Provincial Disaster Risk Management Plan for Balochistan

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Provincial Disaster Risk Management Plan for Balochistan
Draft
PROVINCIAL DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN
Government of Balochistan
Balochistan Disaster Management Authority
Commissioned by:
Provincial Disaster Management Commission - Balochistan
AUTHORITY FOR PLANNING AND AUTHORIZATION OF THE PLAN
Approval of the Plan
The Balochistan Province Disaster Risk Management Plan
has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the
National Disaster Management Ordinance, 2006
………………………………………………………………………………………
This Plan has been prepared by the Secretariat: Balochistan Disaster Management
Authority.
And is recommended to the Provincial Disaster Management Commission for approval.
This plan is approved by the Chairman, Provincial Disaster Management Commission Balochistan
Signed …………………………………………………………………
Chief Minister, Chairman
Provincial Disaster Management Commission – Balochistan
Date …………../……../………….
This plan has been prepared with technical support from UNDP Pakistan.
Preparation of the Plan has been facilitated by:
Mr. Khuda Bakhsh Baloch
Relief Commissioner / MBR III
Civil Secretariat – Zerghoon Road
Block No.2 Room No. 28 Ground Floor
Tel: 081 – 9201045 / 9201052
Quetta - Balochistan
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DISTRIBUTION LIST ............................................................................................................................................................. 6
LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................................................. 7
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 9
AMENDMENTS TO THE PLAN .......................................................................................................................................... 10
PART I ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
CHAPTER 1: PROVINCIAL PROFILE OF BALOCHISTAN ............................................................................................ 11
CHAPTER 2: COMMON HAZARDS IN BALOCHISTAN ................................................................................................. 13
2.1.
A SYNOPSIS OF DISASTER RISKS IN THE PROVINCE ............................................................................................... 13
2.1.1. Droughts .............................................................................................................................................................. 13
2.1.2. Earthquakes ......................................................................................................................................................... 17
2.1.3. Floods, Flash Floods and Dyke or Dam Failure ............................................................................................... 19
2.1.4. Landslides ............................................................................................................................................................ 20
2.1.5. Cyclones ............................................................................................................................................................... 21
2.1.6. Tsunami ............................................................................................................................................................... 21
2.1.7. Major Transport Accidents ................................................................................................................................. 21
2.1.8. Fire (Urban and Rural) ....................................................................................................................................... 22
2.1.9. Communicable diseases....................................................................................................................................... 22
2.1.10.
Crisis Situations/Sabotage .............................................................................................................................. 23
2.2.
RELATIVE SEVERITY OF VARIOUS HAZARDS PER DISTRICT ................................................................................. 24
2.3.
PRESSURES THAT LEAD TO VULNERABILITY TO THE ABOVE HAZARDS ................................................................. 25
CHAPTER 3: VISION, MISSION AND STRATEGIES........................................................................................................ 27
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.5
VISION....................................................................................................................................................................... 27
MISSION .................................................................................................................................................................... 27
OBJECTIVES .............................................................................................................................................................. 27
STRATEGIES FOR DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................. 27
Institutional Development ................................................................................................................................... 28
Risk Assessment and Provincial Risk Mapping.................................................................................................. 28
Knowledge Management and Training .............................................................................................................. 29
Risk Management Applications & Instruments ................................................................................................. 31
Disaster Preparedness, Contingency Planning and Emergency Management. ................................................ 34
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT ............................................................ 36
CHAPTER 4: STRUCTURE OF DRM INSTITUTIONS ...................................................................................................... 37
4.1
STRUCTURE FOR DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN BALOCHISTAN ........................................................................... 37
4.2
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF KEY STAKEHOLDERS ............................................................................................ 38
4.2.1
Provincial Disaster Management Commission (PDMC) ................................................................................... 38
4.2.2
Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA) ........................................................................................ 38
4.2.3
District and Municipal Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) ................................................................... 39
4.2.4
Tehsil and Town Authorities ............................................................................................................................... 40
4.2.5
Union Councils .................................................................................................................................................... 40
4.2.6
Community Based Organizations ....................................................................................................................... 41
4.3
ROLES OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS IN BALOCHISTAN ................................................................... 42
4.3.1
Agriculture and Food Department...................................................................................................................... 42
4.3.2
Livestock & Dairy Development Department ..................................................................................................... 43
4.3.3
Irrigation and Power Department ....................................................................................................................... 44
4.3.4
Environment Department and Environment Protection Agency ....................................................................... 45
4.3.5
Health Department .............................................................................................................................................. 46
4.3.6
Public Health and Engineering (PHE) .............................................................................................................. 47
4.3.7
Planning and Development ................................................................................................................................. 48
4.3.8
Local Government and Rural Development Department ................................................................................... 49
4.3.9
Finance Department ............................................................................................................................................ 49
4.3.10
Communication, Works, PP&H (C&W) Department .................................................................................... 50
4.3.11
Information Technology Department ............................................................................................................ 51
3
4.3.12
Industries Department .................................................................................................................................... 51
4.3.13
Forest, Wildlife and Fisheries Department.................................................................................................... 52
4.3.14
Mines And Minerals Department ................................................................................................................... 53
4.3.15
Education Department.................................................................................................................................... 54
4.3.16
Social Welfare and Special Education Department ..................................................................................... 55
4.3.17
Power Department – Renewable Energy ....................................................................................................... 56
4.3.18
Sports, Culture, Tourism, Youth Affairs Department .................................................................................. 56
4.3.19
Legal Department ........................................................................................................................................... 57
4.3.20
Information Department ................................................................................................................................ 57
4.3.21
Women Development Department.................................................................................................................. 58
4.3.22
The District Police Department ...................................................................................................................... 58
4.3.23
The Traffic Police ........................................................................................................................................... 58
4.3.24
The Fire Brigade............................................................................................................................................. 59
4.3.25
The Civil Defence Department ....................................................................................................................... 59
4.3.26
Provincial Meteorological Department .......................................................................................................... 60
4.3.27
Major Hospitals .............................................................................................................................................. 60
4.4
OTHER STAKEHOLDERS ............................................................................................................................................. 62
4.4.1 QESCO ...................................................................................................................................................................... 62
4.4.2
Sui – Southern Gas .............................................................................................................................................. 62
4.4.3
Civil Aviation Authority ...................................................................................................................................... 62
4.4.4
Ambulance Services............................................................................................................................................. 63
4.4.5
Balochistan Coastal Development Authority (BCDA) ....................................................................................... 63
4.4.6
Quetta Development Authority (QDA) ................................................................................................................ 64
4.4.7
Water and Sanitation Authority .......................................................................................................................... 64
4.4.8
Banks ................................................................................................................................................................... 65
4.4.9
Insurance Sector .................................................................................................................................................. 65
4.4.10
Private Sector .................................................................................................................................................. 65
4.4.11
Media............................................................................................................................................................... 65
4.4.12
Pakistan Red Crescent Society – Balochistan Branch .................................................................................. 66
4.4.13
Non Governmental Institutions in Balochistan ............................................................................................. 67
4.4.14
Academic and Research Institutions .............................................................................................................. 67
PART II ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 68
CHAPTER 5: STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES ............................................................................................. 68
5.1.1
Receipt of Warnings ............................................................................................................................................ 68
5.1.2
Warning Distribution .......................................................................................................................................... 68
5.1.3
Public Information .............................................................................................................................................. 68
5.1.4
Reporting ............................................................................................................................................................. 68
5.1.5
Request For Assistance ....................................................................................................................................... 69
5.1.6
Accessing Financial and Technical Assistance at Provincial Level .................................................................. 69
5.1.7
Protracted Operations ......................................................................................................................................... 69
5.1.8
Concept Of Operations ........................................................................................................................................ 69
5.2
PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY OPERATION CENTRE (PEOC)...................................................................................... 71
5.2.2
Levels of Operation: ............................................................................................................................................ 72
5.3
LEAD AGENCY AND SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS FOR VARIOUS HAZARDS .............................................................. 73
5.4
THEMATIC WORKING GROUPS ON DISASTER RISK AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ........................................ 75
5.4.1
Functions of the Thematic Leads ....................................................................................................................... 75
5.4.2 Recovery Plans .................................................................................................................................................... 77
CHAPTER 6: SIMULATIONS AND DRILLS ....................................................................................................................... 78
6.1
6.2
6.3
RESPONSIBILITY FOR ORGANIZING THE DRILLS .................................................................................................... 78
SCHEDULE FOR ORGANIZING THE DRILLS .............................................................................................................. 78
RESOURCES FOR ORGANIZING THE DRILLS ............................................................................................................ 78
PART III : ANNEXES ............................................................................................................................................................... 79
ANNEX 1: DIRECTORY OF FOCAL POINT CONTACTS ............................................................................................................ 79
ANNEX 2: MAP OF BALOCHISTAN .......................................................................................................................................... 87
ANNEX 3: SEISMIC ZONES OF PAKISTAN ............................................................................................................................... 88
ANNEX 4: PROVINCIAL ROAD NETWORK OF BALOCHISTAN ................................................................................................ 89
4
ANNEX 5: ANNUAL RAIN FALL OF BALOCHISTAN PROVINCE .............................................................................................. 90
ANNEX 6: RANGELAND OF BALOCHISTAN (LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION) ............................................................................. 91
ANNEX 7: EMERGENCY RESPONSE MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT IN THE PROVINCE ..................................................... 92
ANNEX 8: DISTRICT WISE SABOTAGE ACTIVITIES 2002-07 ................................................................................................... 93
ANNEX 9: REQUIRED RESOURCE TYPES IN BIG DISASTER SITUATIONS ............................................................................. 98
ANNEX 10: LAWS & PROTOCOLS RELATED TO DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT ................................................................... 99
ANNEX 11: DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES & PROJECTS IN THE PROVINCE...................................................................... 100
ANNEX 12: WHAT TO DO IN-CASE OF: ................................................................................................................................. 101
ANNEX 13: FIRST AID AND FIRST AID KIT........................................................................................................................... 122
ANNEX 14: DEFINITIONS OF COMMONLY USED TERMS..................................................................................................... 124
ANNEX 15: LIST OF CONSULTED PERSONS IN PREPARATION OF THIS PLAN: ................................................................... 130
5
DISTRIBUTION LIST
ORGANISATION
NDMC
NDMA
PDMA – Balochistan
Chief Minister
Mayor Quetta
Secretaries of Departments
Fire Brigade
Civil Defence
Military
Relief Commissioner
All District Disaster Management
Authorities
Pakistan Red Crescent Society
Municipal Authorities
Police Stations
National Volunteer Movement
All Hospitals
Meteorological Department
QUESCO
Sui Southern Gas
Universities
Research Institutions
Colleges
Schools
NGOs
Public Libraries
POSITION/ROLE
Federal
Federal
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
OTHER
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Availability and distribution of this plan is the responsibility of the Balochistan Disaster Management
Authority – Balochistan whose contact address is:
Balochistan Disaster Management Authority –
P.O. Box
Telephone:
Fax:
Mobile:
Email:
Additional copies are available in the public libraries and institutions for public information. This plan is
available for viewing at the National Disaster Management Authority website at:
http://www.ndma.gov.pk/
6
LIST OF ACRONYMS
BEF
Balochistan Environmental Foundation
BWASA
Balochistan Water and Sanitation Agency
CBOs
Community Based Organizations
CCB
Citizen Community Boards
CCI
Chamber of Commerce and Industry
DCO
District Coordination Officer
DDMA
District Disaster Management Authority
DERA
Drought Emergency Recovery Assistance
DIMRC
Drought Impact Mitigation and Recovery Component (DIMRC)
DRM
Disaster Risk Management
DRR
Disaster Risk Reduction
EAS
Emergency Alert System
EOC
Emergency Operations Centre
ERRA
Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization
FFC
Federal Flood Commission
GIS
GSP
Geographical Information Systems
Geological Survey of Pakistan
HFA
Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015
ICRC:
IFRC:
IOM
International Committee of the Red Cross
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
International Organization for Migration
IUCN
The World Conservation Union
JCSC
Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
MDMA
Municipal Disaster Management Authority
MSA
Maritime Security Agency
NDMA
National Disaster Management Authority
NDMC
National Disaster Management Commission
NDMO
National Disaster Management Ordinance
NEOC
National Emergency Operations Centre
NESPAK
National Engineering Services of Pakistan
NGOs
Non-governmental Organizations
NIM
National Institute of Management
7
NRECC
National Radiation Emergency Coordination Centre
PARC
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
PCRWR
Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources
PCSIR
Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
PDMA
Provincial Disaster Management Authority
PDMC
Provincial Disaster Management Commission
PEC
Pakistan Engineering Council
PEOC
Provincial Emergency Operations Centre
PINSTECH
Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology
PKR
Pakistani Rupees
PMD
Pakistan Meteorological Department
PRCS
Pakistan Red Crescent Society
QUESCO
Quetta Energy Supply Company
SDPI
Sustainable Development Policy Institute
SOP:
SUPARCO
Standing Operating Procedures
Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Commission
TMA
Tehsil Municipal Administration
UN - OCHA UN - Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNHCR
United Nations High Commission for Refugees
UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund
UN-ISDR
UN - International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
VAM
Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping - WFP
WAPDA
Water and Power Development Authority
WFP
World Food Programme
WHO
World Health Organization
WRRC
Water Resources Research Centre
WWF
World Wide Fund for Nature
8
INTRODUCTION
This Provincial Disaster Risk Management Plan for Balochistan has been developed by the Balochistan
Disaster Management Authority and provides for the arrangements for comprehensive disaster risk
management within the province.
The focus, as required by the National Disaster Management Ordinance 2006, is on minimising the
effects of hazards on local communities by ensuring a coordinated effort in disaster risk management
within the province. This process requires the development and maintenance of partnerships at provincial,
district, tehsil and community levels. This plan calls for a multi-agency, multi-sector, multi-dimensional
approach to risk reduction and management. The success of disaster risk management is dependent upon
it being recognized as a viable tool to co-ordinate effective pooling and integrative utilization of resources
for sustainable development planning.
The plan identifies the risk environment for Balochistan Province and outlines the key institutional and
programming components relative to effective disaster risk management, emergency response and
recovery.
The plan is designed to enhance the capacity of all departments / agencies / organisations to more
effectively prepare and respond to disaster risk situations. This is achieved through the combined
processes of risk analysis, which provides a more realistic base of information upon which to frame
operational plans and procedures.
This plan is a dynamic document which may be revised to incorporate any additional disaster risk
treatment options as they are identified following disaster events and through disaster risk analysis. The
plan will also be amended in line with changes in legislation and current good practice, and to reflect
lessons learnt from the impact of hazards and other disaster situations as they may arise in the province.
The plan recognizes the process of working together and in a collaborative and coordinated way to avoid
parallel structures that lead to duplication of resources and effort.
9
AMENDMENTS TO THE PLAN
1. Proposals for amendment or additions to this plan should be made by contacting:
The Secretary
Balochistan Disaster Management Authority
P.O. Box
Telephone:
Fax:
Mobile:
Email:
During this drafting process, please send your comments to:
Mr. Khuda Bakhsh Baloch
Relief Commissioner / MBR III
Civil Secretariat – Zerghoon Road
Block No.2 Room No. 28 Ground Floor
Tel: 081 – 9201045 / 9201052
Quetta - Balochistan
2. Proposed amendments which affect procedural matters will require prior review and approval by
the Provincial Disaster Management Commission (PDMC) – Balochistan
3. Proposed amendments of a minor nature, e.g. names, telephone numbers, addresses, etc which, do
not affect the procedural matters will be dealt with administratively by the Provincial Disaster
Management Authority and promulgated as per the Distribution List.
4. The workability of this plan will be reviewed twice a year through conducting of drills among the
stakeholders.
10
PART I
CHAPTER 1: PROVINCIAL PROFILE OF BALOCHISTAN
Balochistan, province of Pakistan is by far the largest in size and the smallest in population. The Province
covers 34.7 million hectares, almost 44% of the country’s land area, with a population of about 8 million
people (12 persons per sq. km.). The province is located in South-Western (220N to 320N, 660E to 700E)
Pakistan. About 80% of the area can be classified as inter-mountainous. The remaining 20% consists of
flood plains and coastal plains. The important mountain ranges are Sulaiman, Toba-Kakar, Central
Brahui, Kirthar, Chagai, Raskoh and central Makran and Makran coast. The climate of Balochistan is
continental semi- arid Mediterranean, with annual precipitation varying from 200 to 350 mm and a
variable proportion of this total fall as moisture of snow and rain in the mid winter period or as intense
showers in summer. The uniform aridity (nowhere exceeding 400 mm on average annually, but in many
parts as low as 50 mm annually) makes un-irrigated agriculture impossible.
The province is sparsely populated and least developed compared to the other three in the country. It
contains most of historical Balochistan and is named after the Baloch. The Baloch form the majority in
the south and east of the province, while the Pashtuns are the majority in the north. Quetta, the capital of
the province, has a Pashtun majority with Baloch, Hazara, and Punjabi minorities. Near the Kalat region
and other parts of the province there are significant numbers of Brahui speakers. Along the coast various
11
Makrani Balochis predominate. Persian-speaking Dehwars also live in the Kalat region and further west
towards the border with Iran. In addition, 769,000 Afghan refugees can be found in the province including
Pashtuns, Tajiks, and Hazaras. Many Sindhi farmers have also moved to the more arable lands in the east
of the province.
The economy of the province is largely based upon the production of natural gas, coal, and minerals.
Outside Quetta, the infrastructure of the province is gradually developing but still lags far behind other
parts of Pakistan. Tourism remains limited but has increased due to the exotic appeal of the province.
Limited farming in the east as well as fishing along the Arabian Sea coastline are other forms of income
and sustenance for the local populations. The construction of a new deep sea port at the strategically
important town of Gawadar is adding to economic growth in the province. Further west is the Mirani Dam
multipurpose project, on the River Dasht, 50 kilometres west of Turbat in the Makran Division. There is
also mining activity of copper, gold, and other minerals here and there. The rest of the rural economy and
livelihoods is agro-pastoral derived from the ranges which provide a diversity of uses, including forage
for livestock, wildlife habitat, medicinal plants, watershed, fuel wood, and recreational activity.
The Province is divided into 29 districts. The province is headed by a Chief Minister who is elected every
five years. The districts are headed by the District Coordination Officer. There are 11000 schools (1-5),
800 middle schools (6-8), 400 high schools, 73 colleges and 5 universities in Balochistan province. The
literacy rate is 26.6% with that of males to females being 36.5% and 15.0% respectively. The districts in
the province are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Awaran
Bolan
Barkhan
Chagai
Dera-Bugti
Gawadar
Jafferabad
Jhal Magsi
9. Killa
Abdullah
10. Killa
Saifullah
11. Kohlu
12. Kharan
13. Kalat
14. Khuzdar
15. Kech
16. Lasbela
17. Loralai
18. Mastung
19. Musakhail
20. Nushki
21. Nasirabad
22. Panjgur
23. Pishin
24. Quetta
25. Sibi
26. Sherani
27. Washuk
28. Ziarat
29. Zhob
The provincial road network and connectivity is poorest in the country. Areas well served with roads are
those of farm-to-markets. The length of the national highways in the province has remained largely
constant at 2,300 km. Balochistan has still, however, the lowest density of roads among the four
provinces of Pakistan. Poor connectivity and access continue to be a major problem, which particularly
affect the poor, who live mostly in the rural areas. Several sections of existing roads and highways are
too narrow with respect to the traffic carried, and in poor condition; the conditions cause high vehicle
operating cost and compromise road safety. The main towns and cities in the province are served with
communication network of mobile and landline telephone links as well as radio and TV stations.
Most of the urban settlements are constructed using concrete. A few informal settlements where the
majority of the urban poor reside are constructed of mud, concrete mix and makeshift sheeting. Many of
the rural structures are made of mud. There are about 9,000 rural settlements sparsely spread (about 30
miles) across the province. The urban growth rate is about 4.5% per annum. The out migration from the
rural areas is causing a negative effect on the rural economy while causing pressure on the urban
infrastructure and services. The main towns are supplied with water, gas and electricity that however do
not keep with the increasing demand.
12
CHAPTER 2: COMMON HAZARDS IN BALOCHISTAN
2.1.
A Synopsis of Disaster Risks in the Province
Balochistan is beset with plethora of natural and human induced hazards that threaten to affect the lives
and livelihoods of its citizens - natural hazards including floods, earthquakes, sea tides and drought to
human induced disasters such as fires, civil unrest, terrorism, refugees, health epidemics and water and
transport accidents. This has severe repercussions on Balochistan’s sustainable development process.
The increased demand for suitable human settlements, food, land and fuel wood following increasing
population, has resulted in the clearing natural vegetation cover and, consequently, the depletion of
native species of plants and animals that has negative impacts in the long run if left unchecked. Ground
water is getting depleted because of unsustainable use of tube wells.
Balochistan lies in an active seismic zone. The city of Quetta and the populace have suffered heavily
from earthquakes in the past. Similarly, Balochistan has a 770kms long coast line which is expected to
develop fast due to development of Gawadar Port City and coastal highway. The towns along the
Makran coast are expected to swell with population in future. This will bring a new dimension of
vulnerability to lives and property of people from tidal waves and tsunamis. The pollution of coastal
waters by human activity may have profound impacts to people’s livelihoods along the coast.
Disasters are unresolved development problems. Inappropriate development initiatives and lack of an
integrated and holistic approach towards addressing development problems have made the environment
a rather intricate issue in Balochistan, thus complicating the disaster risks and vulnerabilities in the
province. An influx of massive refugees from Afghanistan has intensified the pressure in the province
leading to environmental degradation, as well as pressure on governance and administrative structures.
The lack of coordinated and collaborative efforts towards addressing the underlying problems has led to
the complexity of addressing development issues in the province. Resultantly, poor urban planning,
unregulated use of natural resources, rangeland degradation, dichotomy of water scarcity and inefficient
use, loss of forests, wildlife, habitats, and biodiversity, and increased level of pollution all combined
have led to an increase in disaster risks and vulnerability in Balochistan.
Damages and losses are all too evident and the needs are all too clear once disaster strikes. Managing
disaster risks presents different challenges than those faced when managing disasters themselves. The
risk factor that lead to disaster are very often hidden, largely invisible to policy makers, the general
public, relief workers, development professionals, and the information communication people. Disaster
Risk Reduction and Management thus depend not on identifying the consequences of disaster but rather
the root causes. These causes need to be made visible and real so that the risks can be perceived,
understood and reduced. Knowing about risks that lead to disasters, understanding how they affect our
livelihoods and environment, and dedicating collective efforts to manage those conditions are crucial to
protect our lives, our possessions, our social assets and indeed the land, water and natural resources on
which human life depends. To stop these hazards from having negative devastating effects once they
interact with humanity; certain timely and effective measures need to be put in place for effective
disaster risk management. A brief description of the common hazards in the province is given below.
2.1.1. Droughts
Balochistan has a previous history of droughts but the recent droughts (1997-2002) were the longest dry spells in
many years. Balochistan is an arid region with occasional rain events. Drought is an insidious hazard of
nature, although it has scores of definitions. Drought originates from a deficiency of precipitation over
13
an extended period of time, usually a season or more. This deficiency results in a water shortage for
some livelihood activity to a community group, or environmental sector.
The districts of Kalat, Chaghi, Naukundi and Zhob have been severely affected by drought at many
occasions. The Balochistan regions frequently under drought actually fall in a dry region with normally
very little rain. The monthly average rain in these areas is between 2 and 25 mm which is very low as
compared to other parts of the country. In 1997 - 2002, a famine like situation developed due to lack of
rain in the region. The main reason of drought in Balochistan was the deficiency of rainfall.
The drought of 1997 - 2002 has been termed as one of the worst in the history of Balochistan and can be
judged from the fact that it was the major cause behind slowing the economic growth rate down to 2.6 %
during that period. According to the figures released by the Ministry of Finance, the drought caused a
loss of PKR 25 billion to the national exchequer in the year 2000-2002.
The drought in affected parts of the province led to the following consequences;


Rise in food prices in the affected areas
A very low level of food in-take causing different diseases and malnutrition to affected
populations
Fodder shortage affecting livestock-rearing, which plays an important role in the rural economy.
Apple trees and orchards destroyed by almost 80%
Migration of people from drought affected areas.
Heavy cost incurred by government in relief works in the affected areas - 22 out of the 28
districts sought assistance in water and food.
Increased Health Hazards: The drought also contributed to the incidence of Crimean Congo
Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF). The disease was first noticed in September 2000 in Loralai district
of the province. Several people are said to have succumbed to the disease which was triggered by
the drought. Malnutrition, T.B and Hepatitis affected thousands of local communities especially
women and children during the period.
80% of Livestock Completely Perished in severely affected areas.






As a typical example, decreasing trend of rainfall from 1997 to 2002 in three districts representing
upper, middle and lower parts of Balochistan is shown in Figure below.
700
Rainfall (mm)
600
500
Kalat
Zhob
400
300
Quetta
200
100
0
1997
1998
1999
Years
Figure. Rainfall in three selected districts of Balochistan during 1997-2000.
14
2000
Drought Severity Index for Districts in Balochistan
S. No
DISTRICT
SEVERITY
OF
DROUGHT
PRESENCE OF
PROJECTS & NGO
PROXIMITY
TO QUETTA
DIVERSITY
OF LIVELIHOODS
1
Kila Saifullah
5
5
5
5
2
Mastung
5
5
5
5
3
Pishin
4
4
5
5
4
Kalat
5
3
3
5
5
Khuzdar
5
4
3
4
6
Quetta
2
5
5
3
7
Loralai
5
5
2
3
8
Chaghi
5
2
2
5
9
Ziarat
2
2
5
4
10
Bolan
2
2
3
5
11
Sibi
2
3
4
3
12
Kila Abdullah
2
2
4
3
13
Zhob
3
2
2
4
14
Kharan
5
1
1
4
15
Jafferabad
1
3
2
4
16
Nasirabad
1
3
2
4
17
Barkhan
2
2
1
5
18
Jhal Magsi
2
2
1
5
19
Lasbela
3
2
1
4
20
Musa Khel
3
3
1
3
21
Kech
2
2
1
3
22
Panjgur
2
2
1
3
23
Kohlu
3
1
1
2
24
Awaran
2
1
1
2
25
Dera Bugti
2
1
1
2
26
Gawadar
1
1
1
2
Severity of Drought is based upon the ranking done by WFP-VAM.
SCORING KEY
Very High
High
Medium
Low
Very Low
5
4
3
2
1
Source: Social Assessment Study on Water Scarcity in Balochistan; Area Development Programme
Balochistan, PAK/96/006, December, 2000
15
Districts and Tehsils /sub - Tehsils frequently affected by drought.
Most Severely Affected
District
Severely Affected District
Moderately Affected District
1.
Kharan
1.
Sibi
1.
Killa-Saifullah
2.
Washuk
2.
Mastung
2.
Barkhan
3.
Chagai
3.
Kalat
3.
Ziarat
4.
Nushki
4.
Khuzdar
5.
Panjgur
5.
Lasbela
6.
Kech
6.
Musakhail
7.
Gawadar
7.
Killa Abdullah
8.
Awaran
9.
Jhal-Magsi
10.
Bolan
11.
Dera-Bugti
12.
Kohlu
13.
Sherani
Most Severely Affected
Tehsils
Severely Affected Tehsils
Moderately Affected Tehsils
1.
Qamar-Din-Karez
1.
Khanozai
1.
Tehsil Zhob
2.
Tehsil Loralai
2.
Barshore
2.
Tehsil Pishin
3.
Tehsil Chatter
3.
Panjpai
4.
Mekhtar
Source: Board of Revenue - Government of Balochistan. June 2006. Contingency Plan for Drought
Affected Districts of Balochistan - 2006
16
Drought Severity in Balochistan
2.1.2. Earthquakes
The whole of Balochistan Province lies in a seismically active region. The province has experienced
devastating earthquakes in the past. A powerful earthquake devastated Quetta town and the adjoining
areas on the morning of May 31, 1935 at 02.33am local time (PST). Nearly 35,000 people are believed
to have been killed, most of those fatalities occurred in Quetta alone. Tremors were felt over much of
Pakistan and as far as Agra in India. The quake was centred 4.0 kilometres SW of Ali Jaan
(Balochistan). The magnitude of this earthquake was at 7.0 on the Richter scale.
Some facts about the Quetta earthquake of 1935.






Almost the whole city of Quetta was reduced to rubble with thousands of people being buried
under the collapsed buildings
Many houses caught fire and were razed down
The colonial army quarters were damaged extensively
The railways in Quetta was destroyed
Surrounding villages were also destroyed with very heavy casualties
Neighbouring districts of Quetta too had fatalities and casualties.
17
On the 28th November 1945, at 05:26 PST, another earthquake measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale hit
Balochistan. The epicentre was 97.6 km SSW of Pasni in Balochistan. The quake triggered a huge
tsunami that caused great damage to the entire Makran coastal region.
Recorded Earthquake Incidences in Balochistan in the recent past
Year
Place
1909
1935
Kachh
7.2
Quetta, Mach 7.0
1987
1990
1935
Quetta,
7.5
Mastung, Kalat
Quetta
5
1992
1995
1996
1997
1955
1956
1957
Pasni/Makran 8.6
Loralai
5.8
Khuzdar, Nal, 5.7
Wadh
Quetta
6
Kalat, Barkhan 6
Khuzdar
5.5
1975
1978
1983
1986
Quetta
5.4
Quetta, Nushki 5.3
Khuzdar
6.5
Khuzdar
5.4
2002
2003
2004
1941
1945
1952
1954
Intensity at R/Scale Year
Place
Intensity at R/Scale
Quetta, Chaman
5.6
Quetta, Kalat, Khuzdar, 5.8-6.1
Mastung, Kalat,
Nushki, Surab
Khuzdar, Nal, Quetta 5.7
Quetta/Pishin,
Makran/Gawadar
Quetta
Quetta
Quetta, Mastung,
Mach, Sibi, Harnai
Quetta, Dalbandin
Barkhan
Quetta, Sibi, Ziarat,
Harnai and Duki
Balochistan Boarder
Naukundi, Musakhail
Sibi
1993
1998
1999
2000
Source: Data extracted from Meteorological Department – Quetta Station
18
5.7
5.2
5.3
5-6.2
5.3
5.2
6
6
5.3
5.5
Figure: Seismic Zones of Pakistan
2.1.3. Floods, Flash Floods and Dyke or Dam Failure
Southern parts of Balochistan have always been prone to flash floods. Torrential rains during the
monsoon season every year lead to flash floods in the districts of Turbat and Gawadar. Shadikor dam
near the town of Pasni, usually over spills during the season, causing havoc to people, livelihoods and
property downstream. The floods are usually worse in three ‘tehsils’ - Dasht, Omara and Pasni, in
Gawadar district, where they cause extensive damage to houses, standing crops, orchards, livestock and
water supply schemes affecting thousands of people and settlements while cutting and damaging road
networks.
There are over 300 dams in the whole Balochistan, many of them constructed along the irrigation plains
as check dams and delay action dams. The check dams recharge underground water and serve as a
source of potable water for the surrounding areas.
In the coastal regions of southern Balochistan, dams have burst in previous years due to heavy rains.
Their collapse has led to flooding leaving tens of thousands homeless, destroying hundreds of acres of
agricultural land, and causing massive damage to infrastructure. In previous cases, flooding has washed
away sections of the Makran Coastal Highway, a major transport link, as well as destroying numerous
roads and bridges. Telephone and power networks have also been severely disrupted. Much of the
19
affected areas during the rain season are usually inaccessible for several days, leading to need for relief
assistance through other means. The affected districts usually are Pasni, Gawadar, Awaran, and Lasbela.
On the night of Thursday 10 February, 2005, Shadi Kaur Dam burst after more than two weeks of heavy
rains. Over 130 persons were reported killed. Pasni Township were severely affected with over 5,500
people trapped in floodwater and many houses destroyed. Some 40,000 acres of standing crops were
completely destroyed the dam burst.
Rains/Flood & Snowfall Losses & Damages during Feb-Mar, 2005

Villages affected 1,386 Nos.

Person affected
1,68,523 Nos.

Houses
Demolished
15,050 Nos.

House Damaged
57,817 Nos.

Agriculture crops
1,99,374 (Acres)
affected

Area
Affected
1,70,150 (Acres)

Tube wells
affected
576 Nos.

Karezes
affected
381 Nos.

Livestock
lost
68,058 Nos.

Bandats
affected
99,316 (Acres)

Wells
affected
400 Nos.

Affected
Machinery of
open surface 458 Nos.
wells
Source: Relief Commissioner’s Office – government of Balochistan
2.1.4. Landslides
The same areas prone to flash floods and dam / dyke failure in (c) above are prone to landslides
especially during the monsoon season. Southern parts of Balochistan have always been prone to flash
floods and landslides. Torrential rains during the monsoon season every year lead to landslides in the
districts of Turbat and Gawadar. Shadikor dam near the town of Pasni, usually over spills during the
monsoon season, causing flash floods and landslides. Bolan district more frequently experiences
landslides than any other district in the province.
20
2.1.5. Cyclones
No recorded incidents of cyclones have been reported on the coast of Balochistan. However, the
neighbouring Sindh province has experienced several cyclones in the past couple of decades. The
proximity of Balochistan to the Arabian Sea and the experience in the neighbouring Sindh province
indicate towards potential cyclone risks in Balochistan. The following is the scenario experience in
Sindh in which Balochistan may draw lessons for cyclone risk reduction initiatives:




During the period 1971-2001 Fourteen cyclones approached coastal areas of Pakistan.
The cyclone of 1999 hit Sindh coast and caused serious damage in terms of lives and property in
Thatta and Badin districts; It wiped out 73 settlements, with over 75,000 houses destroyed
A cyclone on 1965 killed over 1000 people in Sindh, while the most recent cyclone, which hit
two districts in Southern Sindh, killed 258 and left over 600,000 affected. Killing of 11,000
cattle
Economic losses were severe and crops and agricultural land inundated.
2.1.6. Tsunami
The earthquake measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale that hit Balochistan on the 28th November 1945, at
05:26 PST, did cause a tsunami in the Arabian Sea. It was centred 97.6 km SSW of Pasni in Balochistan.
The quake triggered a huge tsunami that caused great damage to the entire Makran coastal region. The
tsunami reached a height of 40 feet in some Makran fishing ports and killed more than 4,000 people.
This was the last major tsunami–generating earthquake in the Arabian Sea.
The cable link between Karachi and Muscat was interrupted. The Cape Monze lighthouse, 72 km from
Karachi, was damaged. The quake was also strongly felt at Manora Island near Karachi Harbour. The
80–feet–high lighthouse on Manora was damaged. It was felt moderately in Panjgur, a small town in
southern Balochistan famous for producing some of the best dates in the world. The shock was recorded
by observatories in New Delhi and Calcutta. The quake was also characterized by the eruption of several
mud volcanoes, a few miles inland from the Makran Coast.
The 1945 earthquake led to the formation of four small islands off the Makran Coast. A large volume of
gas that erupted from one of these islands sent flames leaping hundreds of metres into the sky. The most
significant aspect of the earthquake was the tsunami it generated. The tsunami caused great damage to
the entire Makran coastal region. The fishing village of Khudi, some 48 km west of Karachi, was
obliterated. All the inhabitants and their huts were washed away. At Dabo Creek, 12 fishermen were
swept into the sea. There was similar loss of life along other sections of the Makran Coast, as well as
along the Iran Coast further to the west and Oman.
The towns of Pasni and Omara were badly affected. Both were reportedly underwater after the tsunami.
Pasni's postal and telegraph offices, government buildings and rest houses were destroyed. Many people
were washed away. The telegraphic communications to these two communities were also cut.
2.1.7. Major Transport Accidents
Every year, transportation accidents in the roads, railway, air, sea leads to deaths, injuries and loss of
property. Road accidents are a common occurrence in most of the roads in Balochistan. Many lives have
been claimed and several people injured following road accidents. The poor condition of many roads
compromises the safety of many road users in Balochistan. About 250 lives are lost every year in
21
Balochistan through road accidents. Losses through injuries following road accidents every year are
insurmountable. The Table below gives an indication of the problem at hand. These are only reported
and police attended to cases.
Year-wise fatal accident for the last 10 years, in Areas A & B of Balochistan Province.
Fatal
1998
Accident
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Area A
Area B
Total
123
99
222
139
101
240
118
126
244
111
99
210
158
140
298
165
105
270
213
90
303
209
39
248
117
61
178
Up to Total
March,
2007
46
7
53
Source: Home Department
NB: Area A = Urban Areas, Area B = Rural Areas
Pakistan's railways are antiquated and accidents are common. Faulty equipment and human error often
are blamed. More than 2,000 people have died in train accidents in Pakistan in the last decade.
With the construction of a new deep sea port at the strategically important town of Gawadar, it is
expected that the number of ships docking at the port for commercial activity will increase. This may
open new risks to maritime accidents including pollution in the Arabian Sea.
2.1.8. Fire (Urban and Rural)
With urbanization in most parts of the province and having settlements that are exposed to various
hazards such as fire from gas or electricity and the lack of awareness and preparedness to fire safety in
these areas, a fire incidence may end up causing big losses to both life and property of unprecedented
nature. The need for awareness on fire safety and preparedness to respond is an eminent necessity.
2.1.9. Communicable diseases
Communicable diseases form the main bulk of healthcare problems in Balochistan. Unhealthy life style
and prevailing poverty coupled with lack of awareness has accentuated the disastrous effects of
communicable disease, which directly affects economic and social development of society. Control of
communicable disease has been suffering due to an overall weak system, deficient training of human
resource, and non-availability of the right person on the right job. The objective of reforms in this
important area of healthcare is to take such actions which would directly and indirectly result in
controlling the spread of the communicable diseases, and making the system addressing the problems of
disease control, while transforming existing machinery into an efficient system to ensure control of
communicable disease and prevent wastage and under-utilization of resources.
The common communicable diseases affecting and disrupting livelihood activity in Balochistan include:
Malaria, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), Ringworm, Chicken Pox, Rubella, Scabies, Measles,
Tuberculosis, Leshmanis disease. The drought of 1999 – 2001 contributed to the incidence of Crimean
Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF). The disease was first noticed in September 2000 in Loralai district
of the province. Several people are known to have succumbed to it.
22
2.1.10.
Crisis Situations/Sabotage
Crisis situations are brought about by unpredictable incidents that degenerate to uncontrollable
proportions causing chaos and mayhem. Such situation may be brought about by incidents such as:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
Bomb blast / Bomb scare
Hostage taking
Riots and demonstrations / civil unrest
Crowds and stampede
Terrorist attack
Refugee influx
The frequency of sabotage incidents in Balochistan especially those related to bomb-blast, landmines,
hand grenade, rocket fire is common in the districts of Quetta, Noshki, Dalibandi, Dalbandin, Pishin,
Killa Abdullah, Kalat, Khuzdar, Mastung, Lasbela, Dera Bugti, Kohlu, Sibi, Barkhan. In the past five
years alone, over 300 people have been killed and over 1000 injured due to various sabotage incidents.
Please see Annex 8 for detailed breakdown of sabotage incidents in the province.
23
2.2.
Relative Severity of Various Hazards Per District
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
Barkhan
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Chagai
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
Dera-Bugti
3
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Gawadar
-
5
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
Jafferabad
-
1
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Jhal Magsi
3
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Killa Abdullah
1
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
Killa Saifullah
1
2
3
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Kohlu
3
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Kharan
4
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
Kalat
2
2
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
Khuzdar
3
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
Kech
4
4
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Lasbela
2
4
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
Loralai
3
3
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
Mastung
2
2
5
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
Musakhail
3
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Nushki
4
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
Nasirabad
2
2
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Panjgur
-
2
2
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Pishin
1
2
5
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Refugees &
IDPs
Tsunami
2
3
Transport
Accidents
Cyclones
Industrial &
Mines
Accidents
Landslides
3
Bolan
Crisis
Situation
Earthquake
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
Locusts /
Pests
Floods
Awaran
DISTRICT
Fire
Drought
S. No
Communica
ble diseases
Hazard
Comments
Quetta
-
-
5
-
-
-
2
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
Sibi
2
4
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Sherani
2
2
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Washuk
4
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
Ziarat
-
2
3
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Zhob
2
2
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Vulnerability levels of various hazards per district in Balochistan province
SCORING KEYS
Very High
High
Medium
Low
Very Low
None
5
4
3
2
1
-
NB: Ranking based on deliberations with staff from Relief Commissioner’s Office and Livestock
Department.
24
The main five hazards that pose potential threats to the population in Balochistan are:
 Drought
 Floods
 Earthquake
 Communicable diseases
 Landslides and mudslides
2.3.
Pressures that Lead to Vulnerability to the above hazards
Root Causes
The following factors broadly contribute to the root causes of increasing vulnerability to various hazards
in various ways as identified above. The list is indicative and open to deliberations as per the conditions
in Balochistan.
 Limited access to power (political, economic and social),
 Lack of structures and resources
 Rapid population growth puts people in path of hazards such as unsafe settlements, flood plains,
drought
 Rapid urbanization – the poor often settle in areas prone to hazards
 Systems promoting unequal asset holding prompting bias to hazard precaution. The issue of
poverty and access to resources to recover after disaster.
 Private gain / commercial interests may promote wrong protection measures, thus compromising
public safety. Most commercial buildings in the urban areas don’t follow the building codes for
safety.
 Environmental degradation e.g. deforestation, soil erosion, air pollution increases hazard risk to
disease for example.
Dynamic Pressures
 Lack of institutional capacity to deal with disaster risk reduction and development in Balochistan
 Lack of training, appropriate skills and awareness on disaster risk management both to the
community and public servants
 Lack of investments and livelihoods diversification- most communities rely only on one
livelihood activity. When disaster strikes and the livelihood activity get disrupted, the
communities and people become more vulnerable.
 Low income means poor self protection, livelihoods are in dangerous places, few assets so less
able to recover after a disaster
 Gender: poor nutrition means women and children may be more prone to disease
 Poor support from state for social protection – urban or regional bias leaves others less protected;
inappropriate protection measures create risks for some.
 Lack of ethical standards in public life. E.g. official apathy that leads to lack of enforcement laws
and regulations such as building codes and safety.
Unsafe Conditions
 Poor social protection – lack of and inadequate early warning systems, lack of awareness, lack of
vaccinations,
 Lack of social safety nets, lack of insurance schemes, erosion of traditional copying mechanisms
 Fragile physical environment:
25






Low preparedness – lack of preparedness and contingency plans, lack of disaster risk
management plans
Poor construction materials for settlements (houses, structures, buildings, schools, hospitals,
bridges)
Fragile local economy: low income levels, livelihoods at risks due to hazard shocks, nondiversified livelihoods and economy. Fragile livelihoods such as livestock keeping are prone to
drought.
Settlements located in dangerous locations – e.g. prone to floods, earthquakes, landslides
Livelihoods liable to disruption e.g. no wage work during disaster period such as floods,
earthquake, severe drought or displacement.
Prolonged drought, floods, or displacement after disaster may increase chances to disease.
DISASTER
1
ROOT
CAUSES
DYNAMIC
PRESSUR-
ES
UNSAFE
CONDITIONS
DISAST
ER
Risk =
Hazard +
Vulnerability
(R=H + V)
Figure: Pressures that result in disasters: the progression of vulnerability
26
HAZARDS
CHAPTER 3: VISION, MISSION AND STRATEGIES
3.1 Vision
This plan seeks to facilitate operationalization of Balochistan Disaster Management Authority and
promote disaster risk management approaches through coordination and collaboration to prevent injury
to people and animals and loss of life, and to minimize damage to property and the environment.
3.2 Mission
The Provincial Government of Balochistan will provide for the protection of its people, property,
infrastructure, and material resources in order to minimize injury, loss of life, and damage to property
resulting from any kind of disaster. The government of Balochistan will provide for continuity of
management function, damage assessment, public and private and immediate attention to the reestablishment of normal operations so as to restore the normal economic functions whenever disaster
strikes. The government of Balochistan will provide for the incorporation of Disaster Risk Reduction in
its development programmes.
3.3 Objectives
I. To prepare communities and institutions to act and be equipped with knowledge and capacities
for effective disaster risk management at times of disaster in order to reduce losses and damage
to lives and property.
II. To provide a basis for the establishment of polices and procedures which will assure maximum
and efficient utilization of all resources in Balochistan Province to minimize the loss of life
and/or injury to the population, and protect and conserve resources, facilities and property of
the people of Balochistan from any potential hazard threats.
III. To contribute to the strengthening of early warning and early response to disaster hazard
threats and disaster situations in Balochistan.
IV. To strengthen policy, technical and institutional capacities in provincial, district and
community levels, including those related to technology, training, and human and material
resources.
V. To promote and support dialogue, collaboration and coordination and exchange of information
among stakeholders involved in early warning, disaster risk management, disaster response,
development and other relevant agencies and institutions at all levels, with the aim of fostering
a holistic approach towards disaster risk reduction and sustainable development.
VI. To promote regular disaster preparedness exercises, including evacuation drills, with a view to
ensuring rapid and effective disaster response and access to essential food and non-food relief
supplies, as appropriate, to local needs.
VII. To advocates the promotion and establishment of emergency funds, where and as appropriate,
to support response, recovery and preparedness measures as part of a sustainable way to
disaster risk management.
VIII. To advocate for the development of specific mechanisms to engage active participation and
ownership of relevant stakeholders, including communities, in disaster risk reduction.
3.4 Strategies for Disaster Risk Management
The government of Balochistan and concerned departments, organizations and agencies in the province
will take into consideration the activities identified in the following five strategic areas of priority for
action and implement them as appropriate to their own circumstances and capacities in an effort to build
the resilience of the province and communities to disasters.
27
3.4.1
Institutional Development
Establishment of institutions for disaster risk management is key for the success of sustained reduction
of disaster risks. Allocation of necessary resources for disaster risk management, enforcement and
implementation and assigning accountability for failures, as well as facilitating participation from civil
society and private sector contributes to institutional capacity strengthening. .
Strategic Area
Institutional Development
Main Component /
Activity
Main Characteristics of
component
Proposed Criteria for
benchmarks
Timeframe
Policy and Planning

Mainstreaming DRR
into development
planning and sectoral
policies such as
poverty reduction,
resource management
Make DRR a
development policy
priority issue in the
province

Provincial DRR strategy
and plan
Plan of Action for DRR
management at province
level
DRR incorporated in the
province’s Area
Development
Programmes
continuous
PDMC,
PDMA,
Government
of
Balochistan
Revise Laws and
regulations on DRR
Enforcement for the
laws and regulations
such as the building
codes, Environmental
Law, Safety codes,
Safe and evacuation
routes etc

Existence of systems to
ensure compliance and
enforcement
Enforcement of the
revised Building Code
Standards.
Prosecution of law
breakers
Watchdog groups
continuous
Resource
mobilizations for
DRR (material &
monetary), taxes,
incentives,
Government, CSOs,
NGOs, Media and
Private sector
participation
Intra and
Interdepartmental,
inter-disciplinary,
multisectoral
coordination and
collaboration

Evidence of budgetary
allocations
Staffing
Public private
partnerships
Creation of PDMA
Create Provincial
platform for DRR
Joint projects and
programming on DRR
continuous
PDMA,
Police,
Community,
Construction
Industry,
P&W
Department,
Law
Department,
Municipal
Authorities,
PDMA,
Government
of
Balochistan

Legal and regulatory
frameworks
established and
updated
Resource allocations
for DRR
Organizational
Structures





3.4.2










Continuous
Resources
Required
Action
Comments
PDMA
Risk Assessment and Provincial Risk Mapping
Identification of risks is a relatively well-defined area with a significant knowledge base on methods for
disaster impact and risk assessment. Systematic assessment of losses, particularly the social and
economic impact of disasters, and mapping of risks are fundamental to understand where to take action.
Pre-investment appraisals of disaster risk to development and vice versa, consideration of disaster risks
in environmental impact assessments is still to become routine practice. Early warning is increasingly
defined as a means to inform public and authorities on impending risks, hence essential for timely inputs
to reduce their impact.
28
Strategic Area
Risk Identification And Mapping (Risk, Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment & Early
Warning)
Main Component /
Activity
Main Characteristics of
component
Proposed Criteria for
benchmarks & progress
Timeframe
Risk Assessment and
data quality


Vulnerability and
capacity indicators
developed and
systematically mapped
and recorded
Risk scenarios
developed and used in
development
programming
Data bases developed
for disaster risks and
management
Standardise as
appropriate statistical
information for use
across the districts
0-3 years
continuous
PDMA,
Research
Centres,
Universities,
Meteorologi
cal
Department,
Planning
Department,
Departments
Quality of response to
early warning
Level of community
participation
Development of
sustainable
infrastructure and use of
scientific, research and
technical know-how for
early warning and
scenario development
Cooperation with other
provinces and countries
for cross border disaster
risk
Coordination of early
warning players in the
province
0-3 years
continuous
PDMA,
Research
Centres,
Universities,
Meteorologi
cal
Department,
Planning
Department,
Departments





Early warning
systems



Develop, update
periodically and
widely disseminate
risk maps and related
information to
decision makers, the
public, media and
communities at risk.
Record, analyze,
summarize and
disseminate statistical
information in
disaster occurrence
and their effects
Hazard vulnerability
analysis characteristics,
impacts, historical
and spatial
distribution
Emerging hazards
analysis e.g. climate
change, global
warming, green
house effect
Develop Risk
monitoring
capabilities, risk
maps, risk scenarios,
GIS data
Vulnerability and
capacity assessment –
socio-economicpolitical, physical,
environmental,
cultural, etc.
Establish Early
warning systems that
are
community/people
centred.
Early warning
systems linked to
early response for
main predictable
hazards: cyclones,
tsunami, drought, etc
Community early
warning
dissemination
channels developed








3.4.3
Resources
Required
Action
Comments
Knowledge Management and Training
Information management and communication, education and training, public awareness and research are
all parts of improving and managing knowledge on disaster risks and their reduction. Inclusion of
disaster reduction with a strong gender balanced approach at all level of education, effective public
awareness and information campaigns, media involvement in advocacy and dissemination, availability
29
of training for the communities at risk and professional staff, targeted research are the ingredients to
support the knowledge base for effective disaster management.
Strategic Area
Use Knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels
Main Component /
Activity
Information
management and
Exchange
Main Characteristics of
component

Municipal & urban
Authorities to
provide information
to the public on
disaster reduction
options prior to
constructions, land
sale and land
purchase.

Strengthen networks
among disaster
experts, managers
and planers across
departments,
agencies and
organizations and
provinces

Use of affordable
recent
communication and
speed based
technologies and
related services

Provide easily
understandable
information on
disaster risks and
protection options
especially to
communities prone to
droughts, floods,
cyclones, landslides
and other hazards to
encourage and enable
communities to take
action to reduce risks
and build resilience
Proposed Criteria for
benchmarks & progress

Establish the provincial
platform for Disaster
Risk Reduction as
proposed in the Plan

Develop a networked
communication (ICT)
system among the
disaster risk
management players

Incorporate traditional
and indigenous
knowledge on risk
management

Develop Resource
Centres and networks in
particular educational
facilities

Timeframe
0-3 years
continuous
PDMC,
PDMA
Research
Institutions,
Media,
Government
of
Balochistan,
Departments,
CSOs, NGOs
Research and Policy


continuous
PDMC,
PDMA
Research
Institutions,
Media,
Government
of
Balochistan,
Departments,
CSOs, NGOs,
District
Authorities


Research
Programmes and
institutions for risk
reduction at
provincial level with
evaluations, feedback
and linkages to other
programmes and
institutions at federal
and international
level
Strengthen the
technical and
scientific capacity to
develop and apply
methodologies,
studies and models to
assess vulnerabilities
to and the impact of
geological, weather,
water and climate
related hazards.
Develop improved
methods for
predictive multi-risk
assessments and


Existence of a link
between science and
policy (evidence-based
policy and policy
oriented research).
Networking, exchange
programmes and share
and dissemination of
good practices in
DRR/M
Incorporate the research
analysis into the
decision making process
in the province and
districts.
30
Resources
Required
Action
Comments
socio-economic costbenefit analysis of
risk reduction actions
in the province
Public Awareness
And Media
involvement






Education and
Training







Media Involvement
in DRR and
communication risk
and awareness raising
Public awareness
policy, programmes
and materials
Publications
explaining what to do
in case of an
earthquake,
flood,
fire,
etc
for
preparedness
and
emergency
procedures;
Preparation of media
releases explaining
earthquake,
flood,
fire
etc
for
preparedness
and
emergency
procedures;
Ongoing
media
campaign
to
encourage the public
to 'be aware' and
advocacy for disaster
risk reduction,

Community training
programmes on
DRR/M
Dissemination and
use of traditional /
indigenous
knowledge on risk
management
Inclusion of disaster
reduction at all levels
of education
(curricula,
educational material),
training of trainers
programmes
Mainstream Gender
issues on disaster risk
reduction and
management
Training of
government staff on
disaster risk
management

3.4.4









Information
Department,
PDMA,
Media
Houses,
Community
Involvement of the
communities and the
general public in the
National Disaster Day
every year on 8th
October.
Develop, share and use
a Media Strategy on
DRR in the Province
Coverage of Disaster
Reduction Strategies by
media
Develop a Provincial
Media Strategy on DRR
Educational Materials
and references on
disasters and disaster
reduction
Trained staff
Specialized courses and
institutions
Upgrading and
equipping the Civil
Defence Training
Centre in Quetta
Evidence of systematic
capacity development
programmes
Develop and
disseminate and use a
gender strategy on DRR
& M.
Use formal and informal
channels to reach youth
and children with
information on DRR/M
0-3 years
Universities,
Education
Department,
PDMA,
Research
Institutions,
Women
Department,
Welfare
Department
Risk Management Applications & Instruments
Instruments for risk management have proliferated especially with the recognition of environmental
management, poverty reduction and financial management tools as complementary solutions. The role
of environmental and natural resource management in reducing climatic disaster risks is
acknowledged. Wetland and watershed management to reduce flood risks, afforestation and
reforestation to control landslides and soil erosion, ecosystem conservation to control droughts are
among the best known applications. For effective results, synergies need to be built between sustainable
development and disaster risk management practices. Social and economic development practices
31
with proven results in poverty alleviation such as social protection and safety nets are increasingly
regarded as ways of reducing risks and instruments for self-reliance in recovery. Financial instruments
in the form of micro-financing and public-private partnerships can be of great help. Others such as
insurance, calamity funds, catastrophe bonds are useful in spreading risks though still difficult to
establish in low income countries and communities. Physical and technical measures such as flood
control techniques, soil conservation practices, retrofitting of buildings or land use planning are well
known practices and have been implemented with mixed results. Their failure is often due to poor
governance rather than knowledge of what to do. Moreover, such measures, while effective in hazard
control, can often be inadequate for social protection and economic recovery.
Strategic Area
Risk Management Applications and Instruments
Main Component /
Activity
Main Characteristics of
component
Proposed Criteria for
benchmarks
Timeframe
Environmental and
natural resource
management


0-2 years
continuous


Social and economic
development
practices



Encourage the
sustainable use and
management of
ecosystems,
including through
better land use
planning and
development
activities to reduce
risk and
vulnerabilities
Integrated
environmental and
natural resource
management
approaches
Incorporate disaster
risk reduction,
including structural
and non structural
measures such as
integrated flood
management or
ecosystem
management in
fragile areas
Promote food
security as a vital
factor in ensuring
resilience of
communities
especially those
prone to drought,
floods and hazards
that weaken
agricultural based
livelihoods
Integrate disaster risk
reduction planning
into the health sector
Protect and
strengthen critical
facilities and physical
infrastructure,
particularly schools,
clinics, hospitals,
water and power
plants,
communication and
transport lifelines,
disaster warning and
management centres
and culturally
important lands and
facilities/structure








Use of Environmental
Impact Assessments
(EIA) in disaster
reduction planning
Reduction in trends of
deforestation and
desertification rates to
combat drought
Plant more trees
Use of wetland and
forestry management to
reduce flood and
landslide risk
“Hospitals safe from
Disasters” by ensuring
that all news hospitals
with a level of resilience
that makes them
functional in times of
major disaster.
Redesign, retrofitting
and rebuilding in order
to render the facilities
resilient to hazards
Access to social
protection and safety
nets as well as microfinance services to
disaster reduction at
community level
Insurance Incentives
and disincentives.
Encourage the private
sector to foster a culture
of disaster prevention
and public safety
32
Resources
Required
Action
PDMA,
Environment
Department,
Environment
Protection
Agency,
Forest
Department,
Livestock
Department,
Planning
Department,
PDMA,
Livestock
Department,
Irrigation
Department,
Agriculture
department,
Health
Department,
All
Departments
as
appropriate
Comments





Land use planning
and technical
measures






Social Safety Nets
programmes to assist
the poor, elderly,
disabled,
marginalized and
other populations
vulnerable to
disasters
Incorporate DRR
measures into post
recovery and
rehabilitation
processes and use
opportunities in the
recovery process to
develop capacities
that reduce disaster
risk
Promote diversified
income options and
livelihoods to
vulnerable
communities
Promote insurance
and reinsurance
schemes against
disasters
Promote public
private partnerships
to disaster reduction
Incorporate disaster
risk assessments into
the urban planning
and management of
disaster prone human
settlements, in
particular the highly
populated areas of
Quetta and
urbanizing
settlements in the
districts
Integrate DRR
considerations into
planning procedures
for major
infrastructure
projects, including
criteria for design,
approval and
implementation of
such projects and
social, economic and
environmental impact
assessments
Develop, upgrade
and encourage the
use of guidelines and
codes and monitoring
tools for DRR in the
context of land-use
policy and planning
Incorporate disaster
risk assessment into
rural development
planning and
management
Encourage the
revision of the
existing or
development of new
building codes,
standards,




Construction reduced /
zoning plans enforced in
hazard prone areas such
as flood plains,
landslide prone,
earthquake prone etc.
Compliance of public
and private buildings
with codes and
standards
Public buildings and
facilities (schools,
hospitals, bridges,
clinics lifelines etc) at
high risk areas
retrofitted.
Regular maintenance of
hazard control structures
33
Municipal
and Urban
Authorities,
C&W
Department,
Irrigation
Department,
Agriculture
department,
PDMA,
rehabilitation and
reconstruction
practices as
appropriate in the
local context
3.4.5
Disaster Preparedness, Contingency Planning and Emergency
Management.
Preparedness and emergency management have been effective instruments in reducing life losses from
direct and indirect effect of disasters. A well-prepared system is expected to be effectively informed by
early warning, have in place provincial and local preparedness plans regularly rehearsed, established
communication and coordination systems, as well as adequate logistics infrastructure and emergency
funds to respond from. Local level preparedness, particularly of the communities, including their
training deserves special attention as the most effective way of reducing life and livelihood losses. This
Provincial Disaster Risk Management Plan falls under this part of strategy.
Strategic Area
Strengthened Disaster Preparedness, Contingency Planning And Emergency Management
At all Levels
Main Component /
Activity
Main Characteristics of
component
Proposed Criteria for
benchmarks
Timeframe
Preparedness and
contingency planning

Strengthen policy,
technical and
institutional
capacities in the
province related to
disaster risk
management
including technology,
training, and human
and material
resources
Promote and support
the culture of
dialogue, information
exchange and
coordination among
all the disaster risk
management
practitioners from
early warning to
response and
recovery to longer
term development.
Communication
systems developed
and networked
among stakeholders
in disaster risk
management in the
province.
Develop scenarios for
Emergency drills

Established emergency
funds where and as
appropriate to support
response, recovery, and
preparedness measures.
Equip the capacities of
the Fire Brigade, Civil
Defence, Response
Police, Police,
Hospitals, etc to handle
emergencies
Conduct drills to
enhance preparedness
capacity and response
1 -2 years
PDMA,
Provincial
and district
Authorities,
Fire Brigade,
Civil
Defence,
Pakistan Red
Crescent,
Police,
Community,
Local CSOs
and NGOs
Develop emergency
plans of all
stakeholders
Prepare or review
and periodically
update disaster
preparedness and
contingency plans,
SOPs and policies at
all levels with a focus
on the most
vulnerable

Effective response to
disasters and
mobilization of
volunteers and resources
at community level
Community
participation and
fostering the spirit of
volunteerism in disaster
risk management
through use of local
NGOs, CSOs and the
1 – 2 years
PDMA,
Provincial
and district
Authorities,
Fire Brigade,
Civil
Defence,
Pakistan Red
Crescent,
Police,
Community,
Local CSOs



Emergency
Management






34
Resources
Required
Action
Comments
communities


Red Crescent Society in
Quetta.
Conduct regular
evacuation drills
and NGOs

The above targets and objectives for disaster risk reduction and management should be narrowed down
to meet the province and communities in Balochistan’s capacities and resources. They should be
“SMART.” i.e.





Sustainable, over time
Measurable, with defined criteria for success and specific benchmarks
Achievable, within timeframes that the Government on Balochistan sets. This may extend over
months or years depending on availability of resources and provincial priorities
Relevant, to satisfy varied provincial situations related to local hazards, vulnerabilities and
capacities and set within the provincial government structures
Timely, related to carefully framed tasked, with clear short term and long term goals
Further deliberations are to be held with the provincial stakeholders and agree on the modalities of
implementing the suggested activities in a SMART way.
35
3.5 Challenges And Opportunities For Disaster Risk Management
There is a need for disaster risk management to be an essential part of the broader concerns of
sustainable development, and hence the need to make sure that disaster risk assessments and
vulnerability reduction measures are taken into account in different sectors. These linkages introduce
new challenges as well as offer new opportunities. Each sector, discipline or institution speaks a
different language and brings new practices and experiences to the subject which needs to be
harmonized. Challenges are the external or internal conditions which may hinder the achievement of
objectives or can be the hurdles in achieving the objectives of disaster risk management. Opportunities
are the external conditions which can be exploited to achieve objectives of disaster risk management.
These may exist at this point and may not exist in future. The following select list of challenges and
opportunities was identified:
Challenges and weaknesses
Opportunities
Lack of resources and poor logistics and financial
capacity.
Window of opportunity following frequency of
hazards
The Dominant Perspective and Top-Down
Approach towards disaster risk management
Increase in political awareness on the subject
Weak links at the grassroots level to implement
mitigation programs at the community level.
Creation of PDMC and PDMA to facilitate the
DRM process
Low participation of vulnerable communities in
drought and flood mitigation planning process.
Development departments and partners to work in
coordination and collaboration
Poor integration between structural and nonstructural measures.
Existing institutions with development mandate
Lack of coordination among development and
relief agencies and departments.
Presence of NGOs and CBOs
Gaps in the implementation of development plans.
Flash flood waters should be trapped for use in
irrigation purposes
Research institutions in the province
Lack of technical human resources.
Conflict of interest among agencies.
Lack of early warning systems
Absence of equipment maintenance.
Lack of awareness on disaster risk reduction
Mindset of many involved agencies towards
disaster relief
Poor preparedness capacity of the emergency
services: Fire Brigade and Civil Defence
Departments
The identified challenges and opportunities are subject to further discussions and deliberation to agree
on how they affect the people of Balochistan.
36
CHAPTER 4: STRUCTURE OF DRM INSTITUTIONS
4.1
Structure for Disaster Risk Management in Balochistan
Provincial Disaster Management Commissions
(PDMC)
PROVINCIAL DISASTER
MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
(PDMA)
Provincial Emergency
Operation Centre
Provincial Departments
and Technical Agencies
DISTRICT DISASTER
MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
(DDMA/MDMA)
Technical and research
institutions of the
Provincial
TEHSIL
STRUCTURES
Community Based Organizations
(CBOs)
Citizen Community Boards (CCBs)
UNION COUNCIL
Figure: Balochistan Province Disaster Risk Management Structure
37
Media, Banks,
Insurance, Private
Sector. Donors, UN,
NGOs, CBOs,
Media, Provincial
Departments
(Provincial Platform for
Disaster Risk Management)
4.2
Roles and Responsibilities of Key Stakeholders
4.2.1 Provincial Disaster Management Commission (PDMC)
Disaster risk management being a provincial subject, the provincial government of Balochistan has a
crucial role in implementation of disaster risk management policies, strategies and programmes. A
Provincial Disaster Management Commission (PDMC) has been formed and this will be chaired by the
Chief Minister. Leader of opposition and a member to be nominated by him are also members of the
PDMC. Other members will be appointed by the Chief Minister. They may include stakeholders from
provincial ministries and departments, Civil Defence, Red Crescent Society, police, fire services,
university faculty, research institutions, civil society organizations, representatives from commerce,
industry and insurance sectors, and other technical experts in the province. The PDMC will facilitate
links between national objectives and provincial priorities. The Director General, Provincial Disaster
Management Authority (PDMA) will serve as the Member/Secretary of the PDMC with focal point
responsibilities for disaster policy, planning and implementation.
The Provincial Disaster Management Commission shall:
 Lay down the provincial/regional disaster risk management policy,
 Develop provincial/regional disaster risk management plan in accordance with guidelines laid
down by the National Commission,
 Ensure that disaster risk management plans are formulated by all departments, and
district/municipal authorities;
 Review the sectoral development plans of provincial departments and ensure that risk reduction
measures are integrated therein,
 Approve disaster risk management plans prepared by provincial departments,
 Review implementation of the plans,
 Oversee the provision of funds for risk reduction and preparedness measures,
4.2.2 Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA)
The Provincial Authority will be headed by a Provincial Director General with the status and powers
of a Secretary. The DG will be appointed by the Provincial Government. The Authority will serve as
secretariat of the Provincial Commission. It will work upon development, implementation and
monitoring and evaluation of disaster risk reduction activities in vulnerable areas and sectors in the
province. The provincial authority will have responsibility for the following.








Coordinate complete spectrum of disasters in the province,
Formulate provincial disaster risk management plan,
Continuously monitor hazards, risks and vulnerable conditions within the province,
Develop guidelines and standards for provincial and local stakeholders regarding their role in
disaster risk management,
Ensure preparation of disaster risk management plans by all districts;
Coordinate implementation of provincial disaster risk management plan in accordance with the
National Framework,
Promote education, awareness and training on disaster risk reduction and response;
Provide necessary technical assistance and advice to local authorities for carrying out their
functions effectively;
38



Coordinate emergency response in the event of a disaster, through the Provincial Emergency
Operations Centre (PEOC);
Develop specific capabilities to manage threats that exist in the province,
Perform such other functions as may be assigned by the Provincial Commission,
The PDMA in Balochistan will ensure the creation of a Provincial Platform for Disaster Risk
Management. The Platform will be a coordinating body that brings together technical staff of
development practitioners, NGOs and government departments involved in Disaster Risk Management
in Balochistan to meet on regular basis and exchange information, debate options and decisions on
activities formulated for referral to the Government, donors, NGOs and other actors. It will be an open
forum of high level technical staff representing a broad grouping of organizations at the provincial level
with interest in disaster risk management and building resilience of communities against potential
hazards.
The platform will be responsible for addressing disaster risk and development issues in the province, for
building trust and understanding, as well as maintaining institutional memory of the key provincial
actors. The platform will meet once a month, or as need may dictate and will be chaired by the Secretary
(or his representative) of the PDMA. The Committee will share approaches and guidelines on methods
and approaches for the coordination of both information and appropriate response measures on disaster
risks.
The platform will promote, strengthen and support the multi-agency approach to disaster risk
management in Balochistan. Specifically the Terms of Reference will be:
 Develop and implement mechanisms to coordinate the flow of disaster risk management and
information in the province, and develop procedures to ensure appropriate dissemination and
access to the information among the stakeholders.
 Coordinate the effective management of information and reporting among stakeholders and
when necessary shift the focus of such meetings from information sharing to action planning and
response coordination.
 Develop coordinated response mechanisms to be adopted by all relevant stakeholders. Such
guidelines should promote mitigation and early response activities.
 Develop and manage a geographical targeting and distribution system for food and non-food
responses to affected areas faced with stress conditions with the primary objective being to avoid
parallel structures and improve efficiency and impact.
 Provide technical advice and guidance to all relevant bodies on matters of disaster risk reduction
and management as appropriate.
 Thematic Working Groups for various needs and disaster risk management options will be
established as discussed in Part II (Paragraph 7.11) for adoption in Balochistan.
4.2.3 District and Municipal Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
District Disaster Management Authorities shall be established by the provincial government in hazard
prone areas on a priority basis. The District Authority will comprise of the Nazim, District Coordination
Officer (DCO), Police Officer ex-officio and EDO health. The local government can nominate other
officers as members of the DDMA or MDMA. They may include EDOs for education and agriculture,
Red Crescent, NGOs, media, private sector, fire services, or any other local stakeholders. Municipal
Disaster Management Authorities (MDMA) will be established in urban areas and cities on similar lines.
39
The DDMA and MDMA will:












Formulate district disaster risk management plan, based upon local risk assessment, and
coordinate its implementation,
Review development plans of government departments and provide guidance on mainstreaming
disaster risk reduction measures in these plans,
Continuously monitor hazards, risks and vulnerable conditions within the district, municipality,
or cantonment,
Prepare guidelines and standards for local stakeholders on disaster risk reduction,
Conduct education, training and public awareness programmes for local officials, stakeholders
and communities,
Encourage involvement of community groups in disaster risk reduction and response by
providing them necessary financial and technical assistance for implementing community level
initiatives,
Examine construction in the area and if hazard safety standards have not been followed, direct
the relevant entities to secure compliance of such standards,
Invest in specific capabilities according the requirement to manage all types of threat peculiar to
local area,
Undertake appropriate preparedness measures at district level; e.g. maintain an early warning
system, identify buildings to be used as evacuation sites, stockpile relief and rescue materials and
identify alternative means for emergency communications,
In the event of a disaster, organize emergency response through the District Emergency
Operations Centre (DEOC),
Keep linkages with the Provincial Disaster Management Authority and the Relief Department.
Perform such other functions as the Provincial Authority may assign to it,
4.2.4 Tehsil and Town Authorities
Institutions at this level are the frontline of disaster risk reduction and response. For many departments
this is the lowest level of administration where they interface directly with communities; agriculture,
education, health, police, revenue and others. Extension workers of above departments could play a
significant role in promoting risk reduction. For example agriculture extension workers could promote
awareness of drought, flood or cyclone resistant crops. Health workers could raise people’s awareness
about potential diseases that may occur after a flood or drought and how to prepare for them. Education
officials could work on school disaster preparedness. Similarly Tehsil Authorities have an important role
in organizing emergency response and relief; e.g. damage and loss assessment, recovery needs
assessment. Tehsil and town Nazims will lead in risk reduction and response operations with the help of
Tehsil or Town Municipal Officer in consultation with the DDMA. Other key players include; extension
workers, police, fire services, community organizations (COs), traditional leaders and NGOs.
Appropriate local structures would be established for risk reduction and preparedness.
4.2.5 Union Councils
Union Councils are the lowest tier in the governance structure. Elected representatives from village and
ward levels form these bodies. These bodies have an important role in allocation of resources for local
development works. Union Councils can play an important role in advocating demands of communities
to the District Councils and DM Authorities. Community demands may include requests for allocation
of resources from local budgets for hazard mitigation and vulnerability reduction activities; e.g. spurs for
flood control, rainwater harvesting structures for drought mitigation, vocational training for livelihoods
to reduce vulnerability etc. Therefore, it will be important to develop orientation and knowledge of local
40
political leadership at this level. More capable Union Councils may develop local policies and
guidelines for vulnerability reduction.
4.2.6 Community Based Organizations
In order to promote community level disaster risk management activities, the capacity of existing
community organizations will be developed and enhanced by district and Tehsil authorities. In the
absence of community organizations, new groups would be established to work on disaster risk
reduction and management. CBOs will be trained about local early warning system, evacuation, first aid,
search and rescue, fire fighting etc. Linkages would be developed between CBOs and relevant local
agencies; e.g. agriculture, banks, health and veterinary services to promote disaster preparedness. Skills
and knowledge of CBO leadership will also be developed in financial management, people management,
resource mobilization, interpersonal communication and presentation and negotiation skills. The
provision of Citizen Community Boards (CCBs) in Local Government Ordinance (LGO 2001) provides
a good opportunity to organize communities and mobilize resources for issues like local level disaster
risk management.
41
4.3
Roles of Provincial Government Departments in Balochistan
The following government departments in Balochistan perform different functions in their areas of
mandate that contribute to development and disaster risk management in the province. Generally,
government departments will do the following in relation to disaster risk management and response:

Establishment of Emergency Centre in their own departments for the coordination and in time
response in case of any emergency.

Provision of cranes, dumpers, loaders tractors, road rollers, heavy trucks, generators, search lights
and other machinery and cutters and other equipment necessary at the scene of incident.

Availability of standby skilled trained and qualified staffs that have the capacity of deal with any
type of disaster.

Repair, maintenance and replacement of hanging and damaged electric wires in case of disaster in
collaboration with power supply companies.

Establishment of mobile emergency teams for on spot repair of vehicle / Fire tenders and other
heavy machinery.

Keeping sufficient stock of search lights, heavy duty bulbs, lantern, lights torches, trolleys, ropes,
toe-chain, helmets etc. required in emergency.

Keeping standby arrangement to meet all emergencies related to electricity break down and cases of
electrocution

Displacement of heavy machinery out of rush area to meet any emergency and to reduce reacting
time.

Removal of debris, obstacles/road blocks to ensure smooth flow of traffic

Remove any encroachment obstructing the relief work.

Restoration of normalcy after disaster or major livelihood disruption in the province.
Other department specific activities in relation to disaster risk management are:
4.3.1 Agriculture and Food Department
The Agricultural Engineering Department is composed of engineers specialized in rural agriculture.
These are responsible for field work, workshops’ maintenance, running department’s stores, maintaining
accounts and dealing with administrative affairs that contributes to development in the province thus
reducing disaster risk. The human resource strength of the department is 1952. The department mainly
deals with provision of machinery for creation and maintenance of access roads to agricultural areas in
the province. The department has heavy machinery such as tractor, lifting cranes, and others.
The main functions of the department in relation to disaster risk management are:
Mitigation
 Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities in
hazard prone areas;
42






Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis for food, agriculture and livestock sectors in hazardprone areas, particularly in relation to floods, droughts, cyclones and locust;
Ensure sustainable livelihoods in areas of recurrent climate risks (i.e. arid and semi-arid zones,
flood and drought prone areas) by promoting supplementary income generation from off-farm
(e.g. animal husbandry) and non-farm activities;
Promote effective insurance and credit schemes to compensate for crop damage and losses to
livelihoods due to natural hazards;
Levelling of Agricultural Land and Construction of Dykes / Sailaba Bundat, to harness the runoff
of rainfall, thus conserving moisture for utilization in Sailaba (flood) cultivation, and preparation
of new land on stream bed, which is formed after silting up.
Construction of micro dams for the storage of flash-water with a view to maintain and recharge
the aquifer to ensure regular availability of irrigation water through neighbouring springs, tube
wells, and open surface wells,
Reclamation and development of cultivable wastelands,
Preparedness
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability of
food, agriculture and livestock to disaster risks;
 Coordinate with PMDA, and research institutions to establish warning systems for identification
of risks to food, agriculture and livestock sectors;
 Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets;
 Promote contingency crop planning to deal with year to year climate variations and crop
diversification including use of hazard resistant crops, to deal with shifts in climate patterns;
 Develop capacity and raise awareness of staff of departments at provincial levels, local extension
workers and farmers on disaster preparedness for food, agriculture and livestock sectors;
Response
 Assist in saving crops, agricultural land and livestock in disaster situation;
 Make available inputs like seed plant, fertilizers and agricultural equipment to victims of
disasters on credit basis;
 Survey and investigate extent of damages to crops and livestock;
 Ensure adequate availability of food stocks in disaster situation;
 Organize ration depots at location required by the local authorities;
 Restoration of flood damages to agricultural fields, roads and railway tracks during emergency
 Provision of agricultural machinery to farmers on subsidized rates for harvesting and threshing
of wheat and paddy.
4.3.2 Livestock & Dairy Development Department
The mission of Livestock and Dairy Department is to create an environment for enhancement of
livestock production as a vehicle for social security, poverty alleviation, and rural development and to
contribute towards domestic requirements of food and exportable surpluses in Balochistan.
Livestock & Dairy Development Department (established 1973) caters to the requirements of livestock
sector in the province. Livestock is a very vital sector for the rural people’s livelihoods in the majority of
Balochistan, contributing even more than all the other agricultural crops combined. Other services
offered by the department towards disaster risk management are:
43
Mitigation
 Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis for food, livestock sectors in hazard-prone areas,
particularly in relation to droughts and locust;
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability of
drought risks to livestock,
 Coordinate with PMDA, and research institutions to establish warning systems for identification
of risks to livestock sector;
 Develop capacity and raise awareness of staff of the department at provincial levels, local
extension workers and farmers on disaster preparedness for livestock sectors;
 Ensure sustainable livelihoods in areas of recurrent climate risks (i.e. arid and semi-arid zones,
and drought prone areas) by promoting supplementary income generation from off-farm (e.g.
animal husbandry) and non-farm activities; provide market outlets for the products of rural
farmers.
Preparedness






Provide early warning information to livestock farmers regarding drought.
Ensure fodder security to the rural livestock economy
Provide veterinary services to the livestock farmers
Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities in
hazard prone areas with relation to livestock sub-sector;
Promote contingency planning to deal with year to year climate variations and that trigger and
exacerbate drought
Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets;
Response


Provide emergency animal feeds in times of extreme bad weather such as severe drought
Provide emergency animal vaccines during outbreaks of animal diseases.
4.3.3 Irrigation and Power Department
The Irrigation network in Balochistan comprises irrigation canals, drains, tube-wells, small dams and
flood protection infrastructure on the main rivers flowing in the province. According to the Agricultural
Census the area under run-off and spate irrigation fluctuates between 30,000 and 150,000 ha in
Balochistan Province. The areas under canal irrigation and minor (including groundwater) irrigation
each are comparable and are 140,000 ha. The core functions of the Irrigation and Power Department in
relation to disaster risk management are:
Mitigation
 Develop capacities of the Irrigation Department to mitigate floods and droughts

Assist local authorities and communities in building rain water harvesting tanks and systems in
arid zones

Operation and upkeep of the irrigation system of the province;

Planning, prioritization and implementation of maintenance works through approved O&M
Work Plans, and under third party top supervision of existing irrigation systems ;
44

Optimize the use of water resources in the province by the equitable distribution of irrigation
water supplies

Provide for and executing plans for the management of river floods in the province, and to
construct and maintain flood protection programs/works;

Promote the participation of beneficiaries in the management of the irrigation and drainage
systems of the province, in line with the requirements of the Irrigation Act



Administer the Electricity Act and Village Electrification matters.
Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis for flood prone areas;
Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability to
flood and other risks that may disrupt livelihoods in the irrigation areas.

Preparedness
 Complete repairs of flood protection works in the pre flood season


Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets;
Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities in
flood and drought prone areas;
Response
 De-silt of irrigation canals after the floods

Providing assistance and evacuating trapped people during floods
4.3.4 Environment Department and Environment Protection Agency
The Environment Protection Department of Government of Balochistan plays an important role in
improving the plight of common man and bringing about a perceptible change within the society by
minimizing and eliminating adverse environmental effects of effluents being discharged from industrial
activity, wastes of all kinds and pollution detrimental to public health, safety and welfare. The
Department enforces qualitative and quantitative standards for discharge of effluents, waste, air
pollutants or noise either for the general applicability or for a particular area or from a particular source
in the form of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) and other standards established under
the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 and any rules and regulations framed there under. The
department functions under the provisions of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997. Its main
functions and duties in relation to disaster risk management are:
Mitigation
 Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis for environmental hazards and resources
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability of
hazards

Administer laws, rules and regulations relating to the environment within the province.

Evaluate Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
of new projects and issue No Objection Certificates (NOCs).

Provide information and create awareness in public for environmental issues.

Enforce National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) to control pollution.

Establish systems for surveys, surveillance and monitoring of the pollutants and maintain
laboratory for testing and monitoring.
45






Take measures to promote sustainable development and provide information on environment
friendly technology.
Incorporate Natural Disaster Risk Assessment in the Environmental Impact Assessment
guidelines;
Develop technical capacities of the staff of department to undertake disaster risk assessment and
disaster risk reduction activities in the environment sector;
Undertake assessment of vulnerability of natural resources (forest, lakes, streams, mangroves,
coral reefs, protected areas, coastal areas) to natural and human induced hazards;
Implement programmes for conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources in order to
reduce risks of natural hazards; e.g. reforestation, mangrove plantation, combating
desertification, conservation of special natural resources; e.g. wetlands, lakes, reefs, mangroves,
and coastal areas;
Allocate resources for implementation of programmes to conserve and rehabilitate the natural
resource base, particularly in up-stream areas of rivers
Preparedness
 Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets;
 Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities in
hazard prone areas and protection of the environment;
 Develop disaster risk management plan for risk reduction and response with relation to
department’s mandate;

Provide Ambient Air Quality Testing & Monitoring facilities.
Response
 Develop mechanisms for assessment of environmental losses and damages in the aftermath of
disasters and their rehabilitation;
4.3.5 Health Department
The Health department, an executive unit of the provincial government, is responsible to provide health
services and deals with all matters related to regulating the health sector in the light of federal and
provincial health policies and programs’ guidelines. The provincial set-up provides technical assistance,
policy cover, and implementation of some preventive programs only. Therefore, statistics on health
facilities and human resources may be seen keeping this observation. The mission of the department is
to provide health services to all through augmentation of sustainable health initiatives focusing on
human resource development and private sector and community participation
The main functions in relation to disaster risk management are:
Mitigation
 Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis for health related issues;
 Conduct hazard based mapping of all health care facilities, including vulnerability assessment
(infrastructure and organizational setup) and integrate hazard resilience measures;
 Develop a disease surveillance system to identify hotspots for communicable disease in the
province;
 Enhance disaster management capacities of health work force (all cadres at all levels) in
collaboration with other departments;
46



Prepare protocols and guidelines to address all priority public health issues as part of
preparedness, response and recovery plans;
Integrate disaster preparedness and response capacities into all existing and future health
programs at provincial and district level;
Build effective linkages and coordination with all health agencies/ stakeholders;
Preparedness
 Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with communicable diseases, injuries following
mass causality accidents and disasters with relation to department’s mandate and assets;
 Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability to
health risks
 Act as focal point for managing all aspect of healthcare preparedness, response and recovery in
a disaster situation in close coordination with the PDMA;
 Prepare disaster risk management plan for each level of health care facilities, including
management of mass casualties, epidemics and submit this plan to the PDMA for better
coordination of efforts;
 Provide technical support in all health related areas to PDMA
 Device strategies for community involvement in all aspects of emergency preparedness,
response and recovery plans with regards to health sector;
Response
 Establish emergency health operation to ensure better coordination and mobilization in
emergency/ disaster situation at all levels;
 Set-up medical camps and mobilize emergency health teams including mobile hospitals, to be
deployed in the event of a disaster;
 Mobilize all available health resources and possible assets for emergency interventions;
4.3.6 Public Health and Engineering (PHE)
The mission of PHE is to facilitate the deprived rural population to have access to safe drinking water in
order to eliminate sufferings of women fetching drinking water from far flung areas and to eradicate
water borne diseases. The main functions in relation to disaster risk management are:
Mitigation
 Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis for drinking water safety
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability to
unsafe water;
 Identify potential water supply schemes in terms of priority for development;
 Improvement of sewerage system and sanitary conditions to control flood risk;
 Proper management of water supply and sewerage facilities;
 Social organization of communities to enable them to participate in scheme design and
development;
 Maintain and update records of all water supply schemes using Management Information System
(MIS); and
 Service matters except those entrusted to Services and General Administration department.
 Make available piped water, in adequate quantity, for drinking and house-hold purposes;
47
Preparedness
 Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets;
 Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities in
relation to access of safe drinking water;
 Prepare technical design for the identified schemes;
 Protection of water sources from contamination by continuous water treatment and stream
pollution control;
Response
 Provide clean drinking water during emergencies and disaster situations
 Develop disaster risk management plans to the department’s mandate and capacities
 Work with other stakeholders to assess the safety of water for safe drinking and domestic use as
well as ensure proper sanitation services to minimize water contamination after disaster.
4.3.7 Planning and Development
The mission of the Planning Department is to plan judiciously the scarce financial resources to improve
socio-economic conditions of the masses of the province. The main functions in relation to risk
management are:
Mitigation
 Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities in
development programming;
 Undertake vulnerability, risk and capacity analysis for development programmes and projects.
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability to
disaster risks
 Planning including policy development;
 Economic research and matters relating to sustainable development
 Processing of all development schemes, programs and proposals submitted by other Departments
and making recommendations to Government thereon;
 To evaluate the progress of development schemes and write their critical appraisal;
 Initiation of measures for giving suitable publicity to the Development Plan and educating the
Public on the results achieved from time to time;
 Work with autonomous bodies i.e. Quetta Development Authority, Balochistan Development
Authority, Gawadar Development Authority, Balochistan Coastal Development Authority, and
Balochistan Water and Sanitation Authority;
 Inter-departmental Co-operation in cases relating to Economic Policy and Development;
 Monitoring and evaluation of all development projects and programs in the province
 Assist development projects and programmes to incorporate DRR/M in their implementation.
Response

Assist PDMA in evaluation of damages and losses after disaster
48
4.3.8 Local Government and Rural Development Department
Local Government is public business, managed by the elected representatives of the people. Local
Government as such is the legal institution created by statute, whose decisions have the force of law within
a specific geographic area and these are a part of the integrated system and share responsibility with other
level of government for provision of varied public services. Main functions in relation to disaster risk
management are:
Mitigation
 Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis for rural populations
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability and
building community resilience
 To regulate Government institution in Balochistan for transparent and efficient governance
 To enable local government institutions to develop efficient service delivery to the people
 To help institution building at grass root levels for social empowerment.
 Undertake vulnerability analysis of the local government property and infrastructure located in
hazard prone areas
 Integrate vulnerability reduction strategies in the development infrastructure and property
 Organize orientation of department staff in hazard prone areas on disaster risk assessment and
vulnerability reduction.
Preparedness



Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets;
Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities in
rural areas
Provide additional funding for disaster risk reduction initiatives at local and rural level
Response

Equip and develop the capacities of emergency response departments within the department for
effective emergency response.
4.3.9 Finance Department
The Department offers financial services and advisory as well as management of certain government
funds. In relation to disaster risk management, the department:




Coordinates with PDMA about needs for financial resources to promote disaster risk
management programmes in the province;
Allocate financial resources to PDMA and other line ministries and departments for
implementation of disaster risk management activities as part of their development plans;
Allocate funds for the establishment of a Provincial Disaster Management Fund, which could be
utilized to organize emergency relief and to monetize the affected areas;
Monitor and evaluate utilization of funds by relevant authorities and departments on disaster risk
management;
49


Encourage financial service sectors and local capital markets to develop schemes for financing
disaster risk reduction measures by families and community organizations;
Incorporate provisions in micro-finance schemes to have flexible repayment schedules for
recipients who have been affected by a disaster;
4.3.10
Communication, Works, PP&H (C&W) Department
The mission of the department is to contribute in socio-economic uplift of Balochistan by developing
road infrastructure and constructing buildings to support development activities. The main functions in
relation to disaster risk management include:
Mitigation
 Develop provincial building codes for safer construction of houses, buildings and infrastructure
in hazard-prone areas for multiple hazards; e.g. earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms/cyclones;
 Develop sample designs of house, high-rise buildings and infrastructure (bridges, roads) for safer
construction in hazard-prone rural and urban areas;
 Promote sample-safer-designs through media and other channels in order to enhance mass level
awareness and application;
 Promote compliance and enforcement of local building laws requiring prescribed standards
under National Building Codes in hazard-prone urban areas;
 Conduct training of builders, contractors and masons on safer construction methods;
 Allocate funds for promoting safer construction practices;
 Implement pilot programmes on safer construction in hazard-prone areas to enhance awareness;
 Monitor construction of government buildings and infrastructure in hazard prone areas to ensure
that safer construction techniques are followed;
 Incorporate disaster risk assessment in the planning process for construction of new roads and
bridges;
 Promote use of hazard risk information in land-use planning and zoning programmes;
 Construction, maintenance, repairs and fixation of disaster resistant residential and non
residential government buildings, dak bungalows and circuit houses and supply of equipment.
 Coordination between the federal government, provincial government’s departments and
agencies regarding implementation of National Housing Policy.
 Construction, maintenance and repairs of provincial, district and rural roads, bridges, tunnels and
causeway etc.
 Coordination with the federal government / National Highway Authority regarding construction
and maintenance of national highways.
Preparedness
 Prepare a disaster risk management plan with relation to Department programs, infrastructure
and mandate;
 Develop guidelines on conduct of damage and loss assessment to infrastructure and housing
sectors in the wake of a disaster, and conduct assessments after disasters;
Response
 Organize emergency repairs for restoration of public transport routes after major disaster;
 Create access route for emergency response after major disaster
50
4.3.11
Information Technology Department
The mission of the department is to promote Information Technology (IT) as a viable commercial
industry, with special emphasis on the area of human capital development, e-government, e-commerce
and to highlight the potential for capital investments and business development opportunities in the
province. Following the National IT Policy and Action Plan, Balochistan Government is coordinating
with the Ministry of IT & Telecommunication for identification and formulation of large scale IT
projects. Balochistan IT department is mainly focusing on the development of human resource required
for the realization e-government and the needed infrastructure with automation of business processes. IT
plays a key role in disaster risk management discourse in contemporary world. Some key functions
related to disaster risk management are:
Mitigation
 Ensure that ITU based standards and practices are implemented by the operators at the province
and especially the disaster risk management institutions and departments ;
 Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management activities
 Undertake vulnerability and risk analysis on IT infrastructure
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability of IT
infrastructure to disaster risks;
 Development of IT infrastructure in public and government sectors;
 IT development initiatives in private sector; and Promoting IT education and development.
Preparedness
 Develop alternative technologies to facilitate telecommunication during disaster in affected
areas, in case of the collapse of mainstream communication systems;
 Coordinate with PDMA and the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) to ensure the
provision of alternative communication technology and services to disaster survivors and
response agencies;
 Ensure safety of telecommunication infrastructure in hazard-prone areas;
 Develop trained manpower working in subordinate organizations who could be called in
emergency for restoration purposes;
 Maintain through the National Telecommunication Corporation (NTC) a pool of telecom
equipment preferably satellite/wireless based for provision and establishment of emergency
telecom network.
 Develop disaster risk management plan to mitigate against hazards and disasters that may affect
the IT infrastructure in the province, with relation to department’s mandate and assets;
 Work with PDMA to have a robust communication infrastructure for efficient use in times of
disaster
Response
 Focal department for telecom resource management during disaster relief operations;
4.3.12
Industries Department
The mission of the Industries and Mineral Development Department (I&MD) is to promote and facilitate
Industry and Mineral Development, Information Technology and Technical, Commercial/Vocational
Training in Balochistan. The main objectives and functions of the department are:
51
Mitigation
 Establish systems to monitor implementation of guidelines by industrial sector;
 Develop system of incentives and disincentives for industry to promote application of disaster
safety;
 Implement awareness raising programmes for industrial sector including Chambers of
Commerce and Industry (CCI) on integrating disaster risk assessment and vulnerability reduction
in project planning and implementation stages;
 Monitor and encourage implementation of safety codes in industry;
 Providing technical assistance to prospective investors with special emphasis on small & cottage
industries.
 Registration& Inspection of Boilers and adjudication of cases.
 Infrastructure development in Small industrial Estates and developing Export Processing Zones.
Preparedness
 Develop disaster risk management plan with regards to the mandate of the Department in the
province;
 Develop guidelines for industrial sector to ensure safety of industry and its production processes
in hazard-prone areas;
 Prepare inventories of industries based upon the type of chemicals and raw materials used in
their products and the dangers posed by various types of industries;
 Initiate demonstration programmes on industrial disaster preparedness;
 Develop physical capability to manage all types of likely industrial disasters including chemical
disasters” after appropriately rewording.
 Develop safety codes for all industries to reduce risks of industrial and chemical hazards and to
ensure vulnerability reduction from natural hazards;
 Develop SOPs for emergency response to industrial disasters;
4.3.13
Forest, Wildlife and Fisheries Department
The department takes care of the protection of the forest, wildlife and the aquatic resources. Some of the
functions in relation to disaster risk management are:
Mitigation

Technical advice for rangeland planting and raising of tree nurseries for afforestation and
reafforestation programmes.

Coordinate with the PDMA and other scientific agencies to gather information about hazards and
risks prevalent in rangelands that may lead to desertification;


Build capacity of the staff of department at the province on disaster preparedness in wildlife
sector;
Create awareness through biennial tree planting and reafforestation programmes

Supply of drought resistant seeds of tree species to farmers and communities.

Control grazing of animal to rangeland areas that have endangered tree species.

Supply of timber, firewood, grazing grass and other minor forest produce through open public
sales.

Advice for marketing and industrialization of forestry products.
52

Develop recreational facilities in a sustainable manner in the rangeland areas.

Ensure a pollution free liveable environment in the areas of mandate.

Offer forestry educations to institutions and schools.

Management of fisheries resources

Conservation of fish stock and Development of fisheries potential

Extension and research services as per department’s mandate
Preparedness

Develop disaster risk management plan with regards to the mandate of the department in the
province

Publish materials for communities and other stakeholders about seasonality of hazards and risks
in areas of grazing for pasture and water
4.3.14
Mines And Minerals Department
In pursuance of National Mineral Policy 1995, the Government of Balochistan created Mines and
Mineral department in March 2002. The main function of the department is to facilitate the exploration
and mining activities, and extend services in this regard. Three wings namely Directorate General of
Mines and Minerals, Inspectorate of Mines, and Mines Labour Welfare Organization, Balochistan, are
working in the department to achieve the objectives assigned to the department. The following are the
key functions.
 Grant of Concessions of minerals.
 Regulation of Balochistan Mining Concession Rules.
 Collection of royalty and rent, and resolving the boundary disputes.
 Technical assistance / advice to the mines owners for scientific exploration of minerals.
 Identification, implementation and monitoring of development projects.
The Director (Technical) Exploration / Environmental / Promotion and Cartographer (Geologist /
Mining Engineer) compiles and evaluates geo-data and make available geographical maps and services
to the industry. He also Provides advisory services to the industry and conducts inspection of mines,
quarries and exploration sites to study environmental and land rehabilitation conditions and plans;
collects and analyzes data and makes recommendations as the case may require.
In the light of the following mentioned Laws and Regulation Acts, (Mines Act 1923, Coal Mines
Regulation 1926, Metaliferous Mines Regulations 1926, Consolidated Mines Rules 1952, Electricity
Rules 1937); the Inspectorate of Mines performs the following functions:
•
•
•
•
Perform periodical inspection of every mine by making at least 10 inspections in each month to
verify the safety provision of Mines Act, 1923, Rules and Regulations made there under.
Make inquiries in case of fatal accidents and to take punitive action against the defaulters as
provided under the law.
Attend mine emergencies in case of accident by providing rescue facilities to the mine
operators/owners in all mines.
Conduct mine safety training to the supervisory staff of mines by arranging refreshers courses at
the established rescue stations free of cost.
53
The Inspectorate has two wings: Inspection Wing and Mine Rescue and Safety Wing.
Inspection Wing for Industrial hazard safety: This wing is responsible for periodical inspections of
mines and prosecution of the defaulter who violate the safety provisions of Mines Act 1923. Five
Inspectors of mines and five Junior Inspectors are working at Quetta, Sibi, Nasirabad, Zhob and Kalat
districts.
Mine Rescue and Safety Wing for emergency response: This wing is responsible to impart training to
the mines supervisor and technicians in mines safety and rescue work. The Wing also provides rescue
services, in cases of emergency, to the effected workers of mines if any mishap occurs. The following
offices are rendering rescue and safety services:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Central Mines Rescue and safety station Sanjidi, District Quetta.
Mines Rescue & Safety Training Centre Narwar, District, Quetta.
Mines Rescue & Safety Training Centre, Mach.
Mines Rescue & Safety Training Centre Duki, District, Loralai.
Mines Training Centre Quetta.
Other mitigation functions are:
 Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets;
 Allocate funds in annual budget for enforcement of safety regulations in mines and industries;
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability to
accidents in mines and industries;
 Mines& Minerals: Geological surveys, Regulating mines, Enforcement of Mineral Rules, Grant
& Transfer of prospecting licenses and mineral leases.
4.3.15
Education Department
Education lies at the heart of the dynamic and complex relationship that profoundly influences the
destiny of individuals and society as a whole. Both formal and non formal education and particularly
basic education and training especially for girls, are vehicles of empowerment as well as essential to
addressing the root causes of poverty inequality and exclusion. A powerful correlation exists between
education and attainment of goals aimed at building the resilience of communities. The following are the
main functions of the department in relation to disaster risk reduction and management:
Mitigation
 Develop curriculum for schools, colleges and universities on disaster risk management,
particularly in hazard-prone areas;
 Implement school, college and university level activities to enhance awareness of students and to
promote overall preparedness in educational institutions through conducting drills, reducing
vulnerability etc;
 Identify and inventory vulnerable educational institutions and infrastructure of the department in
hazard-prone areas;
 Implement actions to reduce vulnerability of built infrastructure in education sector in hazardprone areas, e.g. retrofitting, renovation, rebuilding etc;
 Construct all new schools, colleges, universities and other educational buildings located in
hazard-prone areas to higher standards of hazard resilience;
54
Preparedness
 Develop a disaster risk management plan for the Department covering aspects of risk reduction,
preparedness and response and curriculum development on disaster risk education in schools and
learning institutions;
 Develop capacities in schools of hazard prone areas to cater for additional water, sanitation and
other administrative chores to affected populations in the event of disaster;
 Encourage local educational authorities and teachers to prepare school disaster response plans
and their implementation;
 Allocate funds for safer construction and disaster preparedness activities at school, college, and
university levels in hazard-prone areas;
 Conduct orientation programmes to raise awareness of education authorities, professors and
teachers about disaster risks in hazard-prone areas;
Response
 Provide provisional assistance on education on times of disaster to ensure continuity of learning
4.3.16
Social Welfare and Special Education Department
The Social Welfare Department aims at providing a better Social milieu by helping the neglected
handicapped and socially disadvantaged people. This objective is achieved through use of techniques
and methods, which are designed to enable individuals, groups and communities to solve their problems
and felt needs through cooperative actions, and relying on their own resources. The Social Welfare
Department performs some of the following functions in relation to disaster risk management:Mitigation
 Conduct research to identify most vulnerable social groups in hazard- prone areas in the
province;
 Coordinate with PDMA and the Ministry of Law, Justice and Human Rights to ensure that needs
of most vulnerable social groups are addressed during disasters;
 Registration and Control of Voluntary Social Welfare Organizations.
 Supervision and Control of Orphanages.
 Special Education and Rehabilitation of the Disabled.
 Rehabilitation of poor and destitute, through Training and Rehabilitation Centres.
 Coordination of Social Welfare Programmes /Schemes.
 Capacity building for the prevention, early detection of disability in childhood.
 Assessment of the scope of the problem of childhood/other age group in the province.
 Strengthening of Community based rehabilitative services for disabled and disadvantaged
persons.
 Involvement of the community, and family, especially mothers in the rehabilitation of their
children with disability.
Preparedness
 Prepare department’s plan to address disaster vulnerabilities of most vulnerable social groups;
e.g. minorities, women, disabled, children before, during and after disasters;
 Develop awareness and capacities of the department staff about the role of social welfare in
disaster risk management;
 Implement awareness raising, and preparedness programmes with most vulnerable social groups;
55

Prepare inventories about potential post disaster needs of most vulnerable social groups through
conducting assessments in hazard prone areas;
Response
 Make institutional (establishment of a committee, establishment of outreach offices during
disasters and arrangements for provision of relief and recovery assistance to most vulnerable
social groups;
 Manage post-hospitalization care, recovery and rehabilitation of poor and vulnerable casualties
after disaster;
 Manage upkeep and rehabilitation of all vulnerable groups in post disaster scenario;
4.3.17
Power Department – Renewable Energy
The Government of Balochistan assigns a high priority to provide electricity to lesser developed areas of
the province. As the traditional methods, depending upon hydro energy, are not sufficient to meet the
demand and that the thermal energy resources are expensive and environmentally unsafe, renewable
energy resources are to be exploited, wherever feasible, for sustainable development at village, district
and divisional levels in the province. To develop the renewable energy resources the Government of
Balochistan plans to undertake the following projects:


Install windmill and solar energy systems in coastal areas were sufficient data is available for
design purposes, and carryout detailed feasibility study for the remaining areas
Integration of warning system to tsunami and cyclone safety in the coastal area.
4.3.18
Sports, Culture, Tourism, Youth Affairs Department
The Department of Culture, Archives and Tourism strives to protect the cultural heritage of Balochistan,
both tangible as well as intangible, and promote tourism in the province. The Gawadar project, Coastal
highway and communication linkages connecting Pakistan to central Asia will open up attraction sites to
the whole world. Functions generally in relation to disaster risk management include:
Mitigation













Promotion and Propagation of sustainable Tourism in the province.
Promotion & Development of Sports & Sports facilities.
Promotion & Preservation of our Cultural Heritage.
Promote disaster risk management education in cultural activities and education in the province
Development of Museums and Promotion of Youth Affairs.
promote cultural activities in the province;
highlight Balochistan’s distinct cultural heritage by arranging exhibitions, dances and music
programmes featuring particularly folksongs;
impart training in folk arts and fine arts including calligraphy;
To promote and develop tourist hazard safety in Balochistan.
To establish the requisite infrastructure for tourism promotion.
To develop tourism related commercial projects which take into consideration public safety.
To develop tourist facilities: Hotels, rest houses, and restaurants and ensure safety in those
facilities.
To set up Tourist Information Centres to provide relevant information.
56
Preparedness
 Develop disaster risk management plan to deal with hazards and disasters with relation to
department’s mandate and assets especially focussing on safety in sports and social affairs
facilities ;
 Allocate funds in annual budget for implementation of disaster risk management and reduction
activities in accident prone areas of sports and social facilities in the province;
 Coordinate with PDMA and jointly identify appropriate actions for reducing vulnerability
following accidents in social gatherings and sports arenas.
Response
 Participate in disaster and emergency response as per the department
4.3.19
Legal Department
The mission of the Law Department is to watch and protect the interest of the State in the Courts of Law
and to put into proper form provincial legislation and assist the Provincial Government in its legal
matters. Under the Balochistan Government Rules of Business, 1976, the following business is assigned
to the Law Department in relation to disaster risk management:






Develop appropriate laws and regulations to ensure the provision of relief and recovery packages to
disaster survivors;
Monitor the situation of human rights in affected areas and take action on human rights violations of
disaster survivors; e.g. denial of aid, capturing of property, kidnapping of children or women, and
harm to elderly;
Work with relevant UN agencies and other organisations to ensure the human rights of affected
people following disaster are upheld;
Prepare reports about potential bottlenecks that may hinder certain vulnerable groups of disaster
survivors from receiving relief and rehabilitation packages;
Implement programmes to raise awareness of the staff of ministry on human rights and disasters;
Advice to Departments on all legal matters, including interpretation of laws, rules and orders having
the force of law in relation to disaster risk management.
4.3.20
Information Department
It is an attached department of the provincial government responsible for the over all publicity and
public relation. It is through this department that the government in the province keeps contact with
mass media including newspapers, magazines, radio, TV and cinema. At least one of its representatives
works with each department/organization of the province as Public Relations Officer and provides news
to the mass media through the department’s Directorate. The department is crucial for raising public
awareness on disaster risk management initiatives in the province. The main functions in relation to
disaster risk reduction are:
 Develop a communication action plan to ensure the availability of communication services in
case of the occurrence of a disaster;
 Coordinate with the PDMA to receive information about the disaster risks and preparedness
strategies, particularly about community preparedness;
 Train the staff of communications ministry and the private sector media personnel from
electronic, and print media to raise their awareness about disaster risks and the role of media in
promoting community preparedness
57



Implement programmes on awareness raising of vulnerable communities in high risk areas of the
country;
Arrangement of inter-provincial goodwill / informational / educational tours for purposes of
learning good practice experiences
Addressing any other media/communication related issues as required in relation to disaster risk
management.
4.3.21
Women Development Department
The main mission of the department is to eliminate gender discrimination against women, help women
achieve equal status to that of men in all walks of life. The functions in relation to disaster risk
management include:








Develop disaster risk management plan with regards to the mandate of the department at
the province;
Raise awareness of decision makers and staff at the department about special
vulnerabilities and capacities of women with relation to disasters;
Make institutional arrangements for involvement of women in disaster risk management;
Promote awareness amongst women in hazard-prone areas about disaster risks and
disaster preparedness;
Develop capacities of women’s organizations on disaster risk management;
Ensure that needs of women survivors are addressed in post disaster situations during the
relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction phases;
Facilitate participation of women in the management of relief, rehabilitation and
reconstruction activities;
Support post-disaster rehabilitation of livelihoods of women survivors, which is mostly in
the informal sector and is ignored many times;
4.3.22
The District Police Department
The mission of the police force is to improve the quality of civic life by working in partnership with the
community to preserve peace, reduce fear and to maintain maximize law and order. Main functions in
most times are to respond to emergencies to ensure public safety. Some of the functions in relation to
disaster risk management are:








Maintenance of law and order situation in and around the incidence scene
Cordon the affected area and control mob/crowd to facilitate the rescue operation
Provide all relevant help/assistance to the rescue workers to carry out the emergency work
without any distortion/interference
Provide necessary help in evacuation of causalities from the affected area and arrange
guidance/traffic cover
Protect the resource and equipment required and being used at the scene of incidence/rescue.
Prevention and detection of crime.
Protection of life and property.
Beef up/reinforce the resources required at the scene of accident.
4.3.23
The Traffic Police
These mainly participate in preparedness and response. Their capacity should be developed to be
equipped with disaster risk management knowledge.
58




Ensure free flow of rescue and public transport vehicles and transport
Ensure easy access for emergency/rescue vehicles to disaster sites
To arrange sufficient space for the deployment of emergency vehicles by manning traffic signals
Provision of cranes, toe-chain, mobile workshop or any other machinery required in connection with
crises management through other sources not covered in these instructions.

Make alternate traffic plan to avoid inconvenience to general public and ensure unhindered rescue
work at the scene of accident.

To provide reflective lights/reflectors around the scene of incident at night, to facilitate the working
of rescue workers/fire-fighters and to indicate the troubled areas.
4.3.24
The Fire Brigade
The Fire Brigade Department will mainly develop its capacity for disaster preparedness and response in
the province. Some of the key functions are:
Preparedness
 Training of manpower during peace time to work in all sorts of environments especially under
poisonous gases and nuclear / biological and chemical warfare








Identification of high risk area vulnerable to fire hazards and conducting public awareness
programmes on fire safety
Standby arrangements to meet any unexpected situation during and after a major incidence
Purchase and maintain fire fighting machinery and equipment;
Develop fire risk monitoring systems in urban localities;
Raise awareness of citizens and stakeholders; e.g. hotel, restaurant, shop owners, petrol pump
owners, about potential fire risks and strategies for combating fire;
Develop technical skills of volunteers on fire fighting;
Conduct fire fighting drills on regular basis;
Establishment of Emergency Operation Centre at several district headquarters
Response

Deployment of necessary staff with duty roaster and telephone numbers of local persons of other
coordinating agencies.

Deployment of fire tenders, water Bowsers, fire fighting equipment, rescue vehicles and other
fire fighting equipment, heavy machinery at the scene of incident/disaster.

To coordinate efforts made by the concerned agencies to control the incident appropriately.

Prioritize the work as per the situation and issue instruction to all concerned to start activities
concurrently.


Rescue of people from fire traps and debris and providing first aid as appropriate
Deploy fire fighting teams;
4.3.25
The Civil Defence Department
The Fire Civil Defence will mainly develop its capacity for disaster preparedness and response in the
province. Some of the key functions are:
59
Preparedness
 Create community awareness on public safety
 Recruit/induct operational staff for SAR teams with required specialized skills;
 Enhance capabilities of the existing Search and Rescue teams of Pakistan;
 Ensure provision of trained rescue workers / Razakars and First Aid Staff
 Educate and train people / volunteers on first aid and emergency evacuations and protection
procedures against poisonous gases, chemical/biological/radiological explosions or attack.
 Participate in emergency drills
Response









Save lives by rapid extrication of persons trapped beneath debris or in buildings damaged by a
natural or man made disaster;
Render first aid to injured persons and transport them to nearest hospitals;
Ensure evacuation from damaged buildings/structures including demolition of damaged
structures to avoid further loss of life and properties;
Provide quick and effective search and rescue coverage, protection and operation in case of any
disaster;
Assist in debris clearance and restoration of essential services to the affected buildings;
Search and defuse unexploded bombs in the affected areas;
Provide handy emergency rescue equipment as may be deemed fit
Work with the Fire Brigade in Rescue and First Aid operations related to fire and other rescue
incidents
Keep sirens operation for warning
4.3.26 Provincial Meteorological Department
The Pakistan Meteorological Department is both a scientific and a service department. It is responsible
for providing meteorological service throughout Pakistan to wide variety of interest and for numerous
public activities and projects which require weather information. Apart from meteorology, the
department is also concerned with Agro-meteorology, Hydrology, Astronomy and Astrophysics
Seismology, Geomagnetism, etc. Department provides information on meteorological and
geophysical matters with the objective of traffic safety in air, on land and sea, mitigation of disasters
due to weather and geophysical phenomena, agriculture development based on climatic potential of the
country, prediction and modification of weather forecast. The department also appraises weather data
and trends for longer term predictions and preparedness. The department disseminates warning about
hazards to relevant users for early response such as evacuation.
4.3.27 Major Hospitals
Hospitals will develop their capacity in readiness to receive and treat casualties following disaster or
offer services to combat diseases. The hospitals should be built to withstand major hazards in the
province. Some core functions are:
 Receive causalities and injured in case of a major incidence
 Participate in preparedness drills in the province
 Provision and deployment of medical and paramedical personnel to the scene of incident or
disaster.
60






Provision of mobile medical services and ambulance service with medical facilities to affected
areas.
Standby arrangements to meet any medical needs during and after the incident and stocking of
sufficient medicines in all hospitals/medical centres
Establishment of temporary team to provide vaccination and medication when required.
Arrangement of patients’ beds and earmarking of patient wards to meet any emergency/crisis
needs
Provide blood transfusion facilities and motivate the people to donate blood
Registration of mortuaries of disposal of dead
61
4.4
Other Stakeholders
4.4.1 QESCO
QESCO supplies electricity to the entire Balochistan province. Sources of power supply include the
National Grid; the Makran Regional Grid and small power houses, which are manned by 2739 technical
and 3087 non-technical staff.






Development and provision of power and electricity service to the community in Balochistan
Provision of temporary power supply at the place of major incident or disaster
Disconnection and reconnection of power supply as appropriate to avoid secondary hazards of
electricity fire following a major disaster
Attend to snapping wire and remove broken or snapped wires immediately especially in times of
disaster and minimize secondary hazards.
Repair and replace hanging and damaged power lines that may cause other hazards
Maintenance of power supply lines and address of public complaints promptly in case of power
failure
4.4.2 Sui – Southern Gas
This is the main gas supplier company in the province. Some of the main functions in relation to disaster
preparedness and response are:
 To constitute a team well equipped with the tools to meet any emergency response to the
company’s mandate. The team should be available at shortest possible time and telephone
number to be contacted be made available to the emergency operation centre

Evolve a system to provide immediate relief/assistance to all customers in case of emergency.
Reaction needs to be improved to handle the gas accident in more pragmatic manner.


Development and provision of gas services to the people and institutions
Disconnect and reconnect gas supply at affected arrears as need be to minimize escalation of
secondary hazards
Provision of emergence portable gas at times of disaster in areas that are not connected.

4.4.3 Civil Aviation Authority
The Civil Aviation Authority is in charge of regulation of air transport and safety in airports. Other
related key functions in relation to disaster risk management are:
 Provision of fire tenders/crash tenders or any other appropriate machinery as per need, in case of
a plane crash or related incidence
 Provide fire rescue service at the scene of incidence or plane crash
 Provision of sufficient number of skilled/unskilled persons, to meet disaster /crisis situation in
case of emergency involving plane crash.
 To provide foam compound as per requirement on loan basis in case of emergency involving
plane crash.
62
4.4.4 Ambulance Services
Mainly involved in emergency preparedness and response.

Deployment of necessary staff at the scene of incident /accident

Provision of sufficient numbers of ambulance with all first aid facilities and medicines.

Provision of mobile Dispensary and evacuation of disaster victims.

Provision of Edhi and other services, if needed to pickup the serious causalities from the scene of
incident.

Supply of eatables and essential items of daily use to the relief centres, established for the disaster
victims.

To arrange the blood for injured and motivate citizens to participate in the noble cause.

To provide life guards/divers when need basis.

Details of the Hospitals, having facility to accommodate burns patient along with number of beds
available.

Arrange availability of beds/rooms especially for burns patients expected mostly in case of fire.
4.4.5 Balochistan Coastal Development Authority (BCDA)
The mission of the BCDA is to Develop Balochistan coastal areas to the benefit of the people of
Balochistan and the country as a whole. The main functions in relation are:
 Ensure incorporation of disaster risk reduction in development programmes along the coast.

Overall development, improvement and beautification of the coastal areas.

Identification, execution and monitoring of development projects/schemes, which encompass the
following: Development of drinking water facilities, communication systems, electricity,
drainage, tourism and rural development works.

Establishment of educational, technical and professional institutions.

Local / Foreign credits for the development of agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Industries and
other allied economic activities.

Development of marketing facilities and Construction of jetties and harbours.

Collaborate with the federal or provincial public and private sector departments/agencies
engaged in development activities and environmental protection.

Provide technical guidance including technical services and personnel.

Compile relevant literature on planning and development and distribute it to research, planning
and development bodies/institutes/ organizations.

Formulate and implement policies and plans for coastal areas development
63
4.4.6 Quetta Development Authority (QDA)
The QDA was established to cater the multi dimensional needs of the new Capital and only urban centre
of Balochistan. The main mission of QDA was to solve housing needs, organized planning, master
planning, major improvement, decongestion and environment protection. Control over land use and
expansion of the City according to the integrated Master Plan. Quetta Development Authority was
established in 1976 by the Government of Balochistan. The jurisdiction of the Authority extends over
Quetta Tehsil including Quetta Municipal Corporation limits and all such other areas which the
Government may notify from time to time for development purpose with the following Charter /
Mandate:







Establishing save Housing Schemes.
Opening of congested areas to minimize disaster risk.
Laying / altering roads / streets for an efficient transport system in Quetta.
Provision of public amenities.
Execution of water supply and sewerage works.
Demolishing / improving / construction of buildings for public safety.
Execution of schemes entrusted by the Government for development purposes.
4.4.7
Water and Sanitation Authority
The authority is in charge of the development and provision of water and sanitation services in the
province. Other functions during disaster times include:

Deployment of necessary officers/staff round the clock along with the duty roaster with
important telephone numbers of focal person and other coordinating agencies.

Arrangement of pure water supplies to the victims and the agencies working at the place of
incident. Dewatering of the accumulated water.

To ensure that all open or damaged manholes are either covered or repaired. Controlling
overflow of sewerage gutter/water. Use of suction vehicles where required.

Repairing of major leakage/bursting of the water supply lines, and resumption of immediate
water supply.

Provision of dumpers, loaders, cranes, shovels, excavators, road rollers, generators, search lights
and any other tools/machinery/equipments available with the department, required at the place of
incident.

Arrange alternate water resources to meet all water shortage and emergencies.

Arrangement of clean water supplies to affected people and agencies in a rescue mission.
Dewatering of affected water
Control overflows of sewage / gutter water. Use of suction vehicles where required.
Repairing of water and sewage bursts and resumption of water supplies after disruption
Provision of dumpers, loaders, cranes, shovels, excavators, road rollers, generators, search lights
and any other tools/machinery/equipment available within the department for use at the place of
incidence.



64
4.4.8 Banks




Undertake analysis to identify high risk areas for the banking sector lending programmes;
Develop insurance and lending services against natural hazard risks for housing, industrial and
infrastructure sectors;
Coordinate with relevant city authorities or NDMA to receive guidelines for construction in high risk
areas;
Encourage implementation of safer construction guidelines by the bank beneficiaries (including
individuals and companies) through provision of lending incentives to borrowers and investors;
4.4.9 Insurance Sector




Undertake analysis to identify high risk areas for the insurance sector;
Develop insurance services against natural hazard risks for housing, industrial and infrastructure
sectors;
Coordinate with relevant city authorities or NDMA to receive guidelines for construction in high risk
areas;
Encourage implementation of safer construction guidelines by the insurance beneficiaries (including
individuals and companies) through provision of incentives to borrowers and investors;
4.4.10





Private Sector
Undertake hazard and risk analysis during design and planning stages of new infrastructure and
industry;
Identify and implement alternative options in order to reduce risks of natural hazards to
infrastructure and industry; e.g. change location
Implement vulnerability reduction measures in case of construction of infrastructure and industry in
high risk areas;
Develop disaster preparedness and response plans for industrial units and industrial zones;
Undertake drills at industrial unit level in order to prepare for any catastrophic events;
4.4.11
Media
Before a disaster
 Provide analysis on sources and process of risk generation and patterns of risk and
vulnerabilities;
 Disseminate warning messages to at risk communities in an easy to understand language through
multiple channels, while being sensitive to people’s access and timing issues;
 Provide information to communities about precautionary measures they can take to avoid loss of
life and property from hazards;
 Advocate to decision-makers to take appropriate actions for disaster risk management;
 Highlight the need for involvement of communities in disaster preparedness;
During an emergency situation

Inform the public with timely and factual information about the extent of disaster, losses caused
and the current situation of hazard;
65







Advise public about actions to be taken during the emergency period in order to avoid further
losses; e.g. evacuation, unsafe areas, water purification techniques
Inform about actions being taken by authorities/aid groups to save lives and property;
Relay messages concerning welfare of isolated or trapped groups for the benefit of families,
relatives, friends and rescue teams;
Facilitate communication among affected people and their relatives, friends, families in other
parts of the country or world;
Highlight needs of survivors to make sure that all groups of people affected by the disaster
receive appropriate aid, irrespective of their social, ethnic, political status;
Highlight the need for application of minimum standards to ensure that minimum needs of
disaster survivors in terms of water, sanitation, shelter, food and health are met;
Communicate about potential secondary risks to minimize further loss or damage;
After a Disaster (Post-Disaster Phase)
 Appeal for assistance from all parties to meet the needs of survivors;
 Communicate about rehabilitation and reconstruction plans of authorities, UN and NGOs, others
in the affected areas;
 Encourage survivor participation in recovery through conducting surveys and communicating the
opinions of public to authorities;
 Influence for integrating risk reduction in rehabilitation and reconstruction programmes;
4.4.12
Pakistan Red Crescent Society – Balochistan Branch
As the leading non-governmental humanitarian organization, the Society works as an auxiliary to the
government to ameliorate the suffering of the most vulnerable people in distress without discrimination.
The main activities of the Society are relief work during and after conflict, disaster relief and auxiliary
health and welfare services, which include a wide range of activities for the less privileged and
marginalized people in both urban and rural areas. The Society responds and rapidly gains on-site access
to the most susceptible when an unexpected disaster occurs. The Society provides ambulance and search
and rescue service at times of emergencies. Other activities include:
Preparedness
 Assist in training personnel for relief activities
 Participate in first aid training and raising public awareness on protection against potential
hazards
 Develop disaster risk management plans at national and branch levels (82 district branches) in
high risk areas;
 Develop teams of volunteers for disaster preparedness and response;
 Train volunteers in emergency preparedness and response (e.g. evacuation, first aid, fire fighting,
early warning etc);
 Implement community level programmes on disaster risk reduction and preparedness including
drills and simulations;
Response
 Provide equipment and supply relief material, food distribution and mobilize communities and
public for relief purposes
 Assist in running relief centres
 Assist in rescuing the injured and trapped
66


Work closely with local authorities to conduct joint assessments of damages, losses and needs of
disaster survivors,
Coordinate with DM Authorities and the UN coordinator for post-disaster relief work;
4.4.13 Non Governmental Institutions in Balochistan
These will work with the government departments and the existing organisation in relation to disaster
risk management as per the core functions, mandate and resources at their disposal.
 Mobilize communities and developing local level capacities for early warning, disaster
preparedness and response.
 Implement programmes for community vulnerability reduction; e.g. strengthening livelihoods,
safer construction practices, drought mitigation.
 Participate in disaster risk management activities such as training, public education, damage
assessment, rehabilitation and construction projects in hazard prone areas.
 Formulate disaster risk management plans at Federal, Provincial, District and community levels
in order to share resources and information.
 Link with PDMA to ensure that strategic policy and operational implementation incorporates
their participation.
4.4.14 Academic and Research Institutions



Conduct research and recommend to policy makers and implementers on the appropriate
development initiatives to contribute to disaster reduction
Train personnel in various fields of development
Public education forums in disaster reduction
67
PART II
CHAPTER 5: STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
Upon activation of this plan by the Chairman of the Provincial Disaster Management Commission, the
command and control i.e. the management of the disaster situation will be overseen at the Coordination
Centre known as the Provincial Emergency Operation Centre (PEOC/EOC). The Coordination will be
established at either the PDMA office or other nominated site as the disaster situation may dictate.
The Director General, PDMA will be responsible for:
a) The activation of the PEOC
b) The Operation of the PEOC
c) Staffing the PEOC at the required level
5.1.1 Receipt of Warnings
Warnings of a natural hazard (e.g. floods, severe drought, and winter storms) or occurrence of a rapid
onset disaster such as earthquake will be issued in the first instance by the early warning department, or
other early warning system available. The information should be passed to the Chairman in order to
ensure activation of the appropriate response activity.
5.1.2 Warning Distribution
Upon implementation of this plan, all public warnings will be distributed through the EOC in the PDMA
upon recommendation of the Director General PDMA on behalf of the Chairman. Appropriate media
channels will be used to distribute the warning to the public and concerned authorities for appropriate
standby preparedness and response.
5.1.3 Public Information
The distribution to the public of contacts or telephone numbers for disaster information will be the
responsibility of and the discretion of the Chairman. Public information is that information which is
passed on to the public prior to, during, and after a disaster, such as warnings and directions for
evacuations and service access to affected populations. The Provincial Disaster Management Authority
has the responsibility for the dissemination to the public of disaster risk management information as
directed by the Chairman.
When this plan is activated, the Chairman is the official source of public and media information. All
outside media enquiries are to be directed to the Chairman. The Chairman is to arrange for media
briefings and interviews with key personnel and media channels. The chairman signs any briefings
going media houses and radio stations
5.1.4 Reporting
All response organizations are to submit regular situation reports to the EOC situated in the PDMA. The
Executive Officer will collate the reports received and supply regular situation reports to the chairman
and other concerned stakeholders.
68
5.1.5 Request For Assistance
Any requests for any assistance from outside the province are to be made by the Chairman. Such
requests are to be forwarded to the National Disaster Management Authority by the Chairman. The
Nazim or District Coordination Officer (DCO) will make the request to the PDMA/PDMC for district
level disasters.
5.1.6 Accessing Financial and Technical Assistance at Provincial Level
The Provincial Disaster management Authority will facilitate the accessing of contingency funds for
disaster risk management and response in the province based on the modality to be established and
agreed upon with the Finance Department in the Province.
5.1.7 Protracted Operations
Should damage or disruption be in such an extent, that operations are to continue over a number of days,
the policy of daily meetings with officers in charge of control authorities and support organizations will
be implemented for the purpose of coordinating effort and establishing priorities. The safety and welfare
of the officers and staff working late or away from home should be given priority as per the usual
government procedures.
5.1.8 Concept Of Operations
Efficient command and control is an essential pre-requisite to the successful co-ordination of resources
in Disaster Risk Management operations. This concept of operation is based on four (4) phases ALERT, STANDBY, ACTIVATION and STAND DOWN.
These phases may be summarized as follows:
Phase
Alert
Standby
Activation
Action
- Director General / Secretary receives advice of impending threat
from an early warning agency
- Director General / Secretary advises commission chairman
Director General / Secretary informs relevant Primary and Support
Agencies to be on alert;
- DG puts PDMA and PEOC on Alert if warranted.
- Director General / Secretary advises Chairman to PDMC that
assistance under this Disaster Risk Management Plan might be
required;
- Chairman implements the Balochistan Disaster Risk Management
Plan, authorizes Director General to activate the EOC to appropriate
staff level;
- Secretary informs relevant Primary and Support Agencies and
places unit on standby;
- The Secretary advises Chairman that assistance is required;
- The Chairman directs the Secretary to escalate the EOC to required
staff level (and activates unit if required);
- Secretary advises appropriate respective organizations in the
province to respond accordingly;
- The response will be as per the hazard threats;
- Secretary advices Chairman if assistance is needed from Federal
69
Stand Down
-
level
Chairman liaises with the NDMC and NDMA for Federal assistance
Secretary advises the Chairman that assistance is no longer required;
Secretary advises Liaison Officers and arranges time and location
for debriefing;
Primary and Support Agency personnel are debriefed and stood
down on completion of final tasks;
Final reports completed and distributed by various agencies in
accordance with relevant Standard Operating Procedures.
Evaluation conducted on how effective the departments worked and
responded
NB: Depending on the type of disaster and situation at hand, the phases and actions may overlap at
times. It will be the discretion of the Director General to activate the appropriate action as the conditions
and resources may dictate.
70
5.2 Provincial Emergency Operation Centre (PEOC)
The Emergency Operations Centre, or PEOC, is a central command and control facility responsible for
carrying out emergency preparedness and emergency management functions at a strategic level in an
emergency situation, and ensuring the continuity of operations.
For purposes of this document, Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) represents the physical location at
which the coordination of information and resources to support disaster incident management activities
normally takes place. It is usually created in the PDMA. The Incident Command Post (ICP) may be
created at or in the immediate vicinity of an incident site, although primarily focused on the tactical onscene response, may perform an EOC-like function in smaller-scale incidents or during the initial phase
of the response to larger, more complex events. A Standing Provincial Emergency Operation Centre
(PEOC), or that activated to support larger, more complex events, is typically established in a more
central or permanently established facility; within the PDMA. EOCs are organized by major functional
discipline (fire, law enforcement, medical services, civil defence, search and rescue and so on); by
jurisdiction or, more likely, by some combination thereof (i.e. Departments/Agencies/Organisations).
ICPs should also be linked to DEOCs and PEOC to ensure effective and efficient incident management.
Many times, the District Emergency Operation Centres will act as ICPs.
For complex incidents, the PEOCs may be staffed by personnel representing multiple jurisdictions and
functional disciplines and a wide variety of resources. For example, a PEOC established in response to
an earthquake incident would likely include a mix of law enforcement, emergency management, public
health, search and rescue, first aid and medical personnel (representatives of health care facilities, prehospital emergency medical services, patient transportation systems, pharmaceutical repositories,
laboratories, military, NGOs, communications etc.).
The PEOC may be permanent activated with full staff at occurrence of disaster or may be established to
meet temporary, short-term needs. The physical size, staffing, and equipping of an EOC will depend on
the size of the jurisdiction, resources available and anticipated incident management workload. EOCs
may be organized and staffed in a variety of ways. Regardless of the specific organizational structure
used, the EOC should include the following core functions:
 coordination;
 communications;
 resource dispatch and tracking; and
 information collection, analysis, and dissemination.
EOCs may also support multi-agency coordination and joint information activities as discussed below.
 On activation of a district EOC or ICP, communications and coordination must be established
between the ground and the PEOC,
 Field organizations must also establish communications with the activated local EOC, either
directly or through their parent organizations.
 Additionally, EOCs at all levels of government and across functional agencies must be capable
of communicating appropriately with others and the PEOC during incidents, including those
maintained by private organizations.
 Communications between EOCs must be reliable and contain built-in redundancies. The efficient
functioning of EOCs most frequently depends on the existence of mutual-aid agreements and
joint communications protocols among participating agencies.
71
5.2.1 Activation of the PEOC:
Response to an emergency incident is the function of law enforcement, emergency medical services,
fire-rescue departments, civil defence and first responders. When a large-scale event has occurred, it
is important that the response be coordinated. This generally means activating the Provincial
Emergency Operations Centre to assure central coordination. Public official alerting, shelter/
evacuation, search and rescue, and resource mobilization are all part of the response mode.
5.2.2 Levels of Operation:
Level 1 - Normal - Situation is monitored by officers in PDMA
Level 2 - Watch - When an event/disaster may occur - notification is made to Agencies /
departments and organizations and support staff who would need to take action as part of their
responsibilities.
Level 3 - Partial Activation - Limited activation of PEOC when an event/disaster is very probable
or following an event which doesn't require full activation. All primary or lead staff will be notified
and will staff the PEOC.
Level 4 - Full Scale Activation - All primary and support agencies are notified. All PDMA support
personnel will staff the Emergency Operation Centre. Depending on the nature of emergency, the
PEOC may operate round the clock.
5.2.3 Staffing:
The Director General PDMA is responsible for coordinating all components of the Disaster
Risk Management Systems for the Province. The components consist of activities related to
mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
72
5.3 Lead Agency and Support Organizations for various Hazards
The following agencies have primary and secondary responsibilities to provide emergency assistance as
per their mandate and areas of competence to the respective hazards identified.
Hazard Threat
Lead
Support organizations
Agency/Department
Drought (water
Livestock
Metrological Department, PHE
shortage & food
Department
Department, NGOs, Pakistani Red
insecurity)
Crescent, Irrigation Department,
Community, Planning Department,
Social Welfare Department, Health
Department
Earthquake
Civil Defence
Pakistani Red Crescent, Civil
Defence, Community, NGOs &,
CBOs, Police, Military, Sui
Southern Gas, QESCO, C & W
Department
Floods
Irrigation
Civil Defence, Fire Brigade,
Department
Agriculture Department, Police
Military, Metrological
Department, Water & Sanitation
Department, NGOs, Community,
C & W Department
Cyclones, Winter and Civil Defence
Pakistan Red Crescent Society,
hail storms
Police, Metrological Department
Water & Sanitation Department,
Sui Southern Gas, QESCO,
Community, NGOs, Ports and,
Shipping, Coast Guard
Tsunami
Civil Defence
Pakistan Red Crescent Society,
Police, Metrological Department,
Water & Sanitation Department,
NGOs, Sui Southern Gas, QESCO,
Ports and Shipping, Coast Guard
Locust / pest infestation Livestock
Civil Defence, Pakistan Red
Department
Crescent Society, Police,
Metrological Department, NGOs,
Community, Wildlife and Forest
Department
Landslides /
Forest Department
Pakistan Red Crescent Society,
Police, Civil Defence, Community,
Agriculture, Metrological
Department, Water & Sanitation
Department, NGOs, C & W
Department,
Communicable diseases Health Department
Pakistan Red Crescent Society
Heath and Medical NGOs,
Metrological Department, Water &
73
Sanitation Department,
Civil Defence, Community
Fire (Urban / Rural)
Fire Brigade
Civil Defence, Pakistan Red
Crescent Society, Boy Scouts
Association, Police, Community,
C & W Department,
Major Transport
Police
Civil Defence, Fire Brigade,
Accident - Road
Pakistan Red Crescent Society,
Accidents
Boy Scouts Association,
Community,
Major Transport
Pakistan Railway
Police, Civil Defence, Fire
Accident - Rail
Brigade, Community, Pakistan
accidents
Red Crescent Society, Boy Scouts
Association
Major Transport
Civil Aviation
Police, Civil Defence, Fire
Accident - Aviation
Authority
Brigade, Community, Pakistan
Accidents
Red Crescent Society, Boy Scouts
Association
Major Transport
Ports and Shipping Police, Community, Civil Defence,
Accident - Oil spill and Department
Fire Brigade, Pakistan Red
Maritime
Crescent Society, Boy Scouts
Association, Hospitals
Industrial and Mine Mines and Mineral Police, Community, Pakistan Red
accidents / fires
Resources
Crescent Society, Boy Scouts
Department
Association, Department of Mines
and Mineral, Department of
Industry,
Pollution
Environment
Forest, Wildlife, Police, Civil
Department
Defence, Mines and Industry,
Water and Sanitation Department
Hazardous substances
Civil Defence
Police, Community, Civil Defence,
accidents (Nuclear,
Fire Brigade
Fire Brigade, Pakistan Red
radiological &
Crescent Society, Boy Scouts
chemical)
Association
Refugees & IDPs
Ministry of "States
UNHCR, Pakistan Red Crescent,
and Frontier
Community, National Volunteer
Regions"
Movement
Crisis (bomb threat,
Police
Civil Defence, Fire Brigade,
bomb explosion,
Community, Pakistan Red
hostage taking,
Crescent Society, Boy Scouts
stampede,
Association, Military, Civil
demonstrations)
Defence
The respective lead agencies in response to the various identified potential hazards will take the lead in
developing Contingency Plans and Disaster Response Plans to the respective hazards.
74
5.4 Thematic Working Groups on Disaster Risk and Emergency Management
A Thematic Working Group comprises of organizations and other stakeholders, with a designated lead,
working in an area of development, disaster risk management or humanitarian response in which gaps
for action are identified. These areas include some traditional sectors (water and sanitation, nutrition,
health, emergency response, shelter); service provision (emergency telecommunications, logistics) and
cross-cutting issues (camp coordination, early recovery and security and public safety). Thematic
Working Groups are organized at both provincial and community level. The Thematic Working Groups
will be formed in the proposed Provincial Platform for Disaster Risk Management for Balochistan to be
chaired by the PDMA. This will be a platform that brings together development practitioners, NGOs,
private sector and government departments involved in Disaster Risk Management and Reduction in
Balochistan to meet on regular basis and exchange information, debate options and decisions on
activities formulated for disaster risk management.
The aim is to strengthen system-wide mitigation and preparedness technical capacity to respond to
disaster situations by designating Thematic Leads who are responsible for ensuring predictable and
effective inter-agency and inter departmental approaches within the particular sectors or areas of activity
concerned. This ensures accountability with strengthened leadership and clearly defined roles and
responsibilities and bolsters coordination and synergy of efforts. It is also ensures that the involvement
of local institutions is strengthened; available resources are fully utilized and, any disaster risk
mitigation action is well coordinated and does no harm. The added value of the approach includes:








Consistent access to appropriately trained technical expertise from partners in the province
Enhanced material stockpiles
Increased engagement of all relevant disaster risk management stakeholders.
Predictable leadership in key gap sectors/areas of response
Better surge capacity and standby rosters from respective stakeholders for disaster response
Enhanced partnerships between Government-NGOs, CBOs and UN-Red Crescent agencies in
the field.
Improved strategic field-level coordination and prioritisation
Measurable accountability from the operational partners to the community, government and
stakeholders.
5.4.1 Functions of the Thematic Leads






Predictable action within the thematic area for analysis of needs, addressing priorities, and
identifying gaps in the thematic area;
Securing and following-up on commitments from the thematic area to contribute to responding
to needs and filling the gaps in disaster risk management in the province;
Ensure that activities within a thematic area are carried out
Sustaining mechanisms through which the thematic area as a whole assesses its performance.
Up-to-date assessments of the overall needs for human, financial, and institutional capacity in
disaster risk management at the province;
Review of currently available capacities and means for their utilization as per needs in the
province;
75



Links with other thematic areas, including preparedness measures and long-term planning,
standards, best practice, advocacy, and resource mobilization for disaster risk management
initiatives in the province;
Taking action to ensure that required capacities and mechanisms exist, including rosters for surge
capacity; and
Training and system development at the provincial, district and community levels.
All the Thematic Working Groups are to be chaired by respective government departments with a lead
role. The Thematic Groups may be co chaired with another agency with competence in the lead area,
e.g. the lead department and chair of health related issues in the province is the Health Department. If
for example WHO has representation in the province in which it works in close collaboration with the
Health Department, it may co-chair the thematic group on Health.
Thematic Group
Overall
Disaster
Management
Health
Food and Nutrition
Emergency Shelter
Water and Sanitation
Education
Thematic Lead / Chair
Risk PDMA
Co-Chair
UNDP
Health Department
WHO
Agriculture and Food
Department
(C&W) Department
UNICEF
Water and Sanitation
Department
Education Department
UNICEF
Red Crescent
UNICEF
Early Recovery
Planning and Development UNDP
/ PDMA
Logistics
PDMA
Emergency
Telecommunications
Information
Department
Search and Rescue
Civil Defence
Fire Brigade
Rapid Assessment
PDMA
PDMA
Relief Commissioner’s
Office
Technology WFP
Security, Public Safety and Police Department
Crisis Management Cluster
Civil Defence
The thematic approach is important towards strengthening coordination by clarifying lines of
accountability to the community, government and among other stakeholders. The key principle is
ensuring that the thematic groups address all identified key gaps in disaster risk management and that
critical gaps are not neglected simply because they are not part of any provincial development agenda.
The thematic approach will also be applied to all new major disasters with a phased and flexible
implementation that leads to long term recovery after major disaster.
76
The Early Recovery Thematic Group will need to play a key role in supporting the provincial
government in planning, preparing, and managing a phased transition of the coordination arrangements
from emergency to longer-term recovery and development. As a matter of policy, strategies and
procedures for entry and phase out and terminating different activities should be included into the work
of all thematic groups. In all instances, there should be benchmarks with measurable indicators.
It is important to rationalize the number of meetings and information processes in the management of
the thematic approach in the province. Effort should be made to reduce the number of meetings and
streamline information processes. Thematic Chairs will be encouraged to maintain an optimum level of
meetings. However, it is left to the discretion of the Thematic Chairs in consultation with the thematic
working group members to determine the frequency, types and duration of the cluster meetings.
5.4.2 Recovery Plans
Recovery plans describe actions beyond rapid damage assessment and those necessary to provide
immediate life support for victims and populations affected by disaster. Long-term recovery planning
involves identifying strategic priorities for restoration, improvement, and growth. Each department and
sectoral line ministries take the responsibility of developing Recovery Plans based on their areas of
competence and mandate in collaboration with other stakeholders.
77
CHAPTER 6: SIMULATIONS AND DRILLS
6.1 Responsibility for Organizing the Drills
Periodically the Balochistan Provincial Disaster Management Authority will plan and carry out with
other stakeholders’ exercises or drills on various scenarios to assess the procedures in this document.
Agencies and departments should also conduct drills based on the hazard scenarios and areas of
competence.
The following are proposed table top exercises that can be undertaken in drills:
 A major earthquake in Balochistan (area to be identified),
 A major flooding from a rain depression
 A major explosion at a main office block in Balochistan
 A railway accident at a road junction
 A fire incident at a factory premises manufacturing chemicals
 A prolonged drought affecting a number of districts and leading to animal and people
causalities
6.2 Schedule for Organizing the Drills
There should be at least two drills in a year. Lessons learnt from the drills and those from the previous
and ongoing disaster related incidents should be incorporated in this DRM Plan as appropriate.
6.3Resources for Organizing the Drills
The PDMA will facilitate and provide some minimal resources to the drills. Various departments,
agencies and organizations will bear their cost of involvement in the drills.
78
PART III : ANNEXES
Annex 1: Directory of Focal Point Contacts
Government Departments
Department/
Organization/
Agency
Chief Secretary
Name & Title of Focal
point person
Office Tel.
Home Tel.
Mr. K.B. Rind
081-9201254
Principal Secretary –
Governor
Mr. Shoiab Mir Memon
081-9202176
9202132
9202753
081-9202178
Mr. Khuda Bakhash –
Relief Commissioner
Director General
9201045
081
9201964
081
9201449
9201934
9203514
92011504
2668702
9201074
826754
9202157
9202374
9201160
9201954
9201261
9601622
9203193
440282
9201255
833199
667533
9202662
9201566
9201149
9201805
9202727
9201835
444451
841055
9202435
850740
9201903
9201710
9202540
9202835
Mines and Mineral
Abdul Manan Kakaar
9202400
9202217
9201881
9201277
9202275
9202243
9202564
9201062
9202759
Industries Department
Local Government
Forest and Wild Life
Livestock and Dairy
Mr. Abdus Salam Khan,
Secretary
Mr. Sardar Muhhamad
Mr. Arbab Yousaf
Mr. Shafi Zheri
Mr. Abdul Karim
Mr. Qayyum Nazar
Changezi
Mr. Muhammad
Hamayun
Mr. Ghulam S. Mengal
Mr. Mohammad Younus
Mr. Mohammad Saleem
Abdul Salim Baloch
9201113
Zakat & Population
Environment Sport
Muhammad A. Khan
Mr. Shakil Ahmad
Hashmi
9202361
9202421
9202859
829414
829620
9203187
Mr. Nazeer Ahmed
Soomoro, Regional
Manager
081-9211384
081-9211382
Civil Defence
Balochistan
Home Department
Irrigation & Power
Department
C & W Department
PHE Department
Health Department
Agriculture Department
Education Department
Home Department
Meteorological
Department
Utility Stores, Quetta
Cell Phone
Fax
9202303
081-9211383
Other Important Numbers
Name
Governor Secretariat
Governor house
Chief Minister Secretariat
Provincial Assembly
MPA Hostel
Civil Secretariat
Council General Islamic
Emirates
Syed Nadeem Shah,
Honorary
Council General of Japan
Mr. Raziq Bugti, Media
Telephone Number
081-9202061 / 69
081-9202170-3
081-9202061-69
081-9203060-64
081-9203040-52
081-9202719 / 9202582
081-2843364 / 2844056
Quetta Press Club
081-2821731
Fax
081-2829633
081-9515
081-9202757
79
Email
Email
Employment Office
Gas Enquiry
NADRA Office
G.P.O. Quetta
Civil Secretariat
Provincial Ombudsmen
Director Protocol
Controller MPA Hostel
Children Academy
081-9211186
119
081-2452028
081-9201409 / 111111117
081-9202719 / 9202582
081-9201827
081-9201522
081-9202576
081-9201206
Hospital Contacts
Name of Hospital
Civil Hospital EX
Abdul Star Edhi
Central Hospital
Christian Hospital
Federal Medical Centre
Helper Eye Hospital
Railway Hospital
Lady Deferens Hospital
Fatima Jinah TB Sanatorium
Children Hospital
Milo Shaheed Trust
Pakistan General Hospital
Jilian Hospital
LRBT
BMC Hospital
Fuji Foundation Medical
Centre
Jam-e-Shafa (Women)
Emergency Civil Hospital
Bolan Medical College
Telephone Number
081-9202017
081-2830832
081-2830861-115
081-2842697
081-9211636
081-9211087
081-9211078
081-2836532
081-2853618
081-2823705-11
081-2828383
081-2842295 / 2842043
081-2447183
081-2850362
081-2823618
081-664461
Fax
Email
Telephone Number
081-2831289
081-2835706
Fax
Email
Telephone Number
Fax
Email
081-2440772
137
081-9202617
Bomb Disposal Unit
Centre
Bomb Disposal, Quetta
Ambulance Service
Name of Ambulance
Service
Umar Foundation
Civil Hospital Emergency
Edhi Centre
Pakistan Red Crescent –
Quetta
081-2837296
081-9202017
081-2830832
081-
80
Fire Brigade
Fire Brigade Centre
City Fire Brigade
Circular Road
Cantonment
Airport
Telephone Number
081-2841118
081-9202645
081-9202661
081-9201629
081-
Fax
Email
Telephone Number
Fax
Email
Fax
Email
Police
Name of Line / Station
Rescue Police
Emergency Centre A
Emergency Centre B
Railway Station
Cantt: Station
City Policy Station
Civil Line Police Station
Gwalmandi Police Station
Quid Abad Police Station
Crime Branch
Industrial Police Station
Police Line
Sadar Police Station
Bijli Police Station
Kuchlak Police Station
Saryab Police Station
Emergency Traffic
Satellite police Station
C.I.A
Brewery Police Station
New Saryab Police Station
Shalkot Police Station
Pashtoon Abad Police Station
Airport Police Station
Madadghar Police Station
081-9202555
081-9202777
081-9201490
081-9201087
081-9201250
081-9202730
081-9202230
081-9202218
081-9201419
081-9211050
081-9201435
081-9202219
081-9202042
081-2890234
081-9211080
081-9201991
081-9211707
081-9202253
081-623610
081-2892003
081-2460190
081-9201611
081-2880387
Quetta Airport / PIA
PIA Quetta
Enquiry
Exchange
Airport Exchange
Traffic
Airport Control Tower
Engineer
Telephone Number
114
081-9203873
081-2880213-6
081-22880028
081-2412076
081-2413508 / 2413708
81
Railways
Pakistan Railways, Quetta
Enquiry
Exchange
Telephone Number
117
081-9202632 / 92101293
Fax
Email
Active Local NGOs and CBOs in Balochistan
Name of NGO/CBO
Contact Person
Contact
Number
Pakistan Red Crescent Society
– Quetta
Mj. (Rt) Sardar
Muhammad S.
D., Secretary
Dr. Muhammad
S. Aftab,
Manager Health
081-4001132
0301 - 3739431
IDSP,
Ms. Qurat-ul-Am
Socio Pakistan
Mr. Amanullah
DANESH
Mr. Muzaffar Ali
Changazi
Mr. Sir Baland
Khan
Syed Qurbaan
Garsheen
Mr. Amjad
Rasheed
Ms. Shahida
Irshad
Mr. Abdul
Wahood
Mr. Nasrullah
081-2449775
081-2449251
081-2446201
0300378182
081-2444093
03008381600
081-2450749
03337805571
081-2827740
03337808645
081-2829416
Save the Children
Balochistan Aids Network
(BAN)
Balochistan Environment &
Educational Journey - BEEJ
Taraqee Welfare Society
DAWN
SAHER
Centre for Peace &
Development
Tanzeem Hudda Itetehad
Naojawanan
Future Message Balochistan
Water Environment and
Sanitation Society - WESS
Auratt Foundation Quetta
Mr. Siddik
Baloch
Mr. Ayub Baloch
Mr. Pervez Iqbal
VOICE
Ms. Sarma
Haroon
Mr. M. Aslam
Al-Khidmat Welfare Society
Mr. M Raffique
PURWA
Ghosia Blood Donor
Association
Al Naimat Welfare Society
Ms. Asra
Mr. Zahoor
Durran
Mr. Obaidullah
Tareen
Pensioner Welfare Association
Team for Environmental
Awareness and Management
(TEAM)
Pakistan Social Association,
Quetta
Idara-3-Falah-o-Behbood
Noujawanan - Quetta
Employees Old Age Benefits
Ch. Anwar
Mr. Sarvar Ali
Shaheen
Ms. Amna
Nighat
Mr. Mirza hassan
Mr. Mohammad
Area of
Specialization
081-2821549 –
227
081-2853403
033-7809343
081-2838085-fax
081-2838847
03337824346
081-2826745
081-2832839
03337818104
081-282089
081-2834065
03337805354
081-2441677
03204793879
03003869351
081-2450610
081-2850055
081-2822825
03003851352
081-2005037
03204786450
03218009266
03212985032
03063811602
03003896467
0811-2663284
03003816078
081-2833447
82
HIV/AIDS
District(s) of
Operation
Institutions, (EOBI), Quetta
Balochistan Foundation for
Development - Quetta
Sustainable Community
Development Organisation
Community Welfare
Development Society
Balochistan Institute for Future
Development
Behbood Association
Tanzeem Idara Bahali-eMushtehqeen, Quetta
Society forf Environment
Awareness, Quetta
Mehek Trust, Quetta
HOPES, Quetta
AMAL, Quetta
Balochistan Deaf and Dump
Welfare Society
Society for Community
Development (SCD), Quetta
Balochistan Social
Development, Quetta
Milo Trust
Balochistan Sports Programme
Family Planning Association
of Pakistan, Quetta
Human Development Society
Trust for Voluntary
Organisation
STREET, Quetta
Rehber Welfare Society, Sibi
Pease Social Development t
Society, Mastung
New Bolan Welfare Society,
Nasirabad
Rising Police Line, Quetta
CRC Chaman Housing
Society, Quetta
Anjuman Falah-Behbood,
Murga, Khanozai
Christian Relief Services,
Quetta
Al-Khidmat Welfare Society,
Quetta
Concern, Quetta
Girl Guides Association,
Quetta
Boy Scouts Association,
Quetta
SPO
BRSP
Naeem
Dr. Ruquiya
Saeed
Mr. Shah Nawaz
Yousuf
Mr. Mujaheid
Mr. Naimutullah
Jan
Ms. Saima
Baloch
Begun Syrraya
Allah Din
Mj. (Rtd) Safi
081-2827592
03005395442
03009389487
081-9207406
03204787444
081-24442461
03003842389
081-2444725
081-2830503
081-2841137
081-2836085
Ms. Rashida
Panezai
Mr. Hameed
Mr. Ranar Gulzar
Dr. Mehmood
Raza
081-2844353
Mr. Arif Kurd
081-2011018
03003846330
03003870283
Ms. Farida
Bangulzai
Muzaffar Ali
Changezi
Mr. Tahir
Khursheed
Barocha
Mr Abdul Qadir
081-2661800
081-2448839
03009383393
081-2449451
081-2449725
081-2834422
081-2449725
081-2824134
03009381686
081-2838143
Mr. Naveed
Shah Baz
Mr. Andri
Baloch
Ms. Rahima
Mengal
Ms. Robina
Azhah
03013761649
03003702011
081-895123
Mr. Samual M.
081-2321947
0300-3868099
03337838102
Mr. Akhtah
Dr. Attur
Rehman
Begum Hassan
Baloch
Mr. Sabir,
Zubaida Khilji
Irfan Kasi
Halal Ahmer, Society,
83
Media Contacts in Balochistan
TV Channels
Name of TV Channel
Directorate of Public
Relations081Press Information Department
Pakistan Television
Corporation, Quetta Centre
Associate Press Television
News
APNA TV
ARY TV
AAJ TV
GEO TV
INDUS TV
KTN TV
Khayber TV
Sindh TV
Bolan TV
Q TV
Royal TV
Telephone Contacts
081-9201599
081-9202548
081-9202973
081-9211118/7
081-9203424
081-9201188
081-9201049
081-9202116
081-9201713 (News)
081-2841052
03008380137
0320-4788635
0333-7849105
081-2840699
0300-9382406
0333-7805058
081-2843416
081-2843679
081-2821731
081-2829162
03337863356
0301-3789907
Fax
081-9201355
Email
081-9203425
081-9202125
081-9201929
081-2843678
Radio Stations
Name of Radio Channel
Pakistan Broadcasting
Corporation, Quetta
BBC Urdu Service
BBC Pashto Service
Voice of America
Telephone
Contacts
081-9201593
081-9201713
081-2831081
03009389614
081-2831081
081-2839851
081-2839398
03009383569
081-2841052
03003867722
Fax
Email
081-9202609
081-9201929
081-2841052
081-2839867
081-2830049
Khuzdar
Turbat
FM 101
Sachal FM
84
[email protected]
Other News Agencies
Name of News Agency
Associate Press of
Pakistan
Agency of France Press
(AFP)
Asian News Network
Independent News of
Pakistan
News Network
International
South Asian News
Agency
Universal News Agency
Telephone Contacts
081-2829441
081-2838171
03009380155
081-2842592
03009380307
081-2899042-44
03003829984
081-2821616
081-2825470
03009380656
081-2836812
081-2891350
03337807238
081-2832333
081-2822997
03204782107
Fax
081-2820973
Email
[email protected]
[email protected]
081-2849114
081-2899046
081-2825470
[email protected]
081-2836812
[email protected]
081-2447518
[email protected]
Fax
081-2849207
Email
[email protected]
Print Media Contacts
Daily Newspaper
Name of Newspaper
AAFAN, Quetta
ATMAD, Quetta
ASAP, Turbat/Quetta
AZADI, Quetta
AFTAB, Quetta
AL-FAAJR, Quetta
AWAAM Quetta Hub
ASER-E-NAU,
Mastung
ASER-E-NAU,
Gawadar
Balochistan Times
Balochistan Express,
Quetta
Balochistan News,
Quetta
Telephone Contacts
081-2825148
081-2844721
03009386778
081-2825136
081-2821433
03009384199
081-2829871
081-2829845
03204780507
081-2451981/2
081-2451984
03337804349
081-2837459
081-2855203
081-2835574
0320-4777569
081-2832244
0333-7803248
0300-3884773
081-2838041
03009389804
03337802299
081-2840397
081-2446727
03003880087
081-2837724
081-2821153
081-2836311
081-2451981
081-2451983
03337804349
081-2839851
081-2830949
081-2835461
081-2829897
081-2451983
081-2837459
081-
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
081-2839867
85
Balochistan Today
Mirror, Quetta
Weekly Magazines
AWAZ-E-PAKISTAN,
Quetta
Akhbar-E-Balochistan,
Quetta
BRISHNA Quetta
Balochi Dunya, Quetta
BAGH-O-Bahar Quetta
Business Quetta
Balochistan Lines
Children’s Magazine,Qta
Dastak, Quetta
Eilum Mastung
Gul Zameen Gawadar,
Quetta
Great Balochistan,
Quetta
HAAL Quetta
Millat, Mastung
Muslim Mastung
Quetta Times
Talar, Quetta
081-2824575
081-2821626
081-2821538
081-2835934
081-2840955
03003814363
03003825355
081-661726
03003851213
081-2441426
081-661748
03013703570
03003846686
081-666366
081-2895252
0300-3817291
081-2827632
03003803100
081-2826300
081-2828856
0333-7801594
081-2832202
03337811168
0843-895676
0843-895589
0333-7836721
081-2840968
03337944760
03003809867
[email protected]
[email protected]
081-2820101
[email protected]
[email protected]
86
Annex 2: Map of Balochistan
87
Annex 3: Seismic Zones of Pakistan
88
Annex 4: Provincial Road Network of Balochistan
89
Annex 5: Annual Rain Fall of Balochistan Province
Balochistan Province
(Mean Annual Rainfall)
Zhob
%
#
Qila A bd ulla h
Pis hin
N
Qila S aifu llah
#
#
#
#
%
Scale: - 1:7 ,00 0,0 00
#
%
%
Ziara t
#
100
0
100
200 Kilom eters
#
%
#
%
#
#
%
Lora lai
#
Qu ett a
Ko hlu
#
%#
#
Mastu ng
%#
#
Nus hki
(C hag ai)
#
#
%
#
%
19 9 3
19 9 4
19 9 5
19 9 6
19 9 7
19 9 8
19 9 9
20 0 0
Sibi
Dha dar
(K ach hi)
Ka la t
%
Dera Bu gti
D.M . Jam ali
(Nasiraba d)
%
Kh aran
Precipitat io n
%
%
%
#
#
%
Kh uzdar
LEGEN D
#
Dist rict H ead qu arters
Dist rict B ou nd arie s
Precipitat io n
> 50
%
%
Pa njgur
#
#
%
Awa ran
Turba t (K ech)
#
50 - 100
#
%
#
Utha l
100 - 15 0
%
#
150 - 20 0
#
#
#
#
#
%
Gw ada r
200 - 25 0
250 - 30 0
300 - 35 0
90
Annex 6: Rangeland of Balochistan (Livestock distribution)
Rangelands of Balochistan
LEGEND
Non-grazable (<30 Kg/Ha)
Poor (30 to 50 Kg/Ha)
Poor to Fair (60 to 160 Kg/Ha)
Good to Fair (170t o 190 Kg/Ha)
Very Good to Good (200 to 240 Kg/Ha)
}
Excellent to Very Good (250 to 280 Kg/Ha)
Southern
Plains
25%
Upper &
Lower
Highlands
75%
91
Annex 7: Emergency Response Machinery and Equipment in the Province
S
#
Name of
District
Contingency Detail of Machinery and Equipment for Disaster Management
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Awaran
Bolan
Barkhan
Chagai
Dera-Bugti
Gawadar
Jafferabad
Jhal Magsi
Killa
Abdullah
Killa
Saifullah
Kohlu
Kharan
Kalat
Khuzdar
Kech
Lasbela
Loralai
Mastung
Musakhail
Noshki
Nasirabad
Panjgur
Pishin
Quetta
Sibi
Sheran
Washuk
Ziarat
Zhob
Total
2
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Ambulances
Fire
Brigade
Graders
9
2
4
1
5
10
3
9
1
2
2
8
12
2
4
2
4
7
1
10
2
7
12
6
3
13
5
3
3
2
4
3
25
3
1
1
1
2
1
3
2
154
Dozers
2
2
3
2
4
2
2
41
Tractor
Damper
Loader
5
3
Trucks
Water
Tanker
15
1
6
2
2
Vehicles
2
2
4
2
3
7
2
4
30
11
3
9
1
15
1
8
18
3
5
5
1
2
2
10
2
2
7
2
141
26
2
8
5
8
37
3
1
34
92
32
10
13
37
Annex 8: District Wise Sabotage Activities 2002-07
S.#
DISTRICT
YEARS
1.
Quetta
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
2.
Noshki
Total
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
3.
4.
5.
6.
Total
Dalbandin
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Pishin
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Killa
2002
Abdullah
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Kalat
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
NUMBER AND TYPE OF EXPLOSIONS
BOMB LAND- HAND
ROCKET
BLAST MINE
GRENADE
FIRE
47
13
0
23
18
101
1
1
4
5
6
5
18
7
41
9
17
10
in two other
cases the
miscreants
fired several
rockets
36
PERSON
S
INJURE
D
74
86
12
191
38
401
2
3
4
2
9
5
-
5
2
7
2
-
2
4
6
-
1
1
2
1
1
-
6
6
2
-
-
1
1
2
5
5
5
5
4
11
15
1
2
1
4
3
3
19
2
8
2
31
12
4
16
1
20
61
51
55
14
202
7
11
28
6
6
-
1
3
4
4
18
6
36
2
2
1
47
-
3
1
3
7
1
2
1
2
5
1
3
11
5
11
21
1
38
93
PERSON
S
KILLED
7.
Khuzdar
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
8.
Mastung
9.
Kharan
10.
Lasbela
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
11.
Awaran
12.
Washuk
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
13.
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Dera Bugti
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
1
4
1
25
2
33
2
13
23
11
49
6
4
1
11
1
2
12
3
18
7
4
2
43
1
1
4
51
3
1
4
1
1
1
1
-
10
7
-
94
4
10
14
5
33
4
7
11
3
2
5
1
1
26
50
437
59
359
in 35 other incidents
miscreants fired
hundreds of rockets
6
9
4
13
1
4
14
19
07
7
4
5
47
21
5
26
0
6
21
27
1
1
16
8
24
22
26
17
95
1
27
Total
14.
Kohlu
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
15.
Sibi
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
16.
17.
Total
Ziarat
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Bolan
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
18.
19.
Total
Nasirabad
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Jafferabad
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
66
6
14
11
12
11
55
3
16
-
3
57
1
4
22
16
2
21
7
-
5
48
-
1
8
-
1
6
22
17
1
-
8
54
1
5
11
3
20
5
1
7
5
-
1
5
5
1
4
-
-
95
931
60
56
129
169
156
in 5 other incidents
miscreants fired
numerous rockets
13
583
4
2
1
9
26
In four other incidents
miscreants fired
numerous rockets
1
43
9
3
10
12
In 3 other incidents
miscreants fired
numerous
3
37
2
1
3
3
161
1
-
57
1
4
1
8
187
2
4
6
11
65
14
2
2
9
2
90
2
6
20
1
14
2
8
28
16
13
10
1
1
1
3
-
29
15
15
5
2
-
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Total
Jhal Magsi
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Loralai
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Zhob
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Barkhan
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Musakhail
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Kila Saifullah 2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Sherani
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
18
1
3
4
3
5
2
3
1
13
4
1
2
7
1
15
10
26
1
3
1
5
-
5
1
1
2
2
-
2
2
-
96
165
1
1
4
6
10
9
6
30
45
4
4
8
-
4
1
1
10
2
4
16
0
29
29
-
7
11
28
2
6
1
48
1
1
2
5
4
5
14
1
1
-
27.
Kech
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
28.
29.
Panjgur
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Gawadar
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
4th April,2007
Total
Grand Total
2
15
4
1
22
2
4
6
-
1
1
-
1
1
2
-
58
39
15
1
113
1
2
7
10
-
1
4
5
2
2
4
-
4
7
11
1
2
3
-
19
7
4
1
31
797
111
1
1
67
4
5
1
2
12
2114
3
3
311
14
14
1003
Source: Home Department, Balochistan Province
97
Annex 9: Required Resource Types in Big Disaster Situations





















Search and Rescue Equipment
Accommodation – Emergency shelter, tents etc
Bottled Water, tinkered clean water
Camping Equipment Chlorine/Chlorinator Suppliers
Cleaning Services
Cool room Hire
Disinfectant Services
Drainers
Dry Pail services
Electrical Appliances
Electricians
Food Preparation and Cooking Appliances and Equipment
Food Suppliers/Outlets
Gas Appliances and Equipment
Heating Appliances/Systems
Field Laboratories
Lighting Services
Medical Practitioners
Night soil Collectors
Morgue Services
Ambulance Services
98
Annex 10: Laws & Protocols related to Disaster Risk Management
Being a cross-cutting theme, disaster risk management has close links with all development sectors. Given
below is a list of national sectoral policies and international protocols that have implications for disaster
risk management and vice-a-versa. The NDMA would strive to build linkages with these policies and
protocols for the implementation of the Framework.
Sector/Agency
Agriculture
Bio-diversity
Climate Change
Desertification
Development
Development
Development
Disaster Management
Disaster Management
Disaster Risk Management
Environment
Environment
Environment
Hazardous Waste
Ozone Layer
Poverty Reduction
Water Resources
Disaster Risk Management
Mines
Electricity Rules
Legislation/document
Agricultural Perspective and Policy
Convention for Biodiversity (CBD), June 1992
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC), June 1992
Convention for Combating Desertification, October 1994
Medium Term Development Framework 2006-2010, Planning Commission
Ten Year Perspective Development Plan, 2001-2011, Planning Commission
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 2000
SAARC Disaster Management Plan (yet to be finalized)
ASEAN Regional Forum – Draft Plan for Mutual Cooperation
Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015
National Conservation Strategy 1992
National Environment Action Plan (NEAP), 2001
National Environment Policy 2005
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants , 2001
Basel Convention on the control of Trans-boundary movement of hazardous waste
and their disposal, 1994 July
Vienna Convention for the Protection of Ozone layer and the Montreal Protocol,
December 1992
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
Draft National Water Policy, 2006
Disaster Management Ordinance
 Mines Act 1923.
 Coal Mines Regulation 1926.
 Metaliferous Mines Regulations 1926.
 Consolidated Mines Rules 1952.
Electricity Rules 1937.
99
Annex 11: Development Programmes & Projects in the Province
Disasters are unresolved developments problems. The following development programmes and
projects are ongoing in the province. Sustainable development does contribute to disaster risk
reduction in the long run. Refer to Public Sector Development Programme 2006 – 07 for full details of
the respective sectoral development projects in the province.
Name of Sector
Number of Schemes / Projects
1. Agriculture
15
2. Livestock
16
3. Forestry
4
4. Wildlife
1
5. Fisheries
3
6. Industries
4
7. Minerals
7
8. Manpower
4
9. Sports
16
10. Culture
5
11. Tourism
1
12. Information
3
13. P.P. & H
34
14. Roads
369
15. Water
117
16. Information Technology
6
17. Education
143
18. Health
70
19. Public Health Eng.
52
20. Social Welfare
30
21. Environment
6
22. Local Government
11
23. Women Development
2
24. B.D.A.
93
25. Q.D.A.
1
26. G.D.A.
1
27. B.C.D.A.
2
28. Power
16
29. SP: Programme
3
30. STD: & Res
1
31. Other Schemes
6
32. Public Representation Programme
1
33. Poverty Alleviation
1
100
Annex 12: What to Do In-case of:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
Earthquake
Floods
Dam Failure
Landslide & Debris Flow (Mudslide)
Fire
Drought
Household Chemical Emergency
Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
Excessive Heat / Heat Wave
Tsunami
Nuclear Power Plant Emergency
Crisis Situations
A). EARTHQUAKE
1
What to Do Before an Earthquake
Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently and without warning. Identifying potential hazards ahead of
time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake.
Repairing deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations, anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to the
ceiling, and following local seismic building standards, will help reduce the impact of earthquakes.
1.1 Six Ways to Plan Ahead
1. Check for Hazards in the Home / Office
o Fasten shelves securely to walls.
o Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves.
o Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets
with latches.
o Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds, couches, and anywhere
people sit.
o Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire
risks.
o Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of
structural defects.
o Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with
latches and on bottom shelves.
2. Identify Safe Places Indoors and Outdoors
o Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table.
o Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors, pictures, or where
heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over.
o In the open, away from buildings, trees, and telephone and electrical lines, overpasses,
or elevated expressways.
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3. Educate Yourself and Family Members and Staff on safety and evacuation procedures
4. Have Disaster Supplies on Hand (Flashlight and extra batteries., Portable battery-operated
radio and extra batteries, First aid kit and manual, Emergency food and water, Can opener,
Essential medicines, Cash, Sturdy shoes, Other essential items.
5. Develop an Emergency Communication Plan for family and staff. Identify who to contact in
case of separation, (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at
school), develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster.
6. Help Your Community Get Ready (public awareness, emergency drills)
2
What to Do During an Earthquake
Stay as safe as possible during an earthquake. Be aware that some earthquakes are actually foreshocks
and a larger earthquake might occur. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place
and stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.
If Indoors
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DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture;
and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face
and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.
Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as
lighting fixtures or furniture.
Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on.
Be aware that fire may break out due to gas piping breakage or electricity short circuit
DO NOT use the elevators.
If outdoors, stay there.
Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside
buildings, at exits, and alongside exterior walls. Ground movement during an earthquake is
seldom the direct cause of death or injury. Most earthquake-related casualties result from
collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects.
What to Do After an Earthquake
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Expect aftershocks. These secondary shockwaves are usually less violent than the main quake
but can be strong enough to do additional damage to weakened structures and can occur in the
first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake.
Use the telephone only for emergency calls.
Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.
Stay away from damaged areas.
Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas.
Help injured or trapped persons.
Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately.
Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals.
Inspect the entire length of chimneys for damage. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire.
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Inspect utilities: Check for gas leaks. Look for electrical system damage, Check for sewage
and water lines damage.
B). FLOODS
Floods are one of the most common hazards in the low lying areas of Balochistan. Flood effects can be
local, impacting a neighbourhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins. Some
floods develop slowly, sometimes over a period of days. But flash floods can develop quickly,
sometimes in just a few minutes and without any visible signs of rain. Flash floods often have a
dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, mud, and other debris and can sweep away most
things in its path. Overland flooding occurs outside a defined river or stream, such as when a levee is
breached, but still can be destructive. Flooding can also occur when a dam breaks, producing effects
similar to flash floods.
Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near
water or downstream from a dam. Even very small streams, gullies, creeks, culverts, dry streambeds,
or low-lying ground that appears harmless in dry weather can flood.
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Before a Flood
To prepare for a flood, you should:
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Avoid building in a floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home.
Install "check valves" in sewer traps to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of
your home.
Construct barriers (levees, beams, floodwalls) to stop floodwater from entering the building.
Seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage.
During a Flood
If a flood is likely in your area, you should:
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Listen to the radio or television for information.
If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for
instructions to move.
Be aware of streams, drainage channels, gulleys, and other areas known to flood suddenly.
Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without such typical warnings as rain clouds or
heavy rain.
If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following:
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Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture. Move essential items to an
upper floor.
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Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so. Disconnect electrical
appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or standing in water.
If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips:
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Do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water can make you fall. If you have
to walk in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check the firmness of the
ground in front of you.
Do not drive into flooded areas. If floodwaters rise around your car, abandon the car and move
to higher ground if you can do so safely. You and the vehicle can be quickly swept away.
Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and
possible stalling.
A foot of water will float many vehicles.
Two feet of rushing water can carry away most vehicles including sport utility vehicles
(SUV’s) and pick-ups.
Avoid driving in flood running water
After a Flood
The following are guidelines for the period following a flood:
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Listen for news reports to learn whether the community’s water supply is safe to drink.
Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline, or raw sewage. Water may
also be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines.
Avoid moving water.
Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could
collapse under the weight of a car.
Stay away from downed power lines, and report them to the power company.
Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe.
Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters.
Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in
foundations.
Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as soon as possible.
Damaged sewage systems are serious health hazards.
Clean and disinfect everything that got wet. Mud left from floodwater can contain sewage and
chemicals
C). Dam Failure.
The consequences of Dam Failure are similar to those of floods.
Know your risk. Do you live downstream from a dam? Is the dam a high-hazard or significant-hazard
potential dam? To find out, contact your government representative or find out from the Irrigation
Department or WAPDA (Dams Safety Council) in your District. Find out who owns the dam and who
regulates the dam.
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Once you determine that you live downstream from a high-hazard or significant-hazard potential dam
and find out who owns the dam, see if an emergency plan is in place for the dam. The plan identifies
potential emergency conditions at a dam and specifies pre-planned actions to be followed to reduce
property damage and loss of life. The plan specifies actions the dam owner should take to take care of
problems at the dam. It also includes steps to assist the dam owner in issuing early warning and
notification messages to responsible downstream emergency management authorities of the
emergency.
If there is a dam failure or an imminent dam failure and you need to evacuate, know your evacuation
route and get out of harm's way. In general, evacuation planning and implementation are the
responsibility of the authorities or dam owner and local officials responsible for your safety. However,
there may be situations where recreational facilities, campgrounds, or residences are located below a
dam and local authorities will not be able to issue a timely warning. In this case, the dam owner should
coordinate with local emergency management officials to determine who will warn you and in what
priority.
D). Landslide & Debris Flow (Mudslide)
In a landslide, masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope. Landslides may be small or large,
slow or rapid. They are activated by: storms, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, fires, alternate freezing
or thawing, and steepening of slopes by erosion or human modification.
1
Before a Landslide or Debris Flow
Protect yourself from the effects of a landslide or debris flow:
 Do not build near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage ways, or natural erosion
valleys.
 Get a ground assessment of your property.
 Contact local officials, provincial geological surveys or departments of natural resources, and
university departments of geology. Landslides occur where they have before, and in identifiable
hazard locations. Ask for information on landslides in your area, specific information on areas
vulnerable to landslides, and request a professional referral for a very detailed site analysis of
your property, and corrective measures you can take, if necessary.
 Minimize home hazards:
o Have flexible pipe fittings installed to avoid gas or water leaks, as flexible fittings are
more resistant to breakage (only the Gas Company or professionals should install gas
fittings).
o Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls.
o In mudflow areas, build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings.
o Remember: If you build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbour’s
property, you may be liable for damages.
1.1 Recognize Landslide Warning Signs
 Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-water drainage on slopes (especially
the places where runoff water converges) land movement, small slides, flows, or progressively
leaning trees.
 Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time.
 New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations.
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Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the building.
Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas such as streets or
driveways.
Underground utility lines break.
Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope.
Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations.
Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move.
A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide nears.
The ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shifting in that direction under
your feet.
Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together, might indicate moving
debris.
Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flow can be
seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides).
During a Landslide or Debris Flow
2.1 What you should do if a landslide or debris flow occurs:
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Stay alert and awake. Many debris-flow fatalities occur when people are sleeping.
If you are in areas susceptible to landslides and debris flows, consider leaving if it is safe
to do so.
Listen for any unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris, such as trees cracking
or boulders knocking together. A trickle of flowing or falling mud or debris may precede
larger landslides. Moving debris can flow quickly and sometimes without warning.
If you are near a stream or channel, be alert for any sudden increase or decrease in water
flow and for a change from clear to muddy water. Such changes may indicate landslide
activity upstream, so be prepared to move quickly. Don't delay! Save yourself, not your
belongings.
Be especially alert when driving. Embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to
landslides. Watch the road for collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of
possible debris flows.
2.1 What to Do if You Suspect Imminent Landslide Danger
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Contact your local fire, civil Defence, police, or public works department. Local officials
are the best persons able to assess potential danger.
Inform affected neighbours. Your neighbours may not be aware of potential hazards.
Evacuate. Getting out of the path of a landslide or debris flow is your best protection.
Curl into a tight ball and protect your head if escape is not possible.
After a Landslide or Debris Flow
3.1 Guidelines for the period following a landslide:
 Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides.
 Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information.
 Watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow. Floods sometimes
follow landslides and debris flows because they may both be started by the same event.
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Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the direct slide area.
Direct rescuers to their locations.
Help a neighbour who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people, and people
with disabilities.
Look for and report broken utility lines and damaged roadways and railways to
appropriate authorities.
Check the building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for damage. Damage to
foundations, chimneys, or surrounding land may help you assess the safety of the area.
Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground cover
can lead to flash flooding and additional landslides in the near future.
Seek advice from a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing
corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. A professional will be able to advise you of
the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard.
E). Fire
Each year, many people are injured and property destroyed in fires, many of which could be prevented.
To protect yourself, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of fire. Fire spreads quickly;
there is no time to gather valuables or make a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become lifethreatening. In five minutes, a residence can be engulfed in flames.
Heat and smoke from fire can be more dangerous than the flames. Inhaling the super-hot air can sear
your lungs. Fire produces poisonous gases that make you disoriented and drowsy. Instead of being
awakened by a fire, you may fall into a deeper sleep. Asphyxiation is the leading cause of fire deaths,
exceeding burns by a three-to-one ratio.
1
What to do before a Fire
The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family, and your property in the event
of a fire:
Smoke Alarms (For those who can afford)
 Install smoke alarms. Properly working smoke alarms decrease your chances of dying in a fire
by half.
 Place smoke alarms on every level of your residence.
 Test and clean smoke alarms once a month and replace batteries at least once a year. Replace
smoke alarms once every 10 years.
Escaping the Fire
 Review escape routes with your family/workplace staff. Practice escaping from each room.
 Make sure windows are not nailed or painted shut. Make sure security gratings on windows
have a fire safety opening feature so they can be easily opened from the inside.
 Consider escape ladders if your residence has more than one level, and ensure that burglar bars
and other antitheft mechanisms that block outside window entry are easily opened from the
inside.
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Teach family members and staff to stay low to the floor (where the air is safer in a fire) when
escaping from a fire.
Clean out storage areas. Do not let trash, such as old newspapers and magazines, accumulate.
Flammable Items
 Never use gasoline, benzene, naphthalene, or similar flammable liquids indoors.
 Store flammable liquids in approved containers in well-ventilated storage areas.
 Never smoke near flammable liquids.
 Discard all rags or materials that have been soaked in flammable liquids after you have used
them. Safely discard them outdoors in a metal container.
 Insulate chimneys and place spark arresters on top. The chimney should be at least three feet
higher than the roof. Remove branches hanging above and around the chimney.
Heating Sources
 Be careful when using alternative heating sources.
 Check with your local fire department on the safety of using certain types of heaters in your
community.
 Place heaters at least three feet away from flammable materials. Make sure the floor and nearby
walls are properly insulated.
 Use only the type of fuel designated for your unit and follow manufacturer’s instructions.
 Store ashes in a metal container outside and away from your residence.
 Keep open flames away from walls, furniture, drapery, and flammable items.
 Keep a screen in front of the fireplace.
 Have heating units inspected and cleaned annually by a certified specialist.
Matches and Smoking
 Keep matches and lighters up high, away from children, and, if possible, in a locked cabinet.
 Never smoke in bed or when drowsy or medicated. Provide smokers with deep, sturdy ashtrays.
Douse cigarette and cigar butts with water before disposal.
Electrical Wiring
 Have the electrical wiring in your residence checked by an electrician.
 Inspect extension cords for frayed or exposed wires or loose plugs.
 Make sure outlets have cover plates and no exposed wiring.
 Make sure wiring does not run under rugs, over nails, or across high-traffic areas.
 Do not overload extension cords or outlets. If you need to plug in two or three appliances, get
an approved unit with built-in circuit breakers to prevent sparks and short circuits.
 Make sure insulation does not touch bare electrical wiring.
Other
 Sleep with your door closed.
 Install A-B-C-type fire extinguishers in your residence and teach family members how to use
them.
 Consider installing an automatic fire sprinkler system in your residence.
 Ask your local fire department to inspect your residence for fire safety and prevention.
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2
What to do During a Fire
If your clothes catch on fire, you should:
 Stop, drop, and roll - until the fire is extinguished. Running only makes the fire burn faster.
To escape a fire, you should:
 Check closed doors for heat before you open them. If you are escaping through a closed door,
use the back of your hand to feel the top of the door, the doorknob, and the crack between the
door and door frame before you open it.
 Never use the palm of your hand or fingers to test for heat - burning those areas could impair
your ability to escape a fire (i.e., ladders and crawling).
Hot Door
Cool Door
Do not open. Escape through a
window. If you cannot escape,
hang a white or light-coloured
sheet outside the window,
alerting fire fighters to your
presence.
Open slowly and ensure fire and/or smoke is not blocking your
escape route. If your escape route is blocked, shut the door
immediately and use an alternate escape route, such as a
window. If clear, leave immediately through the door and
close it behind you. Be prepared to crawl. Smoke and heat rise.
The air is clearer and cooler near the floor.
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Crawl low under any smoke to your exit - heavy smoke and poisonous gases collect first along
the ceiling.
Close doors behind you as you escape to delay the spread of the fire.
Stay out once you are safely out. Do not re-enter. Call the emergency service
What to do After a Fire
The following are guidelines for different circumstances in the period following a fire:
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If you are with burn victims, or are a burn victim yourself, call emergency service; cool and
cover burns to reduce chance of further injury or infection.
If you detect heat or smoke when entering a damaged building, evacuate immediately.
If you are a tenant, contact the landlord.
If you have a safe or strong box, do not try to open it. It can hold intense heat for several
hours. If the door is opened before the box has cooled, the contents could burst into flames.
If you must leave your home because a building inspector says the building is unsafe, ask
someone you trust to watch the property during your absence
F). Drought
A drought is a period of time when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban, human, or
environmental water needs. A drought usually refers to an extended period of below-normal rainfall,
but can also be caused by drying bores or lakes, or anything that reduces the amount of liquid water
available. Although what is considered "normal" varies from one region to another, drought is a
recurring feature of nearly all the world's climatic regions. The effects of drought vary greatly,
depending on agricultural, urban and environmental water needs. Water companies, farmers, and
ranchers are those that suffer the worst as a result of drought.
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1
Main Mitigation Strategies to Drought
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Drought monitoring-- It is a continuous observation of rainfall situation and comparison with
the existing water needs of a particular sector of a society.
Water supply conservation-- We can conserve water through Rain Water Harvesting which
can be used for agricultural purposes during dry conditions.
Land use-- Crops which needs less water should be grown in a drought prone area.
Livelihood planning- A section of a society which is least affected by the droughts should be
advised to live there
Responding to Drought
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Be sure to observe any traditional coping mechanisms or follow government advice.
Farmers should contact their local agricultural and irrigation departments for disaster assistance
information.
Be prepared for a drought ahead of time. Install low-flush toilets, use displacement devices in
the toilet tanks and repair dripping faucets.
Conserve Water in the Home
There are dozens of ways to conserve water. The following methods are recommended:
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Minimise irrigation during drought
Irrigate fields at night
Install water-saving showerheads:
Install displacement devices in toilets: Displacement devices reduce the amount of water used
in each flush but are not for newer, low-water use toilets, which use less than 3 gallons of water
per flush.
Change water use patterns: Examine your personal use habits and change those patterns that
waste water. Recommended conservation activities include:
o Using washing machines and dishwashers only when fully loaded.
o Using a pan when washing vegetables and dishes instead of letting water run
continuously.
o Not allowing the water to run continuously when brushing teeth, washing hands,
shaving or taking a shower. By turning off the faucet while brushing your teeth, you can
save as much as 14 gallons of water a day.
Find and Fix Water Leaks: Leaks often account for 10 percent of a consumer’s water bill. Make
sure your home is leak free by taking a reading of your water meter when no water is being
used in your home.
Never pour water down the drain when there may be another use for it, such as watering indoor
plants or your garden.
Turn faucets off completely to avoid drips and slow leaks.
Repair dripping faucets by replacing washers.
Take short showers, not baths. Limit showers to 5 minutes or less.
Turn the valves under sinks to reduce the rate of water flow.
As you wait for shower water to heat up, collect the water in a bucket for watering plants.
Use tight fitting lids on pans when cooking to keep water from boiling away.
Cook food in as little water as possible.
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4
Keep a covered bottle of water in the refrigerator for drinking so you won’t have to let the
water run to get cold.
Insulate hot water lines.
Private Water Supplies
It is important for people who obtain their water supply from shallow water tube wells to allow time
for the well to recharge between periods of significant use.
Spread major water use activities throughout the week. For example, wash a load of laundry every day
instead of a week's worth on one day.
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Conserve Water outside the Home
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When water is extremely scarce, do not water your lawn or plantings or wash your car. Your
community or individual water supply should be reserved for your most essential needs.
Plant native vegetation and drought resistant crops.
Group garden plants so they need less water or can be watered more efficiently. Keep gardens
well weeded to eliminate competition for water.
Use mulch around shrubs and plantings.
Only water new, not established gardens and landscaping.
Water grass only when needed, soaking slowly and deeply, long enough for the water to reach
the roots. Only water during cool hours. Morning or sunset is best.
Use trickle or drip irrigation methods. Carry limited watering or irrigation at night.
Install automatic shut-off nozzles on all exterior hoses.
Use a broom, not a hose, to clean driveways, steps and sidewalks.
When washing a car, use a mild non-toxic detergent, parking the car on the grass so the water is
also used to water your lawn.
Don't refill outdoor swimming pools. Install a pool cover to minimize evaporation losses when
not in use.
Other responses to food insecurity following drought
Information needs to improve emergency response include:
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improved food balance sheets
household budget shares and variable levels of demand amongst different staples
improved market price information on main foods
data on the incidence of different household coping mechanisms
household income shares and an assessment of the likely impact of the drought on the level of
income from each source.
Needed operational improvements include:
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actively facilitate market response during drought crises
trade regulations to allow diversifications of livelihoods
improve market information services in the province.
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Have a mechanism to offload livestock early when severe drought is predicted to minimize
losses at the peak of the drought
G). Excessive Heat / Heat Wave
Heat kills by pushing the human body beyond its limits. In extreme heat and high humidity,
evaporation is slowed and the body must work extra hard to maintain a normal temperature.
Most heat disorders occur because the victim has been overexposed to heat or has over-exercised for
his or her age and physical condition. Older adults, young children, and those who are sick or
overweight are more likely to succumb to extreme heat.
Conditions that can induce heat-related illnesses include stagnant atmospheric conditions and poor air
quality. Consequently, people living in urban areas may be at greater risk from the effects of a
prolonged heat wave than those living in rural areas. Also, asphalt and concrete store heat longer and
gradually release heat at night, which can produce higher night time temperatures known as the "urban
heat island effect."
1
Before Extreme Heat
To prepare for extreme heat, you should:
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Install window air conditioners snugly; insulate if necessary.
Check air-conditioning ducts for proper insulation.
Install temporary window reflectors (for use between windows and drapes), such as aluminium
foil-covered cardboard, to reflect heat back outside.
Weather-strip doors and sills to keep cool air in.
Cover windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with drapes, shades, awnings, or louvers.
(Outdoor awnings or louvers can reduce the heat that enters a home by up to 80 percent.)
Keep storm windows up all year.
During a Heat Emergency
What you should do if the weather is extremely hot:
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Stay indoors as much as possible and limit exposure to the sun.
Stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not available.
Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildings such as libraries, schools,
movie theatres, shopping malls, and other community facilities. Circulating air can cool the
body by increasing the perspiration rate of evaporation.
Eat well-balanced, light, and regular meals. Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by
a physician.
Drink plenty of water. Persons who have epilepsy or heart, kidney, or liver disease; are on
fluid-restricted diets; or have a problem with fluid retention should consult a doctor before
increasing liquid intake.
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Limit intake of alcoholic beverages.
Dress in loose-fitting, lightweight, and light-coloured clothes that cover as much skin as
possible.
Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat.
Check on family, friends, and neighbours who do not have air conditioning and who spend
much of their time alone.
Never leave children or pets alone in closed vehicles.
Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day. Use a buddy system when working
in extreme heat, and take frequent breaks.
Additional Information
 An emergency water shortage can be caused by prolonged drought, poor water supply
management, or contamination of a surface water supply source or aquifer.
 Drought can affect vast territorial regions and large population numbers. Drought also creates
environmental conditions that increase the risk of other hazards such as fire, flash flood, and
possible landslides and debris flow.
 Conserving water means more water available for critical needs for everyone.
H). Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
Heavy snowfall and extreme cold can immobilize an entire region. Even areas that normally
experience mild winters can be hit with a major snowstorm or extreme cold. Winter storms can result
in flooding, storm surge, closed highways, blocked roads, downed power lines and hypothermia.
1
Before Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
1.1 Add the following supplies to your disaster supplies kit:
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Rock salt to melt ice on walkways
Sand to improve traction
Snow shovels and other snow removal equipment.
1.2 Prepare your home and family and staff:
 Prepare for possible isolation in your home by having sufficient heating fuel; regular fuel
sources may be cut off. For example, store a good supply of dry, seasoned wood for your
fireplace or wood-burning stove.
 Winterize your home to extend the life of your fuel supply by insulating walls
 Winterize your house, barn, shed or any other structure that may provide shelter for your
family, neighbours, livestock or equipment.
 Insulate pipes with insulation or newspapers and plastic and allow faucets to drip a little
during cold weather to avoid freezing.
 Keep fire extinguishers on hand, and make sure everyone in your house knows how to use
them. House fires pose an additional risk, as more people turn to alternate heating sources
without taking the necessary safety precautions.
 Learn how to shut off gas, electricity or water valves (in case a pipe bursts).
 Know ahead of time what you should do to help elderly or disabled friends, neighbours or
employees.
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



Hire a contractor to check the structural ability of the roof to sustain unusually heavy
weight from the accumulation of snow - or water, if drains on flat roofs do not work.
Check or have a mechanic check that your car is in good order, Maintain at least a half
tank of gas during the winter season.
Install good winter tires. Make sure the tires have adequate tread.
Place a winter emergency kit in your car that includes: a shovel, windshield scraper and
small broom, flashlight, battery powered radio, extra batteries, water, matches, extra hats, socks
and mittens, First aid kit with pocket knife, Necessary medications, blanket(s), tow chain or
rope, road salt and sand, booster cables, emergency flares, fluorescent distress flag
1.3 Dresses for the Weather
 Wear several layers of loose fitting, lightweight; warm clothing rather than one layer of heavy
clothing. The outer garments should be tightly woven and water repellent.
 Wear mittens, which are warmer than gloves.
 Wear a hat.
 Cover your mouth with a scarf to protect your lungs.
2
2.1
During a Winter Storm

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2.2

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
Guidelines
Listen to your radio, television, for weather reports and emergency information.
Eat regularly and drink ample fluids, but avoid caffeine and alcohol.
Conserve fuel, if necessary, by keeping your residence cooler than normal. Temporarily close
off heat to some rooms.
If the pipes freeze, remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and wrap pipes in rags.
Completely open all faucets and pour hot water over the pipes, starting where they were most
exposed to the cold (or where the cold was most likely to penetrate).
Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of toxic fumes. Refuel
kerosene heaters outside and keep them at least three feet from flammable objects.
If you are outdoors
Avoid overexertion when shovelling snow. Overexertion can bring on a heart attack—a major
cause of death in the winter. If you must shovel snow, stretch before going outside.
Cover your mouth. Protect your lungs from extremely cold air by covering your mouth when
outdoors. Try not to speak unless absolutely necessary.
Keep dry. Change wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat. Wet clothing loses all
of its insulating value and transmits heat rapidly.
Watch for signs of frostbite. These include loss of feeling and white or pale appearance in
extremities such as fingers, toes, ear lobes, and the tip of the nose. If symptoms are detected,
get medical help immediately.
Watch for signs of hypothermia. These include uncontrollable shivering, memory loss,
disorientation, incoherence, slurred speech, drowsiness, and apparent exhaustion.
If symptoms of hypothermia are detected:
o
o
o
get the victim to a warm location
remove wet clothing
put the person in dry clothing and wrap their entire body in a blanket
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o
o
o
2.3
warm the centre of the body first
give warm, non-alcoholic or non-caffeinated beverages if the victim is conscious
get medical help as soon as possible.
If you are driving

Drive only if it is absolutely necessary. If you must drive, consider the following:


Travel in the day, don’t travel alone, and keep others informed of your schedule.
Stay on main roads; avoid back road shortcuts.

If a blizzard traps you in the car:

Pull off the highway. Turn on hazard lights and hang a distress flag from the radio antenna or
window.
Remain in your vehicle where rescuers are most likely to find you. Do not set out on foot
unless you can see a building close by where you know you can take shelter. Be careful;
distances are distorted by blowing snow. A building may seem close, but be too far to walk to
in deep snow.
Run the engine and heater about 10 minutes each hour to keep warm. When the engine is
running, open a downwind window slightly for ventilation and periodically clear snow from the
exhaust pipe. This will protect you from possible carbon monoxide poisoning.
Exercise to maintain body heat, but avoid overexertion. In extreme cold, use road maps,
seat covers, and floor mats for insulation. Huddle with passengers and use your coat for a
blanket.
Take turns sleeping. One person should be awake at all times to look for rescue crews.
Drink fluids to avoid dehydration.
Be careful not to waste battery power. Balance electrical energy needs - the use of lights,
heat, and radio - with supply.
Turn on the inside light at night so work crews or rescuers can see you.
If stranded in a remote area, stomp large block letters in an open area spelling out HELP or
SOS and line with rocks or tree limbs to attract the attention of rescue personnel who may be
surveying the area by airplane.
Leave the car and proceed on foot - if necessary - once the blizzard passes.
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I). Tsunami
Tsunamis (pronounced soo-ná-mees), also known as seismic sea waves (mistakenly called “tidal
waves”), are a series of enormous waves created by an underwater disturbance such as an earthquake,
landslide, volcanic eruption, or meteorite. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in the open
ocean and smash into land with waves as high as 100 feet or more.
From the area where the tsunami originates, waves travel outward in all directions. Once the wave
approaches the shore, it builds in height. The topography of the coastline and the ocean floor will
influence the size of the wave. There may be more than one wave and the succeeding one may be
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larger than the one before. That is why a small tsunami at one beach can be a giant wave a few miles
away.
1
What to do Before and During a Tsunami
The following are guidelines for what you should do if a tsunami is likely in your area:

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

2
Turn on your radio to learn if there is a tsunami warning if an earthquake occurs and you are
in a coastal area.
Move inland to higher ground immediately and stay there.
Stay away from the beach. Never go down to the beach to watch a tsunami come in. If you
can see the wave you are too close to escape it.
CAUTION - If there is noticeable recession in water away from the shoreline this is
nature's tsunami warning and it should be heeded. You should move away immediately.
What to Do After a Tsunami
The following are guidelines for the period following a tsunami:



Stay away from flooded and damaged areas until officials say it is safe to return.
Stay away from debris in the water; it may pose a safety hazard to boats and people.
Save yourself - not your possessions
J). Household Chemical Emergency
Nearly every household uses products containing hazardous materials or chemicals. Although the risk
of a chemical accident is slight, knowing how to handle these products and how to react during an
emergency can reduce the risk of injury to loved ones. There are probably many hazardous materials
throughout your home than you may think. Below is a list of the common ones. Take a look at the
product available in your home and check the label and take the necessary steps to ensure that you are
using, storing, and disposing of the material according to the manufacturer’s directions.
Hazardous Household Items
Cleaning Products
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Indoor Pesticides
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Oven cleaners
Drain cleaners
Wood and metal cleaners and polishes
Toilet cleaners
Tub, tile, shower cleaners
Bleach (laundry)
Pool chemicals
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Ant sprays and baits
Cockroach sprays and baits
Flea repellents and shampoo
Bug sprays
Houseplant insecticides
Moth repellents
Mouse and rat poisons and baits
Lawn and Garden Products
Automotive Products
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Motor oil
Fuel additives
Carburettors and fuel injection cleaners
Air conditioning refrigerants
Starter fluids
Automotive batteries
Transmission and brake fluid
Antifreeze
Miscellaneous
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Workshop/Painting Supplies
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Herbicides
Insecticides
Fungicides/wood preservatives
Batteries
Mercury thermostats or thermometers
Fluorescent light bulbs
Driveway sealer
Other Flammable Products
Adhesives and glues
Furniture strippers
Oil- or enamel-based paint
Stains and finishes
Paint thinners and turpentine
Paint strippers and removers
Photographic chemicals
Fixatives and other solvents
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Propane tanks and other compressed gas
cylinders
Kerosene
Home heating oil
Diesel fuel
Gas/oil mix
Lighter fluid
It is critical to store household chemicals in places where children cannot access them. Remember that
products such as aerosol cans of hair spray and deodorant, nail polish and nail polish remover, toilet
bowl cleaners, and furniture polishes all fall into the category of hazardous materials.
During a Household Chemical Emergency
If there is a danger of fire or explosion:


Get out of the residence immediately. Do not waste time collecting items or calling the fire
department when you are in danger. Call the fire department from outside (a cellular phone or a
neighbour’s phone) once you are safely away from danger.
Stay upwind and away from the residence to avoid breathing toxic fumes.
Recognize and respond to symptoms of toxic poisoning:

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
Difficulty breathing.
Irritation of the eyes, skin, throat, or respiratory tract.
Changes in skin colour.
Headache or blurred vision.
Dizziness.
Clumsiness or lack of coordination.
Cramps or diarrhoea.
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If someone is experiencing toxic poisoning symptoms or has been exposed to a household
chemical:
 Find any containers of the substance that are readily available in order to provide requested
information. Call the emergency services
 Follow the emergency operator or dispatcher’s first aid instructions carefully. The first aid
advice found on containers may be out of date or inappropriate. Do not give anything by mouth
unless advised to do so by a medical professional.
 Discard clothing that may have been contaminated. Some chemicals may not wash out
completely.
K). Nuclear Power Plant Emergency
Nuclear power plants use the heat generated from nuclear fission in a contained environment to
convert water to steam, which powers generators to produce electricity. Although the construction and
operation of these facilities are closely monitored and regulated by the Specialized Authority accidents
are possible. An accident could result in dangerous levels of radiation that could affect the health and
safety of the public living near the nuclear power plant.
The concerned authorities have emergency response plans in the event of a nuclear power plant
incident. The plans define two “emergency planning zones.” One zone covers an area within a 10-mile
radius of the plant, where it is possible that people could be harmed by direct radiation exposure. The
second zone covers a broader area, usually up to a 50-mile radius from the plant, where radioactive
materials could contaminate water supplies, food crops, and livestock.
The potential danger from an accident at a nuclear power plant is exposure to radiation. This exposure
could come from the release of radioactive material from the plant into the environment, usually
characterized by a plume (cloud-like formation) of radioactive gases and particles. The major hazards
to people in the vicinity of the plume are radiation exposure to the body from the cloud and particles
deposited on the ground, inhalation of radioactive materials, and ingestion of radioactive materials.
Radioactive materials are composed of atoms that are unstable. An unstable atom gives off its excess
energy until it becomes stable. The energy emitted is radiation. Each of us is exposed to radiation daily
from natural sources, including the Sun and the Earth. Small traces of radiation are present in food and
water. Radiation also is released from man-made sources such as X-ray machines, television sets, and
microwave ovens. Radiation has a cumulative effect. The longer a person is exposed to radiation, the
greater the effect. A high exposure to radiation can cause serious illness or death.
Although the risk of a chemical accident is slight, knowing how to handle these products and how to
react during an emergency can reduce the risk of injury.
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1
Before a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency
Obtain public emergency information materials from the power company that operates your local
nuclear power plant or your local emergency services office. If you live within 10 miles of the power
plant, you should receive these materials yearly from the power company or your state or local
government.
Minimizing Exposure to Radiation
Distance - The more distance between you and the source of the radiation, the better. This could be
evacuation or remaining indoors to minimize exposure.
Shielding - The heavier, dense material between you and the source of the radiation, the better
Time - Most radioactive loses its strength fairly quickly.
2
During a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency
The following are guidelines for what you should do if a nuclear power plant emergency occurs. Keep
a battery-powered radio with you at all times and listen to the radio for specific instructions. Close and
lock doors and windows.
If you are told to evacuate:
 Keep car windows and vents closed; use re-circulating air.
If you are advised to remain indoors:



Turn off the air conditioner, ventilation fans, furnace, and other air intakes.
Go to a basement or other underground area, if possible.
Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary.
If you expect you have been exposed to nuclear radiation:




Change clothes and shoes.
Put exposed clothing in a plastic bag.
Seal the bag and place it out of the way.
Take a thorough shower.
Keep food in covered containers or in the refrigerator. Food not previously covered should be washed
before being put in to containers.
2.1
Nuclear Blast
A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave, and widespread
radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around. A
nuclear device can range from a weapon carried by an intercontinental missile launched by a hostile
nation or terrorist organization, to a small portable nuclear devise transported by an individual. All
nuclear devices cause deadly effects when exploded, including blinding light, intense heat (thermal
119
radiation), initial nuclear radiation, blast, fires started by the heat pulse, and secondary fires caused by
the destruction.
2.2
Hazards of Nuclear Devices
The extent, nature, and arrival time of these hazards are difficult to predict. The geographical
dispersion of hazard effects will be defined by the following:




2.3
Size of the device. A more powerful bomb will produce more distant effects.
Height above the ground the device was detonated. This will determine the extent of blast
effects.
Nature of the surface beneath the explosion. Some materials are more likely to become
radioactive and airborne than others. Flat areas are more susceptible to blast effects.
Existing meteorological conditions. Wind speed and direction will affect arrival time of fallout;
precipitation may wash fallout from the atmosphere.
Radioactive Fallout
Even if individuals are not close enough to the nuclear blast to be affected by the direct impacts, they
may be affected by radioactive fallout. Any nuclear blast results in some fallout. Blasts that occur near
the earth’s surface create much greater amounts of fallout than blasts that occur at higher altitudes.
This is because the tremendous heat produced from a nuclear blast causes an up-draft of air that forms
the familiar mushroom cloud. When a blast occurs near the earth’s surface, millions of vaporized dirt
particles also are drawn into the cloud. As the heat diminishes, radioactive materials that have
vaporized condense on the particles and fall back to Earth. The phenomenon is called radioactive
fallout. This fallout material decays over a long period of time, and is the main source of residual
nuclear radiation.
Fallout from a nuclear explosion may be carried by wind currents for hundreds of miles if the right
conditions exist. Effects from even a small portable device exploded at ground level can be potentially
deadly.
Nuclear radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by normal senses. Radiation can only
be detected by radiation monitoring devices. This makes radiological emergencies different from other
types of emergencies, such as floods or hurricanes. Monitoring can project the fallout arrival times,
which will be announced through official warning channels. However, any increase in surface build-up
of gritty dust and dirt should be a warning for taking protective measures.
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2.4
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)
In addition to other effects, a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the earth’s atmosphere can create
an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high-density electrical field. An EMP acts like a stroke of lightning
but is stronger, faster, and shorter. An EMP can seriously damage electronic devices connected to
power sources or antennas. This includes communication systems, computers, electrical appliances,
and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. The damage could range from a minor interruption to
actual burnout of components. Most electronic equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear
detonation could be affected. Battery-powered radios with short antennas generally would not be
affected. Although an EMP is unlikely to harm most people, it could harm those with pacemakers or
other implanted electronic devices.
L). Crisis Situations / Sabotage
Throughout human history, there have been many threats to the security of nations. These threats have
brought about large-scale losses of life, the destruction of property, widespread illness and injury, the
displacement of large numbers of people, and devastating economic loss. Cases of bomb blast, bomb
scare, missile attack, riots, demonstrations, terrorist attack, and crowd related accidents and hostage
taking are a common phenomenon nowadays.
Recent technological advances and ongoing national and international political unrest are components
of the increased risk to people’s safety and security.
General Safety Guidelines for crisis situations:






Be aware of your surroundings.
Move or leave if you feel uncomfortable or if something does not seem right.
Take precautions when travelling. Be aware of conspicuous or unusual behaviour. Do not
accept packages from strangers. Do not leave luggage unattended. You should promptly report
unusual behaviour, suspicious or unattended packages, and strange devices to the police or
security personnel.
Learn where emergency exits are located in buildings you frequent. Plan how to get out in the
event of an emergency.
Be prepared to do without services you normally depend on—electricity, telephone, natural
gas, gasoline pumps, cash registers, ATMs, and Internet transactions.
Work with building owners to ensure the following items are located on each floor of the
building:
o
o
o
o
o
Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries.
Several flashlights and extra batteries.
First aid kit and manual.
Hard hats and dust masks.
Fluorescent tape to rope off dangerous areas.
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Annex 13: First aid and First Aid Kit
First Aid is the provision of limited care for an illness or injury, which is provided, usually by a lay
person, to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed, or until the
illness or injury is dealt with (as not all illnesses or injuries will require a higher level of treatment). It
generally consists of series of simple, sometimes life saving, medical techniques, that an individual,
either with or without formal medical training, can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.
First aid can also be performed on animals other than humans, although this article refers specifically
to human first aid.
Contact Your Local Red Crescent or Civil Defence Office for First Aid Skills.
A First Aid Kit is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first aid, particularly in a
medical emergency. Most first aid kits contain bandages for controlling bleeding, personal protective
equipment such as gloves and a breathing barrier for performing rescue breathing and CPR
(cardiopulmonary resuscitation), and sometimes instructions on how to perform first aid to various first
aid scenarios. Always make sure you have a First Aid Kit in your house, office or car.
The contents of the kit vary depending upon the number of people it is designed to protect, as well as
its intent for use. Recommended contents of a first-aid kit include the following:
Instruments
Bandages
erfly bandages
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Medications
Miscellaneous Items
antacid
anti-diarrhoeal medication
antihistamine
aspirin
antiseptic ointment
calamine lotion
decongestant
ibuprofen
sugar or glucose solution
syrup of ipecac
acetaminophen
alcohol (rubbing 70 percent)
alcohol wipes
blanket
candles
chemical ice packs or ice bag
chemical hot packs or hot water bottle
cotton swabs
disposable latex gloves
face mask for cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR)
first-aid book
flashlight
hydrogen peroxide
insect repellent
insect sting swabs
matches
paper and pencil
paper cups
soap
safety pins
tissues
tongue blades
Everyday items to use in an emergency:
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

disposable or cloth diapers for compresses, bandages, or padding for splints
dish towels for bandages or slings
umbrella for use as a splint
Visit Your Local Red Crescent Society Branch and or Civil Defence Branch for Skills on First Aid.
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Annex 14: Definitions of Commonly Used Terms
AFTERSHOCK: A smaller earthquake that follows the main shock and originates close to its focus.
Aftershocks generally decrease in number and magnitude over time.
ALERT: Advisory that hazard is approaching but is less imminent than implied by warning message.
See also "warning".
AREAL PRECIPITATION: The average amount of precipitation which has fallen over a specific
area.
ASH FLOW: Pyroclastic flow including a liquid phase and a solid phase composed mainly of ashes
from a volcanic eruption.
ASSESSMENT: Survey of a real or potential disaster to estimate the actual or expected damages and
to make recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response.
AVALANCHE: The rapid and sudden sliding and flowage of masses of usually incoherent and
unsorted mixtures of snow/ice/rock material.
CHEMICAL ACCIDENT: Accidental release occurring during the production, transportation or
handling of hazardous chemical substances.
CONTRIBUTIONS IN KIND: Non-cash assistance in materials or services (rescue teams, tarpaulins,
blankets, food, equipment etc) offered or provided in case of disaster.
CRISIS: for the purposes of this document, crisis situations refer to those that need the police and or
specialized uniformed forces to take the lead in restoring order, such as bomb blast, bomb scare,
hostage taking, riots, demonstrations and hijackings.
DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION: Evaluation and recording of damage to structures, facilities, or
objects according to three (or more) categories:
"Light damage": such as broken windows, slight damage to roofing and siding, interior partitions
blown down, and cracked walls; the damage is not severe enough to preclude use of the installation for
the purpose for which was intended.
"Moderate damage": the degree of damage to principal members, who preclude effective use of the
structure, facility, or object for its intended purpose, unless major repairs are made short of complete
reconstruction.
"Severe damage": This precludes further use of the structure, facility, or object for its intended
purpose.
DEBRIS FLOW: A high-density mud flow with abundant coarse-grained materials such as rocks, tree
trunks, etc.
DEFORESTATION: The clearing or destruction of a previously forested area.
DESERTIFICATION: The processes by which an already arid area becomes even more barren, less
capable of retaining vegetation, and progressing towards becoming a desert.
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DISASTER MANAGEMENT: The body of policy and administrative decisions and operational
activities which pertains the immediate response and beyond when disaster strikes.
DISASTER RESPONSE: A sum of decisions and actions taken during and after disaster, including
immediate relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT: The systematic process of using administrative decisions,
organisation, operational skills and capacities to implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of
the society and communities to lessen the impacts of hazards and related environmental and
technological disasters.
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION: The conceptual framework of elements considered with the
possibilities to minimise vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or
to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse effects of hazards, within the broad context of
sustainable development.
DISASTER: A serious disruption to the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread
human, material, economic or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected community
or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters are often classified according to their speed of
onset (sudden or slow). All disasters are man-made.
DISPLACED PERSON: Persons who, for different reasons or circumstances, have been compelled to
leave their homes. They may or may not reside in their country of origin, but are not legally regarded
as refugees.
Drought: Period of deficiency of moisture in the soil such that there is inadequate water required for
plants, animals and human beings.
EARTHQUAKE EPICENTRE: the point beneath the earth’s surface where earthquakes rupture
starts and from which waves radiate.
EARTHQUAKE: A sudden break within the upper layers of the earth, sometimes breaking the
surface, resulting in the vibration of the ground, which where strong enough will cause the collapse of
buildings and destruction of life and property.
EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: A coordinated effort, involving local, state, and national
government agencies as well as volunteer organizations and businesses to respond to an unprecedented
situation that may end being a disaster if not well managed.
EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTER (EOC): Officially designated facility for the direction
and co-ordination or all activities during the response phase a disaster.
EMERGENCY: A sudden and usually unforeseen event that calls for immediate measures to
minimize its adverse consequences to causing body injury, harm, death and disruption of normal
activity.
EVALUATION: Post disaster appraisal of all aspects of the disaster and its effects.
FALLOUT: The deposition of radioactive particles from the atmosphere arising from; natural causes,
nuclear bomb explosions and, induced radioactivity and atomic reactor accidents.
125
FAMINE: A catastrophic food shortage affecting large numbers of people due to climatic,
environmental and socio-economic reasons leading to massive deaths.
FLASH FLOOD: Flood of short duration with a relatively high peak discharge. Causes inundation,
and because of its nature is difficult to forecast.
FLOOD CONTROL: The management of water resources through construction of dams, reservoirs,
embankments, etc. to avoid floods.
FLOOD: Significant rise of water level in a stream, lake, reservoir or a coastal region.
HAZARD: A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the
loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
HEATWAVE: A long lasting period with extremely high surface temperature.
IDPs (INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS):
LANDSLIDE: In general, all varieties of slope movement, under the influence of gravity. More
strictly refers to down-slope movement of rock and/or earth masses along one or several slide surfaces.
LAVA FLOW: Molten rock which flows down-slope from a volcanic vent, typically moving at
between a few metres to several tens of kilometres per hour.
LEVEE (DYKE, EMBANKMENT, STOP BANK): Water-retaining earthwork used to confine
stream flow within a specified area along the stream or to prevent flooding due to waves or tides.
LIFELINES: The public facilities and systems that provide basic life support services such as water,
energy, sanitation, communications and transportation.
LIVELIHOODS: The daily activities that a person/family/community does to enable them get a
living for their daily survival.
LOGISTICS: The range of operational activities concerned with supply, handling, transportation, and
distribution of materials. Also applicable to the transportation of people.
MAGMA: The molten matter including liquid rock and gas under pressure which may emerge from a
volcanic vent.
MAGNITUDE ("RICHTER SCALE"): Devised by C.F. Richter in 1935, an index of the seismic
energy released by an earthquake (as contrasted to intensity that describes its effects at a particular
place), expressed in terms of the motion that would be measured by a specific type of seismograph
located 100 km from the epicentre of an earthquake. Nowadays several "magnitude scales" are in use.
They are based on amplitudes of different or on the seismic moment.
MAIN SHOCK: The biggest of a particular sequence of earthquakes.
126
MALNUTRITION: A diseased state resulting from an absence or deficiency in the diet of one or
more essential nutrients, either manifest or detectable by test. Malnutrition can also be due to an excess
of the wrong food.
MITIGATION: Structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse effect of
natural hazards, environmental degradation and technological hazards.
NON-STRUCTURAL FLOOD MITIGATION: System for reduction of the effects of floods using
non-structural means, e.g. land-use planning (flood plain zoning), advance warning systems, flood
insurance.
OIL SPILL: The contamination of a water or land area by oil.
POLLUTION: Degradation of one or more elements or aspects in the environment by noxious
industrial, chemical or biological wastes, from debris of man-made products and from mismanagement
of natural and environmental resources.
POTABLE WATER (DRINKING WATER): Water that satisfies health standards, with respect to
its chemical and bacteriological composition, and is agreeable to drink.
PRECIPITATION GAUGE/PRECIPITATION GAGE: General term for any device that measures
the amount of precipitation; principally a rain-gauge or snow-gauge.
PRECIPITATION INTENSITY (RAINFALL INTENSITY): Amount of precipitation collected in
unit time interval.
PREPAREDNESS: Activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective response to the
impact of hazards, including the issuance of timely and effective early warnings and the temporary
evacuation of people and property from threatened locations.
PREVENTION: Encompasses activities designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. It
includes engineering and other physical protective measures, and also legislative measures controlling
land use and urban planning. See also "preparedness".
PUBLIC AWARENESS: The process of informing the community as to the nature of the hazard and
actions needed to save lives and property prior to and in the event of disaster.
RECONSTRUCTION: Actions taken to re-establish a community after a period of rehabilitation
subsequent to a disaster. Actions would include construction of permanent housing, full restoration of
all services, and complete resumption of the pre-disaster state.
REFUGEES: According to international legislation persons having a well-founded fear of persecution
for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion
mostly outside the country of nationality and unable to return or avail himself of the protection of that
country. Includes mass exodus of peoples for reasons of conflict and natural disasters moving outside
their country of origin.
127
REHABILITATION: The operations and decisions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring a
stricken community to its former living conditions, whilst encouraging and facilitating the necessary
adjustments to the changes caused by the disaster.
RELIEF: Assistance and/or intervention during of after disaster to meet the life preservation and basic
subsistence needs. It can be of emergency or protracted duration.
RELIEF: Assistance and/or intervention during or after disaster to meet the life preservation and basic
subsistence needs. It can be of emergency or protracted duration.
REMOTE SENSING: The observation and/or study of an area, object or phenomenon from an aerial
distance, frequently using data collected by satellite.
RESETTLEMENT: Actions necessary for the permanent settlement of persons dislocated or
otherwise affected by a disaster to an area different from their last place of habitation.
RESILIENCE: The human (community) capacity and ability to face, resist, overcome, be
strengthened by, and even be transformed by experiences of adversity such as disaster. However it is
used quite differently in various fields.
RISK: The probability of harmful consequences or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property,
livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between
natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions
SEARCH AND RESCUE: The process of locating and recovering disaster victims and the
application of first aid and basic medical assistance as may be required.
SECONDARY HAZARDS: Those hazards that occur as a result of another hazard of disaster, i.e.,
fires or landslides following earthquakes, epidemics following famines, food shortages following
drought or floods.
SHELTER: Physical protection requirements of disaster victims who no longer have access to normal
habitation facilities. Immediate post-disaster needs are met by the use of tents. Alternatives may
include polypropylene houses, plastic sheeting, geodesic domes, and other similar types of temporary
housing.
SIMULATION EXERCISE (Drill): Decision making exercise and disaster drills within threatened
communities in order to represent disaster situations to promote more effective coordination of
response from relevant authorities and the population.
SITUATION REPORT (SITREP): A brief report that is published and updated periodically during a
relief effort and which outlines the details of the emergency, the needs generated, and the responses
undertaken by all donors as they become known. Situation Reports (Sit-Reps) are issued by OCHA,
UNDRO, by UNHCR, ICRC and LRCS.
STAPLE FOOD: A food that is regularly consumed in a country or community and from which a
substantial proportion of the total calorie supply is obtained.
128
STARVATION: The state resulting from extreme privation of food or of drastic reduction in nutrient
intake over a period of time leading to severe physiological, functional, behavioural, and
morphological differences.
STOCKPILING: The process of prior identification, availability and storage of supplies likely to be
needed for disaster response.
TREMOR: A shaking movement of the ground associated with an earthquake or explosion.
TSUNAMI: A series of large waves generated by sudden displacement of seawater (caused by
earthquake, volcanic eruption or submarine landslide); capable of propagation over large distances and
causing a destructive surge on reaching land. The Japanese term for this phenomenon, which is
observed mainly in the Pacific, has been adopted for general usage.
VOLCANIC ERUPTION: The discharge (aerially explosive) of fragmentary ejector, lava and gases
from a volcanic vent.
VOLUNTARY AGENCIES (OR VOLAG): Non-governmental agencies or organizations that exist
in many countries throughout the world. Some possess personnel trained to assist when disaster strikes.
Some volags have capabilities that extend from the local to national and international levels.
VOLUNTEER:
VULNERABILITY: Degree of loss (from 0 % to 100 %) resulting from a potentially damaging
phenomenon. The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or
processes that increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards
WARNING: Dissemination of message signalling imminent hazard which may include advice on
protective measures. See also "alert"
129
Annex 15: List of Consulted Persons in Preparation of this Plan:
SN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Name
Designation
Department /
Organisation
Telephone
Khuda Bakhsh Baloch
Abdul Salam Baloch
Abdus S. Khan
Abdul Karim
Muhammad Hamayun
Sadar Muhammad
Abdul Jalil
Dr. Amjad
Mj. Nadir Ali
Relief Commissioner
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Secretary
Board Member III
Livestock & Dairy
Irrigation & Power
Agriculture
Home
C&W
Social Welfare
Livestock Department
Planning &
Development
Environment Protection
Agency
Utility Stores Corp
Environment
Department
Relief Commissioner
081-9201045
081-9202243
081-9201074
081-9201261
081-9202400
081-9202374
081-9201502
0333-7812964
081-9201052
UNDP/ADP-B
BEEJ
Civil Defence
Balochistan
Development
Department
ICRC - Quetta
Civil Defence-Quetta
Pakistan Red Crescent
Society
Save the Children Fund
BEEJ
Met Department
Health Department
Agriculture
C & W Department
C & W Department
UNDP CPR Unit
UNDP CPR Unit
081-9211638
081-2827740
081-2665713
Secretary
10. Eng. M. Khan
Lab. In Charge
11. Nazeer Ahmed S.
12. Capt. Niaz Muhammad
Regional Manager
Director General
13. Amtad Ali Khan
14. Dawood M. Bareach
15. Syed Q. Gharshin
16. Hidayatullah Partau
Crisis Management
Officer
Programme Coordinator
Executive Director
Assistant Director
17. Inam-ul-Haq
Deputy Secretary
18. Andrew James
19. Shaukat H. Changezi
20. Mj. (Rtd) Sardar
Muhammad S.D.
21. Dr. Muhammad Siddiq
22. Khurram Javed
23.
24. Dr. Mohammad Tariq J.
25. Muhamad J. Iqbal
26. Mushtaq Ahmed
27. Akbar Ali Khan
28. Zubair Murshed
29. Zafar Iqbal
Head of Office
Director General
Secretary
Manager, Health
Programme Officer
Director
Emergency Health
Secretary
Director
Deputy Director
Advisor
ARR
Preparation of this plan has been facilitated by facilitated by:
Mr. Khuda Bakhsh Baloch
Relief Commissioner / MBR III
Civil Secretariat – Zerghoon Road
Block No.2 Room No. 28 Ground Floor
Telephone 081 – 9201045 / 9201052
Balochistan, Quetta
With technical assistance from UNDP Pakistan.
Please send any comments to this draft to the above address.
130
081-9201180
0333-7803543
081-9211384
081-9201840
0300-3906556
081-9201179
081-2834330
081-9203514
081-4001132
081-2821549
0321-8018412
081-9202287
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