Supplementary Data (Online) Long-term studies on wild population of vertebrates, which have estimated heritabilities (h2), selection intensities (s') and selection gradients (β) and made predictions about expected and observed responses to selection. ‘Observed phenotypic change’ indicates whether phenotypic trends matched the expectation from selection (opposite: phenotypic trend opposite to expectation based on selection; no change: phenotypes showed no time-trend although a decrease/increase was expected; as expected: phenotypic trend matched expectation from selection). ‘Years’ gives the number of years over which the study was carried out. Species Cervus elaphus Cervus elaphus Cervus elaphus Cervus elaphus Ovis aries Ovis aries Ovis canadensis Ovis canadensis Tamiascurus hudsonicus Tamiascurus hudsonicus Anser caerulescens Anser caerulescens Branta leucopsis Branta leucopsis Cygnus olor Geospiza fortis Geospiza fortis Geospiza fortis Geospiza scandens Geospiza scandens Geospiza scandens Ficedula albicollis Ficedula albicollis Ficedula albicollis Ficedula albicollis Parus caeruleus Parus caeruleus Parus caeruleus Parus caeruleus Parus major Parus major Parus major Parus major Parus major Parus major 1 Trait1 Antler massa Birth date (males and females)b Birth mass (females)c Birth mass (males)c Body mass (females)d Body mass (males)d Body weighte Horn lengthf Growth rateg Parturition dateh Body sizei Clutch sizej Tarsus length (females)k Tarsus length (males)k Clutch sizel Beak shapem Beak sizen Body sizeo Beak shapep Beak sizeq Body sizer Breeding times Relative masst Tarsus length Tarsus lengthu Body mass (P)v Body mass (R)w Tarsus length (P)x Tarsus length (R)y Breeding timez Clutch sizeaa Egg sizeab Fledging mass Fledging mass (East)ac Fledging mass (North)ad Observed phenotypic change opposite as expected no change no change no change no change as expected as expected as expected2 as expected opposite opposite opposite opposite as expected as expected as expected as expected as expected as expected as expected no change opposite no change no change no change no change no change no change no change no change no change opposite opposite no change h2 0.33 heritable 0.25 0.11 0.24 0.12 0.23 0.39 0.1 0.16 0.5 0.2 0.53 0.53 0.195 heritable heritable heritable heritable heritable heritable 0.19 0.3 0.52 0.35 0.267 0.349 0.469 0.483 0.17 0.51 0.8 0.239 0.199 0.294 Letters indicate which traits were included and the same letter indicates traits were regarded as dependent and pooled in Fig.1. 2 As exptected when maternal effects are taken into account. s' 0.44 -0.647 0.22 0.4 0.07 0.11 -0.295 -0.331 β 0.44 -0.639 -0.17 positive 0.3 0.093 0.03 0.662 variable variable variable variable variable variable -0.221 0.23 0.12 0.183 0.314 0.421 0.274 0.212 -0.215 positive 0.38 0.209 0.14 0.179 -0.24 -0.206 -0.24 0.519 -0.281 0.03 0.197 0.189 0.419 0.186 -0.001 1 Kruuk LEB, Slate J, Pemberton JM, et al. 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