Supplementary Data (Online) Long-term studies on wild population

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Supplementary Data (Online) Long-term studies on wild population of vertebrates,
which have estimated heritabilities (h2), selection intensities (s') and selection
gradients (β) and made predictions about expected and observed responses to
selection. ‘Observed phenotypic change’ indicates whether phenotypic trends
matched the expectation from selection (opposite: phenotypic trend opposite to
expectation based on selection; no change: phenotypes showed no time-trend although
a decrease/increase was expected; as expected: phenotypic trend matched expectation
from selection). ‘Years’ gives the number of years over which the study was carried
out.
Species
Cervus elaphus
Cervus elaphus
Cervus elaphus
Cervus elaphus
Ovis aries
Ovis aries
Ovis canadensis
Ovis canadensis
Tamiascurus hudsonicus
Tamiascurus hudsonicus
Anser caerulescens
Anser caerulescens
Branta leucopsis
Branta leucopsis
Cygnus olor
Geospiza fortis
Geospiza fortis
Geospiza fortis
Geospiza scandens
Geospiza scandens
Geospiza scandens
Ficedula albicollis
Ficedula albicollis
Ficedula albicollis
Ficedula albicollis
Parus caeruleus
Parus caeruleus
Parus caeruleus
Parus caeruleus
Parus major
Parus major
Parus major
Parus major
Parus major
Parus major
1
Trait1
Antler massa
Birth date (males and females)b
Birth mass (females)c
Birth mass (males)c
Body mass (females)d
Body mass (males)d
Body weighte
Horn lengthf
Growth rateg
Parturition dateh
Body sizei
Clutch sizej
Tarsus length (females)k
Tarsus length (males)k
Clutch sizel
Beak shapem
Beak sizen
Body sizeo
Beak shapep
Beak sizeq
Body sizer
Breeding times
Relative masst
Tarsus length
Tarsus lengthu
Body mass (P)v
Body mass (R)w
Tarsus length (P)x
Tarsus length (R)y
Breeding timez
Clutch sizeaa
Egg sizeab
Fledging mass
Fledging mass (East)ac
Fledging mass (North)ad
Observed
phenotypic change
opposite
as expected
no change
no change
no change
no change
as expected
as expected
as expected2
as expected
opposite
opposite
opposite
opposite
as expected
as expected
as expected
as expected
as expected
as expected
as expected
no change
opposite
no change
no change
no change
no change
no change
no change
no change
no change
no change
opposite
opposite
no change
h2
0.33
heritable
0.25
0.11
0.24
0.12
0.23
0.39
0.1
0.16
0.5
0.2
0.53
0.53
0.195
heritable
heritable
heritable
heritable
heritable
heritable
0.19
0.3
0.52
0.35
0.267
0.349
0.469
0.483
0.17
0.51
0.8
0.239
0.199
0.294
Letters indicate which traits were included and the same letter indicates traits were
regarded as dependent and pooled in Fig.1.
2
As exptected when maternal effects are taken into account.
s'
0.44
-0.647
0.22
0.4
0.07
0.11
-0.295
-0.331
β
0.44
-0.639
-0.17
positive
0.3
0.093
0.03
0.662
variable
variable
variable
variable
variable
variable
-0.221
0.23
0.12
0.183
0.314
0.421
0.274
0.212
-0.215
positive
0.38
0.209
0.14
0.179
-0.24
-0.206
-0.24
0.519
-0.281
0.03
0.197
0.189
0.419
0.186
-0.001
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