Class Shared Data External Anatomy of Frog Structure/Feature Observations Adaptive Value Dorsal Color Green/brown/spotted Camouflage with algae or swamp water Ventral Color Beige / Light color Camouflage to blend with water reflection of sunlight when seen from below Location of eyes Top of head Frog can keep body below water and still be on lookout for predators Location of nostrils Top sides of head Frog can breathe with only the top of the head above water Shape of head Top of head Less resistance when swimming – streamlined Shape of tympanic membrane (ear) Arrow head shape; wedge Round like a drum to catch vibrations – on top to hear predators even when body is under water Vomerine Teeth Sharp, angle toward the back of the mouth (on the roof of the mouth) Point toward back to keep prey from pushing back out of mouth Hind legs – form, length Long, large muscles in upper portion Strong and long for jumping away from predators Feet - form Webbed toes – rear feet are like flippers Large surface area for swimming and paddling in water This table summarizes all group observations and the class inferences of the external frog features and about their value as adaptations for the frog’s survival. Internal Anatomy – Thoracic Cavity of Frog Structure/Feature Observations Adaptive Value Ribs Short – don’t reach to the front of the body – just off spine in back Keeps body lighter and allows the legs to compress into the chest upon landing. Lungs 2 – brown sac-like structures Allows animal to breathe outside of the water. Pericardial membrane See-through and thin Protects heart and other organs around it from friction when it beats Number of heart chambers 3 chambers Some separation of oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood allowing it the frog to have more energy This table summarizes all group observations and the class inferences of the thoracic cavity structures of the frog and about their value as adaptations for the frog’s survival. Internal Anatomy – Abdominal Cavity of Frog Structure/Feature Observations Adaptive Value Shape and texture of stomach Hard, brown, and lumpy, thinner at each end Break down insects and other prey – thinner at ends to keep undigested food in until broken down Size of liver Large with about 3 lobes Lots of fluids to detoxify for the body. Length of small intestine Very long – takes up most of space in cavity – coiled More surface area to absorb nutrients from food Body Cavity Wide open – muscle layers on Accommodate organs and top are very thin eggs in female Villi Folds in lining More surface area for absorption Number of blood vessels in the mesentery Lots – into and out of small intestine Blood transports absorbed nutrients to the rest of the body Number of eggs (in pregnant female) Tons Small organism – the more there are the more likely some will survive – many predators. This table summarizes all group observations and the class inferences of the abdominal cavity structures of the frog and about their value as adaptations for the frog’s survival.