Moriarty_8e_TIF_09

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CHAPTER NINE
Broadcast Media
GENERAL CONTENT: MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
1.
Broadcast media does NOT include which of the following?
a.
radio
b.
television
c.
Internet
d.
magazines
e.
film
(d; easy; p. 256)
2.
Which of the following statements is false regarding broadcast media?
a.
Broadcast media are dynamic and bought by amount of time, such as
seconds or minutes.
b.
Broadcast media messages are fleeting.
c.
Broadcast engages more senses than reading and adds audio as well as
motion for television.
d.
Radio has suffered substantially with the advent of television, and
advertising revenues continue to fall.
e.
Traditional radio stations are found on the AM/FM dial and serve a
primarily local market.
(d; moderate; p. 257; LO1; AACSB Communication)
3.
Which of the following is NOT part of the structure of the radio industry?
a.
public radio
b.
satellite radio
c.
cable radio
d.
AM/FM radio
e.
film
(e; moderate; pp. 257-258; LO1; AACSB Communication)
4.
___________ uses cable television receivers to deliver static-free music via wires
plugged into cable subscribers’ stereos.
a.
Satellite radio
b.
Cable radio
c.
Low-power FM (LPFM)
d.
Web radio
e.
Public radio
(b; moderate; p. 258; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
286
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
5.
________ can deliver the same radio stations, regardless of where the listener is in
the continental United States.
a.
Satellite radio
b.
Cable radio
c.
Low-power FM (LPFM)
d.
AM/FM radio
e.
Public radio
(a; moderate; p. 258; LO1; AACSB Communication)
6.
Nonprofit, noncommercial radio stations that serve a small market with reach of 3
to 5 miles that are not allowed to carry advertising are known as ________.
a.
cable radio
b.
public radio
c.
AM/FM radio
d.
low-power FM (LPFM)
e.
web radio
(d; moderate; p. 258; LO1)
7.
________ provides Webcasting, which is audio streaming through a web site.
a.
Satellite radio
b.
Cable radio
c.
Low-power FM (LPFM)
d.
Web radio
e.
Public radio
(d; easy; p. 258; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
8.
Which advertising medium has the power to engage the imagination and
communication on a more personal level than other forms of media?
a.
radio
b.
television
c.
magazines
d.
newspapers
e.
outdoor
(a; moderate; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Communication)
9.
Commercials set to music are known as ________.
a.
musicals
b.
lyricals
c.
jingles
d.
dual-coded
e.
memorables
(c; moderate; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Communication)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
287
Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
10.
Which is the largest category of radio advertising revenues?
a.
network
b.
spot
c.
local
d.
satellite
e.
web
(c; moderate; p. 257; LO1)
11.
________ radio is a group of local affiliates connected to one or more national
networks through telephone wires and satellites.
a.
Network
b.
Spot
c.
Local
d.
AM
e.
FM
(a; easy; p. 260; LO1)
12.
In which type of radio advertising does an advertiser place an advertisement with
an individual station?
a.
network
b.
spot
c.
local
d.
AM
e.
FM
(b; moderate; p. 261; LO1)
13.
________ radio advertising offers advertisers a variety of high-quality,
specialized, and usually original programs.
a.
Spot
b.
Syndicated
c.
Cooperative
d.
National
e.
Off-network
(b; moderate; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)
14.
Which of the following is NOT a segment into which radio listeners can be
separated?
a.
station fans
b.
radio fans
c.
music fans
d.
talk fans
e.
news fans
(d; difficult; p. 259; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
288
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
15.
The largest segment of radio listeners is known as ________.
a.
station fans
b.
radio fans
c.
music fans
d.
talk fans
e.
news fans
(a; difficult; p. 259; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
16.
The typical radio programming day is divided into five segments called
________.
a.
listener groups
b.
drive times
c.
coverages
d.
ratings
e.
dayparts
(e; easy; p. 259; LO1)
17.
________ is the number of homes in a geographic area that are able to pick up a
station clearly, whether those homes are actually tuned in or not.
a.
Circulation
b.
Coverage
c.
Rating
d.
Impression
e.
Gross impression
(b; moderate; p. 259; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
18.
________ measures the percentage of homes actually tuned in to a particular radio
station.
a.
Circulation
b.
Coverage
c.
Rating
d.
Impression
e.
Gross impression
(c; moderate; p. 259-260; LO1)
19.
Which of the following is NOT a factor affecting the rating for a particular radio
station?
a.
traffic
b.
competing programs
c.
types of programs
d.
time of day or night
e.
types of programs and competing programs
(a; difficult; p. 260; LO1)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
289
Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
20.
Which of the following provides radio audience ratings for more than 250 markets
in the United States?
a.
Arbitron
b.
RADAR
c.
A.C. Nielsen
d.
Simmons
e.
MediaMark
(a; moderate; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
21.
How does Arbitron collect consumers’ radio listening behavior?
a.
They call 12,000 respondents for seven consecutive days and ask them
about their radio listening the day before.
b.
Have of the sample complete a seven-day self-administered diary and the
other half is called for those seven days and asked about their radio
listening the day before.
c.
Electronic devices are mounted on roadways that intercept which radio
stations passing cars are tuned in to.
d.
They use a seven-day self-administered diary that the person returns to
Arbitron at the end of the week.
e.
Respondents agree to hook an electronic monitoring device on all of their
radios for a seven-day period to record which stations the radios are tuned
in to.
(d; moderate; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
22.
Which company provides audience-rating services for network radio listening?
a.
Arbitron
b.
RADAR
c.
A. C. Nielsen
d.
Simmons
e.
MediaMark
(b; moderate; p. 260; LO1)
23.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of advertising on radio?
a.
target audiences
b.
affordability
c.
frequency
d.
mental imagery
e.
listener inattentiveness
(e; easy; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
290
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
24.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of advertising on radio?
a.
targeted audiences
b.
high level of acceptance
c.
scheduling and buying simplicity
d.
frequency
e.
flexibility
(c; difficult; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
25.
Which of the following are ways radio provides targeted audiences for
advertisers?
a.
specialized programming
b.
different parts of the country
c.
different times of day
d.
a and b
e.
a, b, and c
(e; difficult; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
Which advertising medium has been called the “theater of the mind”?
a.
magazines
b.
radio
c.
newspapers
d.
television
e.
outdoor
(b; easy; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)
26.
27.
Which of the following is considered a disadvantage of radio advertising?
a.
listener inattentiveness
b.
lack of visuals
c.
lack of control
d.
scheduling and buying difficulties
e.
all of the above
(e; easy; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
28.
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of radio advertising?
a.
listener inattentiveness
b.
scheduling and buying difficulties
c.
lack of control
d.
clutter
e.
pervasive
(e; moderate; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
291
Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
29.
A broadcast ________ exists whenever two or more television stations are able to
broadcast the same program that originates from a single source.
a.
alliance
b.
syndication
c.
network
d.
monopoly
e.
primacy
(c; easy; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
30.
According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), a program service
with 15 or more hours of prime time programming per week between the hours of
8 and 11 p.m. is known as a(n) ________.
a.
affiliate
b.
syndicate
c.
cable provider
d.
network
e.
program provider
(d; moderate; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
31.
With respect to the structure of the TV industry, which of the following is NOT
considered a television option advertisers can use to deliver their messages to
audiences?
a.
network television
b.
specialty television
c.
program syndication
d.
cable television
e.
regional television
(e; difficult; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
32.
Which of the following is NOT a national, over-the-air television network in the
United States?
a.
Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN)
b.
American Broadcasting Company (ABC)
c.
Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
d.
National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
e.
Fox Broadcasting
(a; moderate; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
292
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
33.
Privately owned television stations that have a contractual relationship with a
broadcasting company are known as a(n) ________.
a.
network
b.
subscriber
c.
affiliate
d.
syndicate
e.
interconnect
(c; moderate; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
34.
What is it called when an advertiser purchases only a portion of a network’s
coverage?
a.
regional leg
b.
zoned exposure
c.
fragmented exposure
d.
regional exposure
e.
affiliate leg
(a; difficult; p. 265; LO2; AACSB Communication)
35.
What was the initial purpose of cable television?
a.
to offer consumers commercial-free programming
b.
to expand the market for syndicated programming
c.
to improve reception in certain areas of the country, particularly
mountainous regions and large cities
d.
to allow highly targeted special-interest programming options
e.
to increase opportunities for advertisers to reach their target markets
(c; difficult; p. 265; LO2; AACSB Use IT)
36.
What is the most familiar example of subscription television?
a.
satellite TV
b.
TiVo
c.
Interactive
d.
cable
e.
syndication
(d; easy; p. 265; LO2)
37.
WTBS-Atlanta, WGN-Chicago, and WWOR-New York are all independent
television stations whose programs are carried by satellite to cable operators, and
they are known as ________.
a.
cable networks
b.
superstations
c.
broadcast networks
d.
affiliates
e.
syndicated networks
(b; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
293
Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
38.
Cable New Network (CNN), the Disney Channel, and the Entertainment and
Sports Programming Network (ESPN) are known as ________.
a.
cable networks
b.
superstations
c.
broadcast networks
d.
affiliates
e.
syndicated networks
(a; moderate; p. 266; LO2)
39.
________ scheduling runs commercials across the entire subscriber group
simultaneously.
a.
Network cable
b.
Local cable
c.
Interconnects
d.
Satellite
e.
Superstation
(a; moderate; p. 266; LO2)
40.
A special cable technology that allows local or regional advertisers to run their
commercials in small geographic areas through the interconnection of a number
of cable systems is known as ________.
a.
network cable
b.
local cable
c.
interconnects
d.
satellite transmission
e.
syndication
(c; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
41.
Local television stations that are not affiliated with a network are known as
________.
a.
disconnects
b.
interconnects
c.
spot stations
d.
syndicated stations
e.
independent stations
(e; easy; p. 266; LO2)
42.
________ are when national advertisers buy local advertising on a city-by-city
basis from local television stations.
a.
Independent buys
b.
Spot buys
c.
Specialty buys
d.
Limited buys
e.
Regional legs
(b; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
43.
Commercial messages that are allowed on public television are known as
________.
a.
participations
b.
spot buys
c.
syndicated buys
d.
philanthropy
e.
program sponsorships
(e; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Communication)
44.
Which of the following is NOT considered a programming option or distribution
format available to television stations as well as to advertisers?
a.
pay-per-view
b.
sponsorships
c.
program syndication
d.
digital video recorders (DVR)
e.
high-definition TV (HDTV)
(b; difficult; pp. 266-267; LO2)
45.
Multipoint distribution systems (MDS) used by hotels to provide guests with
movies and other entertainment are an example of which type of television
programming option?
a.
low power
b.
pay-per-view
c.
program syndication
d.
interactive television
e.
high-definition TV (HDTV)
(a; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Communication)
46.
Television programs purchased by local stations to fill time in open hours are
known as ________.
a.
syndicated programs
b.
network programs
c.
cable programs
d.
pay-per-view programs
e.
fringe programs
(a; moderate; p. 267; LO2)
47.
What are the two types of syndicated programs?
a.
primary and secondary
b.
rerun and first-run
c.
specialty and commercial-free
d.
off-network and first-run
e.
wired and unwired
(d; moderate; p. 267; LO2)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
48.What is causing growth in interactive television?
a.
syndication
b.
digital video recorders
c.
high-definition TV
d.
narrowcasting
e.
broadband
(e; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
49.
Recording television programs without the hassles of videotape, letting users
pause, do instant replays, and begin watching programs even before the recording
has finished is known as ________.
a.
broadband
b.
high-definition TV
c.
time-shifting
d.
interactive television
e.
syndication
(c; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
50.
What technology allows users to record television programs without the hassles of
videotape, letting users pause, do instant replays, and begin watching programs
even before the recording has finished?
a.
interactive TV
b.
high-definition TV
c.
digital video recorders
d.
broadband recorders
e.
digital enhancers
(c; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
51.
Which of the following is NOT a type of network television advertising
alternative?
a.
sponsorship
b.
participations
c.
product placement
d.
local spot announcements
e.
national spot announcement
(c; difficult; p. 271; LO2)
52.
In which type of network television advertising does the advertiser assume the
total financial responsibility for producing the program and providing the
accompanying commercials?
a.
participations
b.
spot announcements
c.
dayparts
d.
sponsorships
e.
product placement
(d; moderate; p. 271; LO2; AACSB Communication)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
53.
Which of the following type of network television advertising is the dominant
form, representing more than 90 percent of all network advertising?
a.
participations
b.
spot announcements
c.
dayparts
d.
sponsorships
e.
product placement
(a; moderate; p. 271; LO2)
54.
In which type of network television advertising does the advertiser pay for 10, 15,
20, 30, or 60 seconds of commercial time during one or more programs?
a.
participations
b.
spot announcements
c.
dayparts
d.
sponsorships
e.
product placement
(a; moderate; p. 271; LO2)
55.
Which type of network television advertising provides advertisers more flexibility
in market coverage, target audiences, scheduling, and budgeting?
a.
participations
b.
spot announcements
c.
dayparts
d.
sponsorships
e.
product placement
(a; difficult; p. 271; LO2)
56.
Which type of television advertising appears in the breaks between programs,
which local affiliates sell to advertisers who want to show their ads locally?
a.
participations
b.
spot announcements
c.
dayparts
d.
sponsorships
e.
product placement
(b; moderate; p. 272; LO2; AACSB Analytical Skills)
57.
At what level does A. C. Nielsen measure the television audience demographics?
a.
local and national
b.
national
c.
network and local
d.
local and spot
e.
in-home and out-of-home
(b; difficult; p. 270; LO2)
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297
Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
58.
An instrument that records what shows are being watched is a(n) ________.
a.
people meter
b.
audiometer
c.
tv meter
d.
frequency meter
e.
viewing meter
(a; easy; p. 270; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
59.
What does one television rating point represent?
a.
1 percent of the TV viewing audience
b.
1,000 TV households
c.
1,000,000 TV households
d.
1,000 TV viewers
e.
1 percent of the nation’s TV households
(e; difficult; p. 269; LO2; AACSB Analytical Skills)
60.
Which of the following statements is true regarding television ratings and share?
a.
Share refers to the percentage of viewers based on the number of TV
households.
b.
The share figure is always larger than the rating.
c.
Rating refers to the percentage of viewers based on the number of sets
turned on.
d.
The rating figure is always larger than the share.
e.
There is no difference between rating and share as the two terms are
synonymous.
(b; difficult; p. 269; LO2; AACSB Analytical Skills)
61.
Which term refers to the percentage of viewers based on the number of television
sets turned on?
a.
rating
b.
share
c.
gross rating points
d.
gross share points
e.
impressions
(b; moderate; p. 269; LO2; AACSB Communication)
62.
The sum of the total exposure potential (i.e., total ratings) expressed as a
percentage of the audience population is called ________.
a.
rating
b.
share
c.
rating points
d.
gross share points
e.
impressions
(c; moderate; p. 269; LO2; AACSB Analytical Skills)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
63.
An instrument that records what television shows are being watched, the number
of households that are watching, and which family members are viewing is known
as a(n) ________.
a.
people meter
b.
audiometer
c.
tv meter
d.
frequency meter
e.
viewing meter
(a; moderate; p. 270; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
64.
Which of the following is considered an advantage of advertising on television?
a.
cost-efficiency
b.
low production costs
c.
minimal clutter
d.
intrusiveness
e.
all of the above
(a; moderate; p. 272; LO2; AACSB Analytical Skills)
65.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of advertising on television?
a.
pervasiveness
b.
cost-efficiency
c.
impact
d.
flexibility
e.
the buzz factor
(d; difficult; p. 280; LO2)
66.
Choose the option that is NOT a disadvantage of advertising on television.
a.
production costs
b.
clutter
c.
wasted reach
d.
inflexibility
e.
engagement
(e; difficult; pp. 273, 280; LO2)
67.
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of advertising on television?
a.
inflexibility
b.
low cost-efficiency
c.
clutter
d.
wasted reach
e.
intrusiveness
(b; difficult; pp. 273, 280; LO2)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
68.
Movie theaters sell time at the beginning of their film showings for commercials
called ________.
a.
previews
b.
captive showings
c.
selective showings
d.
trailers
e.
movie advertising
(d; moderate; p. 276)
69.
________ is when a company pays to have verbal or visual brand exposure in a
movie of television program.
a.
Cinema advertising
b.
Subliminal advertising
c.
Product placement
d.
Participation
e.
Sponsorship
(c; moderate; p. 278)
70.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of product placement?
a.
demonstrates product use in a natural setting by people who are celebrities
b.
unexpected and catches the audience when their resistance to advertising
messages may be dialed down
c.
effective even if there is not a match between the product and the movie or
its audience
d.
good for engaging the affections of other stakeholders, such as employees
and dealers, particularly if the placement is supported with its own
campaign
e.
All of the above are advantages of product placement.
(c; difficult; p. 278)
GENERAL CONTENT: TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
The most powerful radio stations are called “superstations” and can deliver
signals for long distances.
(False; moderate; p. 257; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
71.
72.
FM stations tend to be stronger than AM stations, sometimes reaching as far away
as 600 miles, which is why music stations prefer FM, and talk radio and stations
that broadcast sporting events are often found on AM.
(False; difficult; p. 257; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
73.
Public radio stations are considered noncommercial in that they rely on listener
support for most of their funding, and no commercial support is allowed by law.
(False; moderate; p. 258; LO1)
300
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
74.
Network radio is a group of local affiliates connected to one or more national
networks through telephone wires or satellites.
(True; moderate; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
75.
Syndicated radio advertising providers offer flexibility through their willingness
to run unusual ads, allow last-minute changes, and negotiate rates.
(False; difficult; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)
76.
Radio is a highly segmented medium.
(True; easy; p. 259; LO1; AACSB Communication)
77.
Arbitron and RADAR are the major audience-rating services for radio.
(True; moderate; p. 260; LO1)
78.
One advantage of advertising on radio is that radio is not normally perceived as an
irritant and has a high level of consumer acceptance.
(True; moderate; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Communication)
79.
Advertisers trying to reach a wide audience often need to buy time on several
stations, and this has been made easier by the “one-order, one-bill” system.
(False; difficult; p. 260; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
80.
One disadvantage of advertising on radio is lack of control, which means
advertisers do not have much control over when their ads will air.
(False; moderate; p. 259; LO1)
81.
Although radio may not be a primary medium for most businesses, it does have
excellent reminder and reinforcement capability.
(True; easy; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)
82.
One trend in audio advertising is narrowly targeted laserlike sound beams that can
pinpoint individual shoppers with prerecorded messages encouraging them to try
or buy some product.
(True; moderate; p. 263; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
83.
Because television advertising is embedded in television programming, most of
the attention in media buying, as well as in the measurement of television
advertising’s effectiveness, is focused on the performance of various shows and
how they engage their audiences.
(True; moderate; p. 263; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
84.
The price of a 30-second prime time network television ad has increased, but the
size of the audience has increased as well.
(False; moderate; p. 263; LO2; AACSB Communication)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
85.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defines a network as a program
service with 30 or more hours of prime time programming per week between the
hours of 8 a.m. and 11 p.m.
(False; difficult; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
86.
Currently, there are six national, over-the-air television networks in the United
States: ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, WB, and UPN.
(False; moderate; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
87.
Network-affiliated television stations are required by law to show all of the
programming provided by the network.
(False; difficult; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Communication)
88.
A problem facing network TV is that its audience, particularly men continues to
erode as other viewing opportunities make inroads on their audiences.
(True; easy; p. 265; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
89.
The initial purpose of cable television was to provide highly targeted specialinterest programming options.
(False; moderate; p. 265; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
90.
Cable News Network (CNN), the Disney Channel, and the Entertainment and
Sports Programming Network (ESPN) are examples of independent superstations.
(False; difficult; p. 266; LO2)
91.
The two categories of cable scheduling are network and local.
(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
92.
With local cable scheduling, advertisers can show their commercials to highly
restricted geographic audiences through interstitials, a special cable technology.
(False; difficult; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
93.
Television stations not affiliated with a network are known as independent
stations.
(True; easy; p. 266; LO2)
94.
National advertisers sometimes buy local advertising on a city-by-city basis using
spot buys.
(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
95.
The FCC allows public broadcasting system (PBS) stations to air commercial
messages, called program sponsorships, as long as the messages do not make a
call to action (i.e., ask for a purchase) or make price or quality comparisons and
appear only during the local 2.5-minute program breaks.
(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
96.
The FCC has licensed low-power television (LPTV) to provide programming
outlets to minorities and communities that are under-served by full-power
stations.
(True; moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
97.
The FCC has recently banned pay-per-view television from carrying commercials.
(False; difficult; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
98.
Syndicated programs include reruns of network shows as well as new episodes of
programs.
(True; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Communication)
99.
TiVo is a substantial threat to marketers because it allows consumers to skip
commercials completely.
(True; easy; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
100.
In program sponsorships, the advertiser assumes the total financial responsibility
for producing the program and providing the accompanying commercials.
(True; easy; p. 271; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
101. Participations are commercials that appear in the breaks between programs, which
local affiliates sell to advertisers who want to show their ads locally.
(False; moderate; p. 271; LO2; AACSB Communication)
102.
The share figure is always larger than the rating for television, because the base is
smaller.
(True; moderate; p. 269; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
103.
Network television is an expensive medium, but because of its traditionally high
reach to a mass audience it is considered cost-efficient.
(True; easy; p. 272; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
104.
Syndicated programming networks run programs and commercials, such as the
channels you see in grocery stores, doctors’ offices, and truck stops that distribute
commercials by video or satellites.
(False; difficult; p. 277; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
105.
The biggest problem with product placement is that the placement may not be
noticed.
(True; moderate; p. 279; LO4; AACSB Communication)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
GENERAL CONTENT: ESSAY QUESTIONS
106.
Describe the structure of the radio industry by naming and describing the
elements of the structure.
Answer:
The structure of the radio industry includes the following elements:
(1)
AM/FM—Radio stations are delivered by two different ranges of signals
or radio wave frequencies: AM and FM. AM stations tend to be stronger
than FM stations, but the tonal quality of an FM signal is superior to that
of AM, which is why music stations prefer FM, and talk radio and stations
broadcasting sports events are often found on AM.
(2)
Public Radio—Local public radio stations are usually affiliates of National
Public Radio (NPR) and carry much of the same programming. These
stations are considered noncommercial in that they rely on listener support
for most of their funding; however, they have slowly expanded their
corporate sponsorship messages.
(3)
Cable Radio—Uses cable television receivers to deliver static-free music
via wires plugged into cable subscribers’ stereos and typically is free of
commercials.
(4)
Satellite Radio—Can deliver radio stations, regardless of where you are in
the continental United States.
(5)
Low-power FM (LPFM)—Nonprofit, noncommercial stations that serve a
small market, with a reach of three to five miles. Currently, the FCC does
not allow them to carry advertising.
(6)
Web Radio—Audio streaming through a web site and can offer advertisers
spots that run only in certain parts of a city.
(difficult; pp. 257-259; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
107.
Name and describe the three major types of radio advertising.
Answer:
(1)
Network Radio Advertising—Radio advertising bought from national
networks who distribute programming and advertising to their affiliates.
Network radio is a group of local affiliates connected to one or more
national networks through telephone wires and satellites.
(2)
Spot Radio Advertising—Advertiser places an advertisement with an
individual station rather than through a network and makes up nearly 80
percent of all radio advertising.
(3)
Syndicated Radio Advertising—Program syndication has benefited
network radio because it offers advertisers a variety of high-quality,
specialized, and usually original programs. Both networks and private
firms offer syndication, and advertiser's value syndicated programming
because of the high level of loyalty of its audience.
(moderate; pp. 260-262; LO1; AACSB Communication)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
108.
Discuss three advantages and three disadvantages of advertising on radio.
Answer:
Students can discuss any three of the following advantages:
(1)
Target Audiences—Ability to reach specific audiences through specialized
programming, different parts of the country, and through different parts of
the day.
(2)
Affordability—May be the least expensive of all media.
(3)
Frequency—Because it is affordable, it’s easier to build frequency through
repetition. The nature of the radio message is another reason why it is a
good frequency medium because reminder messages, particularly jingles
and other musical forms, are easier to repeat without becoming irritating.
(4)
Flexibility—Has the shortest closing period, meaning copy can be
submitted up to airtime. Stations are also willing to participate in
promotional tie-ins such as store openings, races, and so on.
(5)
Mental Imagery—Allows the listener to imagine. Radio uses words, sound
effects, music, and tone of voice to enable listeners to create their own
pictures, resulting in radio sometimes being called the theater of the mind.
(6)
High Level of Acceptance—At the local level; it is not normally perceived
as an irritant because people have their favorite radio stations and radio
personalities.
Students can discuss any three of the following disadvantages:
(1)
Listener Inattentiveness—Messages are fleeting, and listeners may miss or
forget commercials. Many people think of radio as a pleasant background
and do not listen to it carefully.
(2)
Lack of Visuals—Products that must be demonstrated or seen to be
appreciated are inappropriate for radio advertising.
(3)
Clutter—The number of radio stations has increased, and so has the heavy
repetition of some ads.
(4)
Scheduling and Buying Difficulties—Advertisers seeking to reach a wide
audience often need to buy time on several stations, complicating
scheduling and ad evaluation due to nonstandardization.
(5)
Lack of Control—There is always the risk that a radio personality will say
something that offends the audience and could hurt the audience’s
perception of an advertiser’s product.
(moderate; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Communication)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
109.
Describe the structure of the television industry by naming and describing the
elements of the structure.
Answer:
The key types of television delivery systems are wired and unwired networks,
local stations, public stations, cable, and subscription. Specialty, syndicated,
interactive television, and TiVo offer different types of programming and ways to
manipulate the programming. More specifically:
(1)
Network Television—A broadcast network exists whenever two or more
stations are able to broadcast the same program that originates from a
single source, and it can be over-the-air or cable. The FCC defines a
network as a program service with 15 or more hours of prime time
programming per week between the hours of 8 a.m. and 11 p.m.
(2)
Cable and Subscription Television—People sign up for a service and pay a
monthly fee. Another form of subscription television is satellite TV.
Network cable scheduling runs commercials across the entire subscriber
group simultaneously. With local cable scheduling, advertisers can show
their commercials to highly restricted geographical audiences through
interconnects.
(3)
Local Television—Most local television stations are affiliated with a
network, but there are independent stations not affiliated with a network.
Most advertisers for the local market are local businesses. National
advertisers sometimes buy local advertising on a city-by-city basis, using
spot buys.
(4)
Public Television—Although mostly considered to be “commercial-free,”
the FCC now allows some leeway in airing commercial messages, which
are called program sponsorships. The FCC says these messages should not
make a call to action (i.e., ask for a purchase) or make price or quality
comparisons, and they can appear only during the local 2.5-minute
program breaks.
(5)
Specialty Television—The FCC has licensed low-power television
(LPTV) to provide programming outlets to minorities and communities
that are underserved by full-power stations. Hotels and restaurants use
multipoint distribution systems (MDS) to provide guests with movies and
other entertainment. Although specialty systems can carry ads, they are a
minor delivery system.
(6)
Pay-per-view—Delivered by satellite, usually used for major sporting and
music events, commercial customers, such as bars, as well as home
viewers subscribe for live delivery of the events without any commercials.
(7)
Program Syndication—Syndicated programs are television programs
purchased by local stations to fill time in open hours. Off-network and
first-run syndication are the two types.
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
(8)
Interactive Television—Basically a television with computer capabilities,
and it appears to be growing due to broadband. Broadband has more
capacity to send data and images into a home or business through a cable
television wire than does the much smaller capacity of a traditional
telephone wire or television antenna system.
(9)
High-Definition TV (HDTV)—A type of TV set that can play back
movie-quality, high-resolution images, but stations or networks have to
broadcast the program in an HDTV format. Advertisers have been
watching this development and will provide HDTV ads as demand builds.
(10) Digital Video Recorders (DVR)—Allow users to record TV shows and
watch them whenever they like. Users get a TiVo “box” and subscribe to a
service that distributes programming. The technology allows recording of
programs without the hassles of videotape, lets users pause, do instant
replays, and begin watching programs even before the recording has
finished, known as time-shifting. Rub for advertisers: consumers can
avoid commercials.
(difficult; pp. 264-267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
110.
Discuss three advantages and three disadvantages of advertising on television.
Answer:
The three advantages of advertising on television are:
(1)
Pervasiveness—Television is in almost every home; some homes have a
TV in every room, and these TVs are turned on for a great part of the day.
(2)
Cost-efficiency—Many view it as the most cost-effective way to deliver a
mass-media message because it has such a wide reach. Even though it is
expensive on an absolute basis, it is cost-efficient because the costs are
spread across so many viewers.
(3)
Impact—The interaction of sight, sound, color, motion, and drama creates
a strong emotional response. It is also good for delivering demonstrations
and dramas.
Students can discuss any three of the disadvantages of advertising on television:
(1)
Production Costs—Extremely high cost of producing and running
commercials. Production costs include filming the commercial and paying
the talent—writers, directors, and actors.
(2)
Clutter—There are no restrictions on the commercial time per hour.
(3)
Wasted Reach—Communication directed at an unresponsive (and often
uninterested) audience that may not fit the advertiser’s target market
characteristics.
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
(4)
Inflexibility—Most network television is bought in the spring and early
summer for the next fall season, and if an advertiser is not able to make
this up-front buy, only limited time slots remain available. Also, it is
difficult to make last-minute adjustments in copy and visuals, and
production of a TV commercial takes weeks to months.
(5)
Intrusiveness—TV commercials intrude into the programs and are
therefore more irritating than other forms of advertising, leading viewers
to mute and zap commercials.
(moderate; pp. 273, 280; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
APPLICATION QUESTIONS: MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
111.
Who did Holiday Inn Express, which was described in the chapter opening
vignette, target with its advertising efforts?
a.
single men
b.
single women
c.
head-of-household men
d.
businessmen
e.
men and women more than 65 years old
(d; moderate; p. 255)
112.
How did Holiday Inn Express, which was described in the chapter opening
vignette, position itself?
a.
as the lowest-price hotel
b.
as the best quality hotel
c.
as a hotel that offers basic comfort without frills at a good price
d.
as the hotel with the greatest assortment of frills
e.
as the only hotel
(c; moderate; p. 255)
113.
WLSU is the campus radio station at Louisiana State University. It is a nonprofit,
noncommercial station that serves a small market (i.e., the university community),
with a reach of three to five miles. They provide a variety of music and
informational programming, and all LSU student, faculty, and staff performances
are broadcast on this station. With respect to the structure of the radio industry,
WLSU is an example of ________.
a.
public radio
b.
cable radio
c.
satellite radio
d.
low-power FM (LPFM)
e.
web radio
(d; moderate; p. 258; LO1)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
114.
Laurie loves the car radio her husband gave her for her birthday because she
spends hours on the road as a sales rep covering the entire southeast region of the
United States. She is able to listen to the same station, regardless of where she is
in the country, and the music stations are completely commercial-free. She has to
pay a monthly fee for this programming, but to her, it’s worth it. With respect to
the structure of the radio industry, what kind of radio does this represent?
a.
AM/FM
b.
cable radio
c.
satellite radio
d.
web radio
e.
LPFM
(c; easy; p. 258; LO1; AACSB Use of IT)
115.
Rush Limbaugh is a conservative talk show host who is heard on hundreds of
radio stations around the country. Advertisers, such as Select Comfort beds,
advertise on his program because of the high level of loyalty of his audience,
affectionately called “Ditto Heads” because they agree with Rush because they
feel he voices their opinions, thoughts, and feelings effectively. Local radio
stations purchase the rights to air his program on their station. National
advertisers can purchase advertising time from the program provider or the local
station, and local businesses usually purchase advertising during this show from
the local station. What type of radio advertising does this represent?
a.
network radio advertising
b.
spot radio advertising
c.
syndicated radio advertising
d.
news radio advertising
e.
up-front radio advertising
(c; moderate; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)
116.
Starbucks is interested in radio advertising and wants to reach consumers at the
best time of day to get them to drive into a Starbucks location. Research has
shown that 80 percent of consumers drink the majority of coffee before going to
work or on their way to work. What daypart would you recommend Starbucks use
to reach these consumers?
a.
6 to 10 a.m. (morning drive time)
b.
10 a.m. to 3 p.m. (daytime)
c.
3 to 7 p.m. (evening drive time)
d.
7 p.m. to midnight (nighttime)
e.
midnight to 6 a.m. (all night)
(a; easy; p. 259; LO1)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
117.
Rain Forest Car Wash wants to start advertising to increase its business. Rain
Forest is looking for an advertising medium that will allow them to advertise
frequently yet still be affordable. They also want the capability to change
messages to reflect current conditions that affect a car’s appearance, such as the
high level of pollen that settles on cars from one day to the next. Based on this
information, which advertising medium would you recommend for this business?
a.
newspapers
b.
magazines
c.
television
d.
radio
e.
outdoor billboards
(d; moderate; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Communication)
118.
Wendy’s fast food restaurant wants to increase radio advertising in the
metropolitan area of several major cities. They want to advertise close to lunch
and dinner times because they feel that consumers are already in their cars and
will more likely drive into a Wendy’s if they hear an ad around the time they are
hungry. Wendy’s is seeking to reach as wide of an audience as possible and
intends to advertise on several stations within each area to do so. Considering the
disadvantages of advertising on the radio, which one is most relevant in this
situation?
a.
listener inattentiveness
b.
lack of visuals
c.
clutter
d.
scheduling and buying difficulties
e.
lack of control
(d; moderate; p. 279; LO1; AACSB Communication)
119.
WDAM is a local television station in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, that airs
programming provided from the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). This
station has a contractual relationship with NBC in which it agrees to carry
programming originating from NBC during a certain part of its schedule. WDAM
is allowed to sell a small amount of time during this programming to advertisers
wishing to reach the local market, but the station typically pays NBC 30 percent
of the fees they charge for this local advertising. However, WDAM receives 15
percent of the advertising revenue paid to NBC by national advertisers. WDAM is
known as a network ________.
a.
affiliate
b.
subscriber
c.
agent
d.
assistant
e.
enabler
(a; easy; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
120.
The Wall Street Journal wants to begin an advertising campaign using television
to attract more subscribers. They want a television vehicle that is relatively
uncluttered and reaches an affluent, well-educated household. One goal of their
promotion is to not appear to be asking for a purchase, merely to make the
publication more salient in the minds of their target audience. Based on this
information and your knowledge of the structure of the television industry, which
of the following delivery systems or programming options would be best for the
WSJ?
a.
network television
b.
public television
c.
cable television
d.
program syndication
e.
interactive television
(b; difficult; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
121.
Some have predicted that, in the future, television will allow consumers to
purchase products/brands they see on a television show. For example, if you like
the shirt Raymond is wearing in Everybody Loves Raymond, you will be able to
click on the shirt and will be taken to a web site that allows you to purchase it.
When finished, you can pick up viewing the program where you left off. What
type of television delivery system or program option does this represent?
a.
pay-per-view
b.
high-definition TV (HDTV)
c.
interactive television
d.
e-commerce television
e.
network cable
(c; moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
122.
In "A Matter of Principle" what problem is analyzed?
a.
The number of hours children aged 3-5 watch TV each week is adversely
affecting the children's physical development.
b.
Since college students are exhausted from watching TV each day they
underperform in classes.
c.
The airwaves are saturated with radio and television in major markets with
country music.
d.
Television violence is used deliberately by advertisers to target TVs most
valuable demographic—male viewers ages 18-34 who are top consumers
of violent shows.
e.
Criticism of the TV show, Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, is
unjustified and cruel.
(d; easy; p. 269; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
123.
A popular comedy show, which is shown on Fox network, had a rating or 4.0 but
a share of 7. Why are these two numbers different?
a.
Rating includes all TV households and share considers only those
households that have their TVs on at that time.
b.
Share includes all TV households and rating considers only those
households that have their TVs on at that time.
c.
Rating is provided by Arbitron and share is provided by Nielsen, and both
use different methods for estimating audience size.
d.
Rating is provided by Nielson and share is provided by Arbitron, and both
use different methods for estimating audience size.
e.
Rating compares audience size to the entire TV universe, while share
compares only audience size to other network programming.
(a; moderate; p. 269)
As described in “The Inside Story,” how did HER&NU marketing
communication turn around the negative image the Framsokn political party was
suffering in Iceland?
a.
They executed television commercials using humor with a serious selling
point.
b.
They provided factual evidence in their TV commercials of the positive
economic and social changes the party was the catalyst for over the past
12 years.
c.
They used comparative advertising, which is allowed only on television in
Iceland, in which they juxtaposed the rival political party’s position with
their party’s position on several economic and social issues.
d.
They selected a younger candidate and used television advertising heavily
to project a younger image for their political party.
e.
They selected a female candidate and used television advertising heavily
to project a more female-focused party.
(a; moderate; p. 274; LO2; AACSB Communication)
124.
125.
In 2006, which of the following was the top show by ad rates?
a.
Friends
b.
Will & Grace
c.
ER
d.
Monday Night Football
e.
American Idol
(e; difficult; p. 275 [Table 9.2]; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
As described in the “Hands-On” case at the end of the chapter, what risky step has
Sirius satellite radio taken with the goal to increase subscribers by more than 1
million?
a.
They have gone to programming that is completely commercial-free.
b.
They signed controversial talk show host Rush Limbaugh to bring his
program to Sirius in the hopes that his loyal listeners will follow.
c.
They increased their price 50 percent and touted that fact in television
commercials to convey the position that they are superior to their
competitor, XM Radio.
d.
They signed “shock jock” Howard Stern to bring his program to Sirius in
the hopes that his loyal listeners will follow.
e.
They plan on increasing their advertising spending from $1 million to
$100 million by 2007, and Mel Karmazin, CEO of Sirius, says this
aggressive advertising growth plan will actually drive subscribers to Sirius
due to their strong dislike and resistance to commercials.
(d; moderate; p. 283; LO2; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
126.
APPLICATION QUESTIONS: MINI-CASE MULTIPLE-CHOICE
Procter & Gamble is a major manufacturer of consumer packaged goods and spent almost
$3 billion on consumer advertising in 2004, much of it on television. P&G has
nationwide distribution of its products and uses television advertising because of that.
However, P&G is concerned about the decrease in television audiences in recent years
and the fact that consumers are better able to avoid television commercials.
127.
Mini-Case Question. What type of television delivery system allows P&G to
advertise on hundreds of television stations simultaneously across the country
during prime time programs?
a.
network television
b.
public television
c.
specialty television
d.
pay-per-view
e.
interactive television
(a; easy; p. 264; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
128.
Mini-Case Question. The bulk of P&G’s television advertising is 30-second
commercials that air nationwide during several different programs every day of
the week. What type of television advertising is this?
a.
sponsorship
b.
participations
c.
spot announcements
d.
on-network syndication
e.
specialty television
(b; moderate; p. 271; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
129.
Mini-Case Question. One thing P&G has done recently is to develop familyfriendly programming, assuming the total financial responsibility for producing
the program and providing the accompanying commercials. They are concerned
that some of the controversial programming on television today hurts their
brand’s image if they advertise during that type of programming. What form of
television advertising is P&G undertaking?
a.
sponsorship
b.
participations
c.
spot announcements
d.
on-network syndication
e.
specialty television
(a; moderate; p. 271; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
130.
Mini-Case Question. Another major concern of P&G and other advertisers is the
fact that consumers are increasingly avoiding commercials, either by zapping
them or using technology, such as digital video recorders, to avoid them
completely. As a result, they are making a concerted effort to get the actors in
movies and television programs to verbally or visually expose their brands to the
audience. What is this practice known as?
a.
sponsorship
b.
product placement
c.
participations
d.
de-clutter
e.
share
(b; moderate; p. 278; LO4; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
APPLICATION QUESTIONS: SHORT-ANSWER
131.
What was the challenge facing the agency of Holiday Inn Express, which was
described in the chapter opening vignette, and how did they address it?
Answer:
The challenge facing the agency of Holiday Inn Express was to create a brand in a
well-established category and find a way to distinguish the subbrand from
Holiday Inn with less than half the budget of its fiercest competitor.
The campaign focused on the smart road warrior who got a good night's rest while
spending his money wisely. Wacky 'smart' people stepped up to emergency
situations as a result of having stayed at Holiday Inn Express. This created the
brand in a popular, funny and memorable way.
TV was the primary medium and the media buys were precise. They bought time
on Saturday and Sunday when the businessmen were planning trips and on cable
stations they were likely to watch.
(moderate; pp. 255-256)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
132.
Coca-Cola had an “Always Coca-Cola” campaign in which their agency created
jingles in several different music styles, such as rock-and-roll, country, hip-hop,
and easy rock. The musical quality was on par with the music programming heard
on radio stations, and they wanted to ensure that consumers heard it at that quality
level. They also wanted as many consumers as possible to be exposed to the ads.
Explain which type of radio is best at meeting these requirements?
Answer:
Although cable, satellite, and web radio offer excellent sound quality, not all
consumers subscribe or have access to these radio options. FM radio, on the other
hand, offers better tonal quality than AM and is free to consumers—all they need
is a radio receiver.
(b; difficult; p. 258; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
133.
The Secret Gallery is a unique gift and home accessories store that recently
opened. The owners want to advertise their business and are looking for an
advertising medium that will allow them to advertise frequently and at a low cost
to women aged 18 to 45. They want to get the audience curious about the
uniqueness of the offerings and get them imagining the uniqueness and beauty
they can expect when they visit the store. Based on this information, recommend
the appropriate medium for them.
Answer:
Radio would probably be most appropriate because it is the least expensive of all
media, and advertisers can easily build frequency through repetition. Based on the
nature of the medium, reminder messages, particularly jingles and other musical
forms, are easier to repeat without becoming irritating. It is also a medium that
allows the listener to imagine by using words, sound effects, music, and tone of
voice to enable listeners to create their own pictures.
(moderate; p. 262; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
134.
Community Coffee once claimed in one of their television commercials that it
was the “state coffee of Louisiana,” and a nice lady mockingly said at the end of
the commercial that “You’ve got to be a Yankee if you don’t like Community
Coffee!” Community wants to advertise on cable television, especially during
food-related shows that appear on the Food Network. Because Community Coffee
is distributed only in the South, they don’t want nationwide exposure for their ads.
Explain how Community can advertise on a regional basis on cable television.
Answer:
With local cable scheduling, advertisers can show their commercials to highly
restricted geographic audiences through interconnects, a special cable technology
that allows local or regional advertisers to run their commercials in small
geographic areas through the interconnection of a number of cable systems.
(moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Use of IT)
135.
Ruth was watching public television and noticed that there were commercial
messages. She always thought that public television was commercial-free. Is that
true? Explain your answer.
Answer:
Although many people still consider public television to be commercial-free, in
1984 the FCC liberalized its rules and allowed the public broadcasting system
(PBS) stations some leeway in airing commercial messages, which are called
program sponsorships. The FCC says these messages should not make a call to
action (ask for a purchase) or make price or quality comparisons. Ads are allowed
to appear only during the local 2.5-minute program breaks, and each station
maintains its own acceptability guidelines.
(moderate; p. 266; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
136.
Six Flags Fiesta Texas is located in San Antonio, Texas. Although several locals
and other Texans visit the park every year, Six Flags wants to target the millions
of tourists that visit the beautiful city for the Alamo and the riverwalk area. They
would like to reach these tourists through television in their hotel rooms. Explain
how they can do that.
Answer:
One programming option for television is Specialty Television. Hotels and
restaurants use multipoint distribution systems (MDS) to provide guests with
movies and other entertainment. These systems can also carry ads and would be
ideal for Six Flags to use if that is the target market they are seeking.
(moderate; p. 267; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
137.
May is the time of year when agencies start purchasing advertising time during
prime time network programming for the next television season that begins in
September. Name and describe the three forms of network television advertising.
Answer:
The forms of network television advertising are:
(1)
Sponsorships—Advertiser assumes the total financial responsibility for
producing the program and providing the accompanying commercials.
(2)
Participations—Advertiser pays for 10, 15, 20, 30, or 60 seconds of
commercial time during one or more programs.
(3)
Spot announcements—Commercials that appear in the breaks between
programs, which local affiliates sell to advertisers who want to show their
ads locally. Commercials are sold on a station-by-station basis to local,
regional, and national advertisers.
(moderate; pp. 271-272; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
138.
In Prof. Rotfeld's opinion presented in “A Matter of Practice,” is advertising the
solution to persuading people to change their 'problem' behavior?
Answer:
Advertising, especially public service announcements (PSA's), are not effective at
changing people's problem behavior, such as rape, drunk driving, cigarette
smoking, etc. The people behind the PSA's presume that advertising is the
solution. However, the PSA placements are free, therefore there is no assurance
that the ad will reach the targeted audience. Maybe some people change, but this
happens rarely. Advertising is then a waste of resources so become part of the
problem rather than the solution.
(moderate; p. 278; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
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317
Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
139.
As described in “The Inside Story,” Framsokn, historically one of the three largest
political parties in Iceland, found itself in a downward spiral in popularity for the
parliamentary election in 2003. Describe how their agency turned this around for
them.
Answer:
They used humorous, engaging television ads with a serious selling point. The
agency’s mission was to break the mold of political advertising with a new, fresh
approach to politics. They took a more “consumer advertising” approach, and all
ads had to pass the “what’s in it for me” test and have a strong selling point.
Analysis of the party’s research resulted in a targeting strategy based more on
lifestyle than demographics. They used TV advertising because of its ability to
reach a broad target audience, as well as to deliver the image message and
resonate in a gently humorous way with the concerns of voters. The campaign
was recognized as having turned around the party’s image and as the best political
campaign that year—and possibly ever in Iceland.
(moderate; p. 274)
140.
A recent Wall Street Journal article was entitled “Marketing Nirvana Is to Be a
President’s Preferred Brand.” The article discussed how President and Mrs. Bush
receive about 1,000 gifts each month and keep and use only a handful of them.
The president must disclose this information to the public, and marketers want the
president to choose their brands. One TV news story discussed how President
Bush has stopped running and has started biking instead, and video showed him
riding a Trek bicycle. Based on what you learned from this chapter, why are so
many marketers eager to give their products to the president?
Answer:
Product placement is a practice in which a company pays to have verbal or visual
brand exposure in a movie or television program. Although technically not
product placement, having the president seen using your brand could be construed
as an implied endorsement by the president. Advantages of product placement
include demonstrating the product in use in a natural setting (i.e., the president
riding a Trek bike), it’s unexpected and catches the audience when their resistance
to advertising messages may be dialed down (i.e., consumers don’t expect the
president to be a paid product endorser), and it’s good for engaging the affections
of other stakeholders, such as employees and dealers. However, disadvantages
include not being noticed, problems if there is not a match between the product
and the audience, and the success or failure of a movie is not known when the
placement is negotiated (in this case, there is no guarantee that the president will
even accept your gift and give you exposure).
(moderate; p. 278; LO4; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
141.
Based on the “Practical Tips” given in this chapter, give three reasons to use radio
as an advertising medium.
Answer:
The “Practical Tips” box gives several reasons to use radio, and students can
answer any three of the following. Use radio if . . .
(1)
You are a local business
(2)
You need a highly targeted local audience
(3)
You have a relatively small advertising budget
(4)
You want to build frequency
(5)
You know the timing when your audience is considering the purchase
(6)
Your audience’s interests align with certain types of music, advice
programs, or talk shows
(7)
You have a personal message that uses the power of the human voice
(8)
You have a message that works well in a musical form or one that is
strong in mental imagery
(9)
You need a reminder message
(difficult; p. 279)
142.
Based on the “Practical Tips” given in this chapter, give three reasons to use
television as an advertising medium.
Answer:
The “Practical Tips” box gives several reasons to use television, and students can
answer any three of the following. Use television if . . .
(1)
You want to reach a wider mass audience
(2)
Your audience’s interests align with a certain type of cable television
program
(3)
You have a relatively good advertising budget
(4)
You have a product that needs both sight and sound, such as an emotional
message, a demonstration, or a drama
(5)
You want to prove something so the audience can see it with their own
eyes
(6)
You want the halo effect of a big TV ad to impress other stakeholders,
such as dealers and franchisees
(7)
You need to create or reinforce brand image and personality
(difficult; p. 280; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
143.
Based on the “Practical Tips” given in this chapter, give three reasons to use
movie ads as an advertising medium.
Answer:
The “Practical Tips” box gives several reasons to use movie ads, and students can
answer any three of the following. Use movie ads if:
(1)
You are advertising a national brand and have the budget to do highquality commercials
(2)
You want your brand to be associated with the movie’s story and stars
(3)
The people in the audience match your brand’s target audience
(4)
Your commercial has enough visual impact and quality production that it
will look good next to the movie previews
(difficult; p. 280; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
144.
Based on the “Practical Tips” given in this chapter, give three reasons to use
product placement as an advertising medium.
Answer:
The “Practical Tips” box gives several reasons to use product placement, and
students can answer any three of the following. Use product placement if . . .
(1)
You want your brand to be associated with the movie’s story and stars
(2)
The people in the audience match your brand’s target audience
(3)
There is a natural fit between the product and the movie’s storyline
(4)
There is an opportunity for the brand to be a star
(5)
The placement will appeal to the brand’s stakeholders
(6)
You have the budget for a campaign to support the placement
(difficult; p. 280; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
145.
Describe the challenge facing Sirius satellite radio and the risky step they took to
meet their challenge as described in the “Hands-On” case at the end of the
chapter.
Answer:
Sirius is trying to change the way people listen to radio by convincing them to pay
a monthly fee for almost 200 channels of radio, much of it commercial-free. But
Sirius is number two in the industry, having only 600,000 subscribers compared
to XM radio’s 2.5 million. The risky move Sirius has taken is signing “shock
jock” Howard Stern to leave the radio airwaves and bring his program to Sirius in
2006. For this deal to be profitable, Sirius figures it must bring in 1 million new
subscribers. The other risk is that Stern might get even “raunchier” once he moves
to the largely unregulated satellite network.
(moderate; p. 283; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
APPLICATION QUESTIONS: MINI-CASE SHORT ANSWER
John is opening a Lion’s Choice fast food roast beef restaurant in Baton Rouge,
Louisiana. This restaurant is actually nationwide, but this is the first franchise opening in
this city. In fact, their strategy is to increase its presence in the South, where currently it
does not have as many outlets as in other parts of the country but is opening about one
new outlet each month. Although the national office does some advertising, franchisees
are allowed to do local advertising using advertisements provided to them by the national
office. However, John has only about $1,000 to purchase media exposure.
146.
Mini-Case Question. What broadcast media and delivery systems is the national
office likely to use for its advertising? Explain your answer.
Answer:
Because this restaurant has a national presence, participations on network
television can reach a wide audience. Additionally, they could also use network
and/or syndicated radio advertising. If the national office wants to increase its
advertising exposure in the South where it is currently expanding, they can
purchase spot announcements from local television stations or purchase local
cable time to more heavily target the South. Radio can be very effective for
targeting a specific geographic region as well.
(moderate; pp. 264-267; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
147.
Mini-Case Question. What broadcast media and delivery systems is John, the
franchise owner in Baton Rouge, likely to use for advertising? Explain your
answer.
Answer:
John is a local business with a small advertising budget aimed at the Baton Rouge
area, so radio is an appropriate medium for him. The “Practical Tips” box gives
useful information to help students answer this question. For example, John has a
local business, he has a relatively small advertising budget, and he knows the
timing when his audience is considering the purchase (i.e., lunch and dinner).
These are characteristics that lend themselves well to using radio. He will most
likely advertise on AM and/or FM radio by purchasing spot radio advertising, that
is, placing an ad with an individual station rather than through a network.
(moderate; pp. 264-267; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Part Three: Practice: Where Are Media Heading?
148.
Mini-Case Question. John really wants consumers to see the delicious roast beef
sandwiches Lion’s Choice has to offer. Which broadcast media is NOT
appropriate for his needs? Explain your answer.
Answer:
If John wants consumers to see the product, radio is not an appropriate medium
because of the lack of visuals.
(easy; p. 257; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
149.
Mini-Case Question. John wants to learn more about the audiences of the local
broadcast media in Baton Rouge. Name the companies that provide audience data
for these media and explain how they collect this information.
Answer:
The major audience-rating services for radio are Arbitron and Radio’s AllDimension Audience (RADAR). Arbitron estimates the size of the radio audience
for more than 250 markets in the United States. They use a seven-day selfadministered diary that the person returns to Arbitron at the end of the week.
RADAR deals with both local and network radio. For RADAR (owned by
Arbitron), Statistical Research calls 12,000 respondents for seven consecutive
days and asks about network radio listening done the day before.
Several independent rating firms periodically sample a portion of the television
viewing audience, assess the size and characteristics of the audiences watching
specific shows, and then make these data available to advertisers and ad agencies.
Currently, A. C. Nielsen dominates this industry and provides the most commonly
used measure of national and local television audiences. They measure television
audiences at two levels: network and spot. In some markets, respondents hook a
device to their TVs to monitor what station it is tuned in to (i.e., audiometer), and
in some cases, the devise also records which family members are viewing at that
time (i.e., people meter). In smaller markets, such as Baton Rouge, respondents
most likely fill out a viewing diary for the week. Diaries are mailed each week
during survey months to sample homes in each of the 211 television markets.
(moderate; pp. 260, 268; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
322
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Chapter Nine: Broadcast Media
150.
Mini-Case Question. The local television station shared audience data with John
to help him determine during which time he should advertise. It was rather
confusing to him, and he wasn’t sure what rating and share actually meant.
Explain these two concepts.
Answer:
A rating compares the number of viewers of a specific television show to the total
number of TV households in the market regardless of whether or not those TVs
are in use. Share compares the same number of viewers of a specific television
show not to the number of TV households, but, rather, to the number of TV sets
turned on. So the share figure is always larger than the rating, because the base is
smaller.
(moderate; p., 269; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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