Pronunciation - Lali274sally

Butler-Pascoe, M.E. & Wiburg, K.M (2003). Technology and Teaching English Language Learners.
Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 4: Using Technology to Teach Oral Communication Skills, pages 102 to 109: Developing
Pronunciation Skills
1. Historical Overview Description
The behavioristic audio-lingua method stressed the importance of pronunciation in the
form of imitation drills, pattern practice, memorization of dialogs, and articulatory
Revolution in thought that questioned whether these practices were effective, that
suggested a need for expanded strategies, and in some cases that advocated for the
elimination of formal pronunciation instruction from the second language curriculum
altogether. Thought not abandon entirely, during the 1970s the teaching of
pronunciation was largely ignored. This was in keeping with other trends of this
period that focused more on fluency than form.
It was evident to many second language teaching professionals that pronunciation was
a key ingredient to the development of communicative competence and successful
communication. A gradual return to a more balance approach that value both accuracy
and fluency.
Current Theory
Advocates a prominent place once again for the teaching of pronunciation, but it does
so with very different premises and practices than those of earlier years.
Pronunciation is viewed as an important aspect of communication and is practice
within meaningful task-based activities. There is a renewed interest in the connection
between listening and speaking/pronouncing resulting in increased use of
pronunciation-focused listening activities.
2. Describe the two Basic Approaches in teaching Pronunciation
1. Intuitive-imitative approach: the learner listens to and imitates the sounds and
rhythms of the target language without the assistance of explicit instruction.
2. Analytic-linguistic approach: depends on structure teaching utilizing articulatory
descriptions and charts of speech apparatus, phonetic alphabet and vowel charts, and,
most recently, a variety of interactive speech analysis software and websites.
3. Areas of Pronunciation
(a) Sound-spelling.
(b) Stress.
(c) Rhythm.
(d) Intonation.
4. Emphasis in the teaching of Pronunciation
Emphasis has moved from the teaching to the learning of pronunciation with the focus
on engaging the learners more in their own progress to meet their particular needs.
5. Dual-focus oral communication
(a) Micro level: is focused on linguistic, and more specifically, phonetic-phonological
competence through practice of segmentals and the suprasegmentals.
(b) Macro level: attends to more global elements of communicability with the goal of
developing discourse, sociolinguistic, and strategic competencies by using the
language for communicative purposes.
6. Describe the 4 goals of pronunciation instruction
1. Functionality intelligibility: the intent is to help learners develop spoken English
that is (at least) reasonably easy to understand and not distracting to listeners.
2. Functional communicability: the intend is to help the learner develop spoken
English that serves his or her individual communicative needs effectively for a feeling
of communicative competence.
3. Increased self-confidence: the intend here is to help learners become more
comfortable and confident in using spoken English, and to help them develop a
positive self-image as a competent non-native speaker of English and a growing
feeling of empowerment in oral communication.
4. Speech monitoring abilities and speech modification strategies for use beyond the
classroom: the intend here is to help learners develop speech awareness, personal
speech monitoring skills, and speech adjustment strategies that will enable them to
continue develop intelligibility, communicability, and confidence outside class as well
as inside.