Nutrition through the Lifecycle: Childhood to Late Adulthood

Chapter 15
Nutrition through the Lifecycle: Childhood to Late Adulthood
Toddlers- Age 1 to 3 years
 Rapid growth rate of infancy begins to slow
 Gain 5.5 to 7.5 inches and 9 to 11 pounds
 High energy requirement due to increased activity level
 30–40% of total kcal from fat
 1.10 g of protein per kg body weight, or ~13g of protein/daily
 130 g carbohydrates per day, 45-65% of total energy intake
 14g fiber/1,000 kcal of energy consumed
 Ensure adequate intake of the micronutrients obtained from fruits and vegetables,
 Vitamins A, C, E, calcium (AI 500mg/day), iron (RDA 7mg/day), zinc
 Iron-deficient anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in young children
Fluid needs
 4cups/day
 Toddlers may need supplements due to their erratic eating habits, especially for
 Supplements should not exceed 100% RDA for any nutrient
Nutritious food choices
 Toddlers have an innate ability to match their intake with their needs
 Keeping a nutritious variety of foods available encourages a healthful diet
 Food should not be forced on a child
 Do not use bribery to encourage children to eat
 Foods prepared should be fun
Nutrition-related concerns for toddlers
 Continue to watch for food allergies
 Introduce one new food at a time
Vegetarian families
 A diet including eggs and dairy (lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet) can be a healthful diet
 A vegan diet may lack essential vitamins and minerals
 Toddlers who are above the 80th percentile for weight
Nutrition for preschool and school-age children, Age 4 to 9 years
 DRI values are the same for males and females through the age of 9
 Growth rate is 2 to 4 inches per year and slows
 Total fat intake should gradually be reduced to about 25–35% of total energy
 0.95 g of protein/kg body weight
 130 g carbohydrate per day or ~ 45-65% of total daily energy intake
 14 g fiber/1,000 kcal of energy consumed
 Vitamins and minerals from fruits and vegetables continue to be a concern
 Vitamins A, C, E, calcium, iron, zinc
 Large increases in the DRIs compared to toddlers as they get older
 5-8 cups/day
 May be recommended when particular food groups are not eaten regularly
 Supplements should be appropriate for the child’s age
Nutritious food choices
 The effect of school attendance on nutrition
o Public schools offer low-or no-cost school breakfasts to help children
optimize their energy intake.
o Few school lunch programs meet the new dietary guidelines
o Student choices tend to be higher in fat than federal guidelines suggest
o Some schools have fast-food restaurants competing with the school lunch
 Parents can teach children about healthful food choices
 Some foods “help us grow healthy and strong”
 Some foods are better used as occasional treats
Overweight children are at greater risk of becoming overweight adults.
Nutrition for older children and Adolescents – ages 9-18
 Growth spurts occur during childhood and adolescence
Adult half of peak bone mass is deposited during adolescence.
Body composition and weight change dramatically
 They begin to make their own food choices
 Activity levels highly vary
 25%–35% of total energy from fat, or no more than 10% of total energy from
saturated fat sources
 0.85 g protein/kg body weight
 RDA for carbohydrates is 130 g/day, or 45-65% of total energy intake
 AI for fiber for adolescents is 26g/day
 Micronutrient needs rise sharply as children approach puberty
 Meeting the needs for calcium and vitamin D intakes are critical to achieve peak
bone density
 Iron are very important
 Vitamin A is critical to support the rapid growth and development that occur during
 Adequate Intake (AI) of fluids varies by gender, ranging from 8 cups for girls and
11 cups for boys
 A vitamin/mineral supplement supplying no more than 100% of the daily values
may be warranted
Nutritious food choices
 Healthy role models, such as athletes, can be used to encourage good choices
Most adolescents’ diet is a lack of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains
Nutritious food choices
 Peer influences and fast-paced lifestyle can lead adolescents to choose fast foods
 Parents can act as role models and keep healthful food choices available
 Adequate intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should be encouraged
Nutrition related concerns
 Adequate physical activity is very important in reducing obesity
 Disordered eating and eating disorders can begin in these years
Hormonal changes may trigger adolescent acne
 Cigarette smoking, alcohol, and illegal drugs can also have an impact on nutrition
and health
Nutrition for Older Adults
Physiologic changes to the bodies of older adults, age 65 years and older, include
 Decreased muscle and lean tissue
 Increased fat mass
 Decreased bone density
 Decreased immune function
 Impaired absorption of nutrients
 Taste and smell perception is often diminished
 Energy needs usually decrease due to reduced activity levels and lower lean body
 Recommendations for fat (within 20-35% of total energy intake, and no more than
10% of total energy from saturated fat), carbohydrate (130g/day of complex
carbohydrates), and proteins (.80g/kg body weight per day)
 Fiber recommendation for those age 50 are 30g/day for men and 21g/day for
 Calcium and vitamin D requirements increase due to poor calcium absorption
 Iron needs decrease with ageing
 Zinc intake should be maintained for optimizing immune function and wound
Vitamin C and E recommendations are the same for all adults
 Adequate intake of B-complex vitamins is a special concern
B12 absorption decreases with age
Vitamin A requirements are the same, but older adults absorb higher amounts and
they might be at risk of toxicity
 AI 13 cups/day
Nutrition related concerns
 Many chronic diseases are more prevalent in overweight or obese adults
 Underweight may result from illness, disability, loss of sense of taste or smell,
depression, social isolation
 Dental health issues may cause older adults to avoid meats, firm fruits, and
Age-related eye diseases are responsible for vision impairment and blindness in
older adult
Macular degeneration
Antioxidants and Phytochemicals may prevent and protect against eye disorders.
 Some medications can alter nutrient absorption or decrease appetite
 Alcohol abuse
 Financial and mobility problems
Financial Problems
6–7% of households with older Americans experience food insecurity.
Food insecurity means they are unable to obtain enough food to meet their needs every
 Food Stamp Program
 Child and Adult Care Program
 Commodity Supplemental Food Program
 Senior Farmer’s Market Nutrition Program
 Nutrition Services Incentive Program