Pronunciation Butler-Pascoe, M.E. & Wiburg, K.M (2003). Technology and Teaching English Language Learners. Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4: Using Technology to Teach Oral Communication Skills, pages 102 to 109: Developing Pronunciation Skills 1. Historical Overview Description 1940s-1960s The behavioristic audio-lingua method stressed the importance of pronunciation in the form of imitation drills, pattern practice, memorization of dialogs, and articulatory explanations. 1970s Revolution in thought that questioned whether these practices were effective, that suggested a need for expanded strategies, and in some cases that advocated for the elimination of formal pronunciation instruction from the second language curriculum altogether. Thought not abandon entirely, during the 1970s the teaching of pronunciation was largely ignored. This was in keeping with other trends of this period that focused more on fluency than form. 1980s-1990s It was evident to many second language teaching professionals that pronunciation was a key ingredient to the development of communicative competence and successful communication. A gradual return to a more balance approach that value both accuracy and fluency. Current Theory Advocates a prominent place once again for the teaching of pronunciation, but it does so with very different premises and practices than those of earlier years. Pronunciation is viewed as an important aspect of communication and is practice within meaningful task-based activities. There is a renewed interest in the connection between listening and speaking/pronouncing resulting in increased use of pronunciation-focused listening activities. 2. Describe the two Basic Approaches in teaching Pronunciation 1. Intuitive-imitative approach: the learner listens to and imitates the sounds and rhythms of the target language without the assistance of explicit instruction. 2. Analytic-linguistic approach: depends on structure teaching utilizing articulatory descriptions and charts of speech apparatus, phonetic alphabet and vowel charts, and, most recently, a variety of interactive speech analysis software and websites. 3. Areas of Pronunciation (a) Sound-spelling. (b) Stress. (c) Rhythm. (d) Intonation. 4. Emphasis in the teaching of Pronunciation Emphasis has moved from the teaching to the learning of pronunciation with the focus on engaging the learners more in their own progress to meet their particular needs. 5. Dual-focus oral communication (a) Micro level: is focused on linguistic, and more specifically, phonetic-phonological competence through practice of segmentals and the suprasegmentals. (b) Macro level: attends to more global elements of communicability with the goal of developing discourse, sociolinguistic, and strategic competencies by using the language for communicative purposes. 6. Describe the 4 goals of pronunciation instruction 1. Functionality intelligibility: the intent is to help learners develop spoken English that is (at least) reasonably easy to understand and not distracting to listeners. 2. Functional communicability: the intend is to help the learner develop spoken English that serves his or her individual communicative needs effectively for a feeling of communicative competence. 3. Increased self-confidence: the intend here is to help learners become more comfortable and confident in using spoken English, and to help them develop a positive self-image as a competent non-native speaker of English and a growing feeling of empowerment in oral communication. 4. Speech monitoring abilities and speech modification strategies for use beyond the classroom: the intend here is to help learners develop speech awareness, personal speech monitoring skills, and speech adjustment strategies that will enable them to continue develop intelligibility, communicability, and confidence outside class as well as inside.