CHAPTER 7 APPLYING POPULATION ECOLOGY: THE HUMAN POPULATION Objectives 1. Define birth rate, death rate, emigration rate, and immigration rate. Write an equation to mathematically describe the relationship between these rates and the rate of population change. 2. Define fertility rate. Describe how fertility rate affects population growth. List at least five factors that affect birth rate and five factors that affect death rate. 3. Compare rates of population growth in developed and developing countries. Explain the differences you find. Briefly describe the state of teenage pregnancy in the United States. 4. Using population age structure diagrams, explain how the age structure of a country creates population growth momentum. Summarize social impacts resulting from declining populations. 5. List five approaches to slowing human population growth. List the four stages of the demographic transition. Briefly describe the controversies that surround controlling population size through controlling migration and family planning. 6. Summarize India and China's experiences. Describe the three major shifts in population distribution in U.S. history. 7. List seven resource and environmental problems faced by urban areas. Briefly describe the process of ecological land-use planning. 8. Evaluate the costs and benefits of the automobile on U.S. society. List three alternative forms of transportation to the car, and evaluate the costs and benefits of each. 9. Describe your conception of a sustainable urban environment.