From an evolutionary perspective, what are the costs of sexual reproduction for females? What are the advantages of sexual reproduction? Provide an example from studies of fishes in Mexico. Describe what happens when the genetic pool becomes more homogeneous due to inbreeding. (not in video). In most cultures, sex between closely related individuals (incest) is considered taboo. Provide an explanation from evolutionary biology for why incest is taboo. According to natural selection, traits important for survival are preserved across generations, thus becoming predominant: all polar bears have a heavy coat because polar bears who don’t have a heavy coat fail to survive and thus the genes for ‘light coat’ are not passed to future generations. However, there are many examples of species in which individuals have traits that make them less likely to survive. Provide such an example. In one word, explain how it is possible that a trait that makes an individual less likely to survive is retained across generations. Males fight with other males for access to females and to resources the females need, such as food or territory. On the other hand, females exercise choice, deciding which male to have sex with. Explain why competition is predominantly a male strategy while choice is predominantly a female strategy. (hints: sperm vs. eggs; investment of energy) What are the benefits of Monogamy? What are the costs of monogamy (or the benefit of promiscuity)? Why do some song birds cheat? Why are female chimps promiscuous? Are gender roles fixed? Provide an example from birds that suggest they are not. Describe and compare chimps and bonobos. What difference in the environment might have cause the behavioral differences between these two species. Evolutionary psychology: What is it? Describe the studies of beauty and how they relate to hormonal levels. Is there a confound with cultural learning?