still have the
final responsibility.
 Agree the reviews which are part of the delegation process.
 Do not keep interfering with your subordinates’ work.
 Always make the instructions for the tasks you delegate complete an clear
and ensure that they have been understood.
 Always give or agree a final completion date.
 Concentrate personally on those tasks whose success depends on you.
 Find new tasks and new ways to delegate. This saves time and develops
your staff.
 Arrange for decisions to be made at the lowest realistic level.
B) DISCIPLINE
 Time Management is 99% self-discipline.
69
 Recall your Mission, Aims and Objectives. Do you really want to achieve
them?
 Do the unpleasant task first, or as early as possible.
 Stop being the “NICE GUY” all the time. Learn to say “NO”.
 Make sure you do the job right the first time. Every time you have to re-try,
you are wasting time.
 How open is your “OPEN DOOR” policy?
 Avoid procrastination. Get on with the job.
 Avoid all those time wasters.
 Set yourself personal deadlines for most tasks and stick to them.
 Do one thing at a time.
 Always have something to do, even if it is constructive relaxation.
 Always be on time yourself.
C) MEETINGS
 Conduct effective meetings.
 Allocate both starting times and finishing times wherever possible.
 Always ask yourself - “IS THE MEETING NECESSARY?” “IS THIS THE
MOST EFFECTIVE WAY?”.
 Make your meeting agenda mean something. Do not just have a
“SHOPPING LIST” which does not tell the members whether they are to
discuss, to decide, to recommend, etc.
 Stick to the meeting agenda as far as possible.
 Are the right people attending the meeting.
 Have you got everything ready for the meeting and have all the relevant
papers been sent out beforehand.
 Define and state clearly your objectives for the meeting and stick to them.
 If you are attending and speaking at another person’s meeting, try to obtain
a definite entry time.
D) PLANNING
 Plan your time. Do not let time control you.
 Leave time for the unexpected.
 Have the things you need constantly, together in one place, close to hand.
 Assess your work ( Projects, Tasks, Post, Etc.) and allocate priorities.
 Arrange and allocate your jobs into categories “A”, “B”, “C”.
 Do the “A” jobs yourself and try and delegate the “Bs” and the “Cs”.
 Stick to your daily work plan.
 Select your “PERSONAL” and “BEST” times at work to get he jobs done.
Plan to do your most important jobs in these time periods.
 Chop a big task down into smaller, more manageable pieces.
 Estimate the end time for a task, not just the starting time.
70
 Always ask the questions:
“WHEN”, “HOW”.
- “WHAT”, “WHO”, “WHY”, WHERE”,
E) READING
 Read only what you must.
 Increase your reading speed/comprehension rates.
 Learn how to scan important items.
F) TELEPHONE CONTROL
 Master your telephone techniques.
 Plan your telephone calls by grouping your calls instead of making
individual ones.
 If possible arrange a specific “CALL BACK” time. Do not just say “I WILL
RING YOU LATER”
 or even worse “PLEASE RING ME LATER”.
 Cross-index your telephone directory as follows:
- Name as one Entry.
- Organisation as the other entry.
 When speaking on the telephone to the other person get straight to the
purpose of the call. It is pleasant to socialise but it wastes a lot of time.
 If there are a number of telephones in the office ensure that the phone
system will permit you to answer any incoming calls from any telephone
point.
G) TRAVELLING
 Do not leave it to the last minute before you set off on your journey.
 Plan your visits to obtain the maximum benefits.
 Use travel time as “THINKING” time.
 Use train time to: - Read
- Write
- Discuss
- Brainstorm ideas with yourself
 Consider having a car phone.
Personal Time Management for Busy Managers
What is Personal Time Management?
Personal Time Management is about controlling the use of your most
valuable (and undervalued) resource. Consider these two questions: what would
happen if you spent company money with as few safeguards as you spend
71
company time, when was the last time you scheduled a review of your time
allocation?
Personal Time Management is a set of tools which allow you to:
Organization Development
Organization development (OD) has a variety of meanings. In its most
restrictive sense, organizational development refers specifically to a form of
sensitivity training. In a larger and more encompassing sense, it refers to any
systematically planned, programmatic effort to improve the effectiveness of an
organization through the application of behavioral science concepts, theories and
approaches. The development effort may focus on the way in which the
organization is structured, the behavior of employees, or the technology used to
get the work done.
72
A model for managing change
The management of change is a systematic process that can be broken down
into sub processes, or steps
(Next page we can show you figure=> summarizes this process). It consists of
eight linked in a logical sequence. A manager should consider each of these
steps, either explicitly or implicitly, when undertaking a change program. The
prospects for success are enhanced if each successive step is taken explicitly and
formally.
In describing alternative change techniques and strategies, we do not propose
that some alternatives are superior to others. No one change technique or change
strategy can be thought of as superior without knowledge of the specific
situation.
The knowledgeable manager recognizes the possible alternatives and is not
committed to one particular approach to the exclusion of all others. At the same
time, the effective manager avoids the pitfalls of stagnation. Thus, the
management of change implies that the manager should adopt a flexible,
forward-looking stance. Such a stance is essential in the change process outlined
as shown in the figure
A systems approach to change
Several approaches describe the process of organizational change. Some
emphasize an interpersonal approach; others, a process or structural approach
and there is no dearth of critics for any of these approaches.
We will be using the systems approach as the framework of our analysis as we
further examine organizational change. To clarify the important features of
systems, a number of specific, key concepts are highlighted:
73
 Organizations consist of distinct but interrelated components; a change in
any one may induce a change in others.
 Organizations establish quasi-equilibrium points (efficient resource
allocation) and resist forces that will move the organization away from
equilibrium.
 Environment forces may change over time, so that the organization's
characteristics no longer match the environmental demands, thereby
creating a need for change.
 The complexity of organizational change challenges the conceptual
ability of the manager and demands exceptional managerial talent.
Organizational Development (OD)
Before understanding organizational change we must comprehends the
meaning of organizational development. OD is the formal process by which an
organization adapts its internal structures and operations to environmental
conditions. One way to understand organizational development is by observing
the two-step procedure in which the manager "first confronts the group and then
leverages individual knowledge by engaging the group's resources.
Descriptions of OD activities and concepts
 Diagnostic activities
 Team-building activities
 Intergroup activities
 Survey feedback
 Education and training activities
 Structural activities
 Process-consultation activities
 Coaching and counseling activities
 Life-and career-planning activities
 Open-systems planning
 Action research
Forces for change
There are two types of forces for change: external forces and internal
forces. The external forces are change in the marketplace, the technology and
the environment; these usually are beyond the control of the manager.
Internal forces operate within the firm and to some extent can be controlled
by managers.
Recognize the need for change
Managers learn of the magnitude of the forces for change through
information. Financial statement, quality control data and budget and standard
cost information are important media through which both external and internal
forces for change are communicated. These sources of facts and figures often are
74
integrated elements of a refined management information and control system.
Declining profit margins and market shares are tangible signs that the firm's
competitive position is deteriorating and that change may be required.
Unfortunately, the need for change goes unrecognized in many organizations
until some major catastrophe occurs. The employees strike or seek the
recognition of a union before management finally concedes that action is needed.
Talented managers leave the organization because they are not delegated
authority and responsibility. A plant is forced to close because of high federal
fines for polluting the environment. Managers must recognize the need for
change by some mans and must be able to diagnose the exact nature of the
problem.
Diagnosing the problem
Before appropriate action can be taken, managers must first diagnose the
symptoms of the problem, and then determine the problem itself. Unless the
problem is readily apparent to all observers, experience and judgment are critical
at this stage. However, managers often disagree as to the nature of the problem.
There is no magic formula for diagnosis. The objectives of this step can be
described by three questions:
 What is the problem itself, as distinct from its symptoms?
 What must be done to resolve the problem?
 What outcomes (objectives) are expected from the action, and how will
their attainment be measured?
The answers to these questions can come from management information and
decision support systems in some organizations. However, managers may find it
necessary to generate specific information through special committees or task
forces. Meetings between managers and employees provide a variety of points of
view and can be evaluated by a smaller group.
Principle of change
 Change is more acceptable when it is understood than when it is not.
 Change is more acceptable when it does not threaten security than when it
does.
 Change is more acceptable when those affected have helped to create it
than when it has been externally imposed.
 Change is more acceptable when it results from an application of
previously established, impersonal principles than when it is dictated by
personal order.
 Change is more acceptable when it is inaugurated after prior change has
been assimilated than when it is inaugurated during the confusion of other
major changes.
 Change is more acceptable when if follows a series of successful changes
than when it follows a series of failures.
 Change is more acceptable if it has been planned than if it experimental.
75
 Change is more acceptable to people who share in the benefits of change
than to those who don not.
 Change is more acceptable if the organization has been trained to plan for
improvement than if the organization is accustomed to static procedures.
Types of change
There are three types of change: (1) people change. (2) Structural change.
(3) Technological change
People change: people change techniques work on attitudes which, in turn,
affect behavior:
Change  Attitude Behavior
The following techniques are often employed in affecting people change;
 Motivational programs.
 Attitude surveys.
 Transactional analysis.
 Leadership programs.
 Coaching and counseling programs.
 Team building.
 Sensitivity training.
Structural change: In effecting structural change, the organization attempts to
work directly on behavior. It's not that the organization doesn't care about
attitudes; rather, the change must be implemented regardless of how people feel
about it:
ChangeBehavior
Technological change: that third type of change involves technology.
Technological change also bypasses attitudes and works directly on behavior.
The reasons for both technological and structural change should be
communicated in order to foster acceptance. Acceptance for change is gained
through participation, but if this is not feasible_ and it often is not then
communication is the next best alternative. We will take about resistance for
change in next point.
Resistance to change
Most organizational change efforts eventually run into some from of
employee resistance. Change triggers rational and irrational emotional reactions
because of the uncertainty involved. Insted of assuming that employees will
resist change or react in a particular manner, it is better to consider the general
reasons why people resist change.
Why people resist change?
Explanations of why people resist change take into account the following
four reasons:
 Parochial self-interest
 Misunderstanding and lack of trust
 Different assessment
 Low tolerance for change
76
Minimizing resistance to change
Resisting change is a human response, and management must take steps to
minimize it. Reducing resistance can cut down on the time needed for a change
to be accepted or tolerated. Also, the performance of employees can rebound
more quickly if resistance is minimized.
A number of methods have been useful in decreasing resistance to change.
They are examined below.
 Education and communication. One of the most common ways to reduce
resistance is to communicate and educate before the change occurs. This
helps people prepare for the change. Paving the way, showing the logic,
and keeping everyone informed helps cut down resistance.
 Participation and involvement. Bringing together those to be affected to
help design and implement the change likely will increase their
commitment. If individuals feel their ideas and attitudes are being included
in the change effort, they tend to become less resistant and more receptive.
 Facilitation and support. Being supportive is an important management
characteristic when change is implemented. It is essential for managers to
be supportive( showing concern for subordinates, being a good listener ,
going to bat for subordinates on an important issue), and helping facilitate
the change when fear and anxiety are at the heart of resistance.
 Negotiation and agreement. Resistance can be reduced through
negotiation. Discussion and analysis can help managers identify points of
negotiation and agreement. Negotiated agreement involves giving
something to another party to reduce resistance.
 Manipulation and co-optation. Manipulation involves the use of devious
tactics to convince others that a change is in their best interests. Holding
back information, playing one person against another, and providing
slanted information are examples of manipulation. Co-opting an individual
involves giving him a major role in the design or implementation of the
change. The ethical problems associated with manipulation and cooptation are obvious and should preclude the widespread use of these
techniques.
 Explicit and implicit coercion. In using explicit and/or implicit coercion,
the manager engages in threatening behavior. She threatens the employees
with job loss, reduced promotion opportunities, poor job assignments, and
loss of privileges. The coercion is intended to reduce a person's resistance
to the management-initiated change. Coercive behavior can be risky
because it can generate bad feelings and hostility.
Implementing and monitoring the change process
The implementation of proposed change has two dimensions timing and
scope. Timing knows when to make the change. Scope knows how much of a
change to make.
77
The matter of timing is strategic; it depends on a number of factors,
particularly the organization's operating cycle and the groundwork that has
preceded the change. A change of considerable magnitude should not compete
with ordinary operations. It might be easier to implement during a slack period.
On the other hand, if the change is critical to the survival of the organization,
then immediate implementation is in order.
Management Summary
 Organization change is often inevitable. It also is necessary to improve the
overall performance of the organization. Research has shown that planned
change is more likely to bring about performance improvement than
unplanned change.
 Employees resist the introduction of changes in structure, behavior, and
technology. People resist change for economic reasons and for
psychological reasons such as insecurity. Managers must be alert to any
indication of resistance and they also prepare subordinates for change.
 Before selecting change techniques, a manager must first recognize the
need for change and conduct a thorough diagnosis so that problems can be
uncovered.
 In recent years, many companies have introduced computers and robotics
(technological change) into their production and service operations.
However, often results have been unimpressive due to the neglect of
needed structural and behavioral changes to maximize the effectiveness of
high technology.
 The selection of change techniques should also consider limiting
conditions in the organization such as the leadership climate, the formal
organizational culture.
 Successful organizational change requires that the scope (amount) of
change is accurate and that the change is implemented at the right time.
 To monitor change, managers must collect data about whether objectives
are being accomplished. Judging a major change a success even after one
year's time is often premature.
MANAGEMENT SOLUTION
Concluded
Top management then decided to adopt these values via a set of new
organizational goals. Essentially the objectives called for Bank of America to
"put the customer first" in the company's decision making; respect employees
and recognize and reward their good performance; emphasize the use of
technology in operations and customer service; and communicate the company's
strategy to employees and build a sense of teamwork within the organization.
78
Conflict Management
The goal of the Conflict Management Service is to provide a neutral
environment to manage conflict that arises between members community. The
Conflict Management Service provides a private, voluntary, discussion and
consensual decision-making process in which one or more impartial persons –
the conflict manager(s) – assist people in conflict to work toward a variety of
goals.
Parties in a conflict management process are encouraged to:







improve communication,
understanding and empathy;
improve relationships;
work toward mutual understanding to resolve a problem or dispute;
reach their own decisions;
resolve underlying conflicts;
Prevent problems from recurring.
The primary responsibility for any resolution rests with the parties. Conflict
managers never give opinions on the issues.
Conflict managers work to:





facilitate communication among the parties;
help them explore mutual understanding;
assist in defining and clarifying issues;
maximize the exploration of alternatives;
Assist in exploring reconciliation and settlement.
The Truth about Conflict
Conflict is inevitable where humans live and work together
Conflict is necessary for peak performance and personal growth
Conflict not acknowledged is detrimental to performance
Conflict
avoidance
is
a
natural
inclination
Conflict
managed
well
requires
an
unnatural
response
79
Conflict,
Conflict
performance and
well-managed
innovation require each other
has
transforming
power
Conflict
Why It's Necessary
Conflicts are a natural and inevitable part of people working together,
sharing diverse thoughts, concerns, perspectives, and goals. As a manager,
you’re going to have to deal with conflict situations both as a mediator (to
help resolve conflicts between others) and as a participant (when you,
yourself, are in conflict with someone). These situations can be complex and
difficult to manage—such as an ongoing personality clash with a
coworker—or simple and easy to manage—such as two associates
disagreeing over a meeting agenda.
Conflicts usually involve the small stuff that continuously grinds down
working relationships.
These can include:
 Loud radios, talking, or other noises that distract coworkers
 Someone grabbing the last cup of coffee without making a new pot
 Someone barging into your office and interrupting your work
 Someone leaving the copy machine with the message ‘refill paper
tray’
 Someone discounting what you say in a meeting
Conflicts come in three general types:
 Intrapersonal Conflict occurs within us: when we are at odds with
ourselves, when we are torn between choices we need to make, when
we are frustrated with our goals or accomplishments. Conflict with
ourselves very often leads to conflict with others.
 Interpersonal Conflict occurs between two or more individuals. We
might get into a heated debate in a meeting, get in an argument with a
coworker, or have a bad encounter with our boss. This is the type of
conflict we are most concerned with in this workshop, although our
discussion has bearing on the other types.
 Intergroup Conflict occurs between groups: nations, gangs, work
areas, etc. For example, your department at work might have an ‘us vs.
them’ attitude about some other department.
80
Remember the story of Romeo and Juliet? The two title characters are
forbidden to be together by their families. They are torn within themselves
whether to follow the wishes of their family or follow their own hearts
(intrapersonal conflict).
There are numerous causes of conflict, and these causes can be placed into
three general categories:
 Communication
 Personal
 Process
Communication causes of conflict come from infrequent or ineffective
communication (e.g., lack of feedback, misunderstandings, lying, criticism,
discounting, and sarcasm).
For example, a husband tells his wife, ‘I really like your hair.’ But he rolls
his eyes when he says it, or giggles to himself as he says it, or immediately
turns to another person and whispers something, he may be provoking a
conflict.
Personal causes of conflict come from ego, personal biases, and lack of
empathy (e.g., differing personalities, perceived disrespect or lack of
concern, past friction, differing backgrounds, differing values or beliefs, and
prejudice).
For example, a husband is late picking up his wife from work for the fifth
time in a month. She might think he is inconsiderate and untrustworthy. He
might think that waiting around a few extra minutes after work is no big
deal. They have different sensitivities, and they may end up in conflict.
Process causes of conflict come from differing views about what should be
done or how it should be done (e.g., differing goals, differing approaches to a
problem, differing perspectives on an issue, and differing sources of
information.)
For example, a husband wants to sit on the couch all day Saturday and watch
football and his wife wants him to mow the lawn; they may end up in
conflict. They have different goals. The husband may have a great idea to
pay a neighbor kid $10 to mow the lawn so he can watch football, but he
might still be in conflict with his wife if she doesn’t agree with the way he
mows the lawn. They have different ideas about how the lawn is mowed or
how he spends his time.
Which one of these conflict sources do you think is potentially most
beneficial
in
the
workplace?
Generally speaking, Communication and Personal sources of conflict are the
least beneficial to your organization because they tend to attack people on a
81
personal level. Process conflicts, on the other hand, often allow people to
clarify what is most important and make positive changes to the way things
are done. For this reason managers should actually encourage constructive
Process conflicts and work to eliminate Communication and Personal
conflicts.
Our objectives in the Conflict: Why It's Necessary workshop are for you to
be able to:
 Identify the types and sources of conflicts.
 Identify the destructive and constructive nature of conflict in the
workplace.
 Identify five approaches for dealing with any conflict situation.
 Determine how to transform conflicts for constructive outcomes.
Some
Transpectives
Workshop
Outcomes:
• Clarify the relationship between conflict and peak performance
•
Know
when
to
risk
addressing
conflict
• Understand the process for harnessing your fear in conflict
• Identify and break useless conflict cycles and patterns of behavior
• View conflict differently when you understand the heart of the matter
•
Choose
a
more
productive
response
to
conflict
• Using your leadership as the key factor in creating a workplace culture
where
conflict
contributes
to
sustainable
effectiveness
Conflict
provides
us
with
the
opportunities
to:
• Break through barriers and reach peak performance
•
Make
sense
of
the
nonsense
•
Release
our
professional
and
personal
potential
•
Cut
to
the
heart
of
what
really
matters
• Understand the exclusive impulses, desires and tendencies in ourselves
and others
82
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