KS4 Extraction of Metals 1

State that copper can be purified by electrolysis
Describe that recycling copper is cheaper than making copper and
that it saves resources
Describe the use of electrolysis in the purification of copper
Describe an atom as a nucleus surrounded by electrons
State that a nucleus is positively charged, an electron is negatively
charged, and an atom is
State the relative charges of electrons, protons and neutrons.
Explain that that an atom is neutral since it contains the same
number of protons as electrons.
Describe that atoms of the noble gases (helium,neon, argon) have a
stable number of electrons and that other atoms want to gain or
lose electrons to achieve this number of electrons
State that an ion is a charged atom or group of atoms
Recognise that a particle is an ion from its formula
State that positive ions are called cations and negative ions are
called anions
State that liquids that conduct electricity contain ions.
State that the negative electrode is called the cathode and that the
positive electrode is called
the anode
State that the three types of rock are igneous,metamorphic and
Describe that sedimentary rocks are found in layers and that the
bottom layer is most likely to the oldest layer
Explain how the size of crystals in an igneous rock is related to the
rate of cooling of molten rock.
Explain why an igneous intrusion contains younger rock than the
surrounding sedimentary rock
Explain why sedimentary rocks may contain fossils and how the
ages of the fossils found can indicate the age of the rock (the
younger the fossils the younger the rock)
Describe the structure of the Earth as a sphere with a thin rocky
crust, mantle and core
Describe the outer layer of the Earth as oceanic plates under
oceans and continental plates forming continents
Describe the lithosphere as formed of a number of large
interlocking tectonic plates that can move slowly relative to each
State that the movement of tectonic plates results in volcanic
activity and earthquakes at plate boundaries
State that an ore is a mixture of a mineral and surrounding rock
Describe that metals are extracted from ores
State that a mixtures contains two or more substances that are not
chemically combined
Describe a compound as a pure substance that contains two or
more elements chemically combined
Describe an element as a substance that contains only one type of
Identify whether a mineral is an element or a compound from its
Describe the extraction of iron in the blast furnace
Write the word equation for the reduction of iron (III) oxide by
carbon and by carbon monoxide occur in the blast furnace
(formulae not given)
State that aluminium is extracted from its mineral using electricity
Define electrolysis as the decomposition of a liquid using
Describe the key features of the electrolytic decomposition
involved in the production of aluminium