PHIL 210 éretÆ (aretê) Athens it appearance, political skills sophists claimed, dubiously, to be Greek Words II Lesher ‘Virtue’ or better ‘excellence’. In 5th-century connoted all-round excellence in and moral character. The able to teach arête. ¶legxow (elenchos) ‘Cross examination’ or ‘refutation’, usually associated with Socrates, although the goddess of Parmenides’ poem had earlier spoken of a ‘much contested elenchos’ of the possible ways of thinking and speaking. ELENCHUS. eÈdaimon€a (eudaimonia) 'Happiness' or better 'success'. Literally: ‘being under the benevolent protection of a deity' (i.e. ‘a guardian angel’). It signified a completely successful life, one lived to the max. Eudaimonia is the winner of Aristotle’s competition for ‘the supreme human good’. §pistÆmh (epistêmê) 'Knowledge', especially ‘scientific knowledge’. In Plato, it is true opinion tied down by logos. In Aristotle, epistêmê is 'knowledge of the reasoned fact', as contrasted with both nous and mere experience. EPISTEMOLOGY. noËw (nous) ‘Mind’, ‘understanding’, ‘intuition’, or ‘insight’ into truth. Nous was Heraclitus' grasp of the logos, the highest level of wisdom in Plato’s simile of the Divided Line, and it is the kind of knowledge (according to Aristotle) that we have of the first principles of a science. NOUMENA. tÚ ¶rgon (to ergon) Aristotle’s capacities of a nature of the best ERGONOMICS, ERG, etc. lÒgow (logos) of account Plato, the opinion into to state and act in distinguishes human beings Logos is arguably the single most The 'work', 'business', or 'function' of a thing. ‘ergon argument’ focuses on the distinctive human being as the key to determining the kind of life for a human being. ‘Word', ‘speech’, ‘rational account or plan’. For Heraclitus’, it was his ‘message’ and the hidden principle cosmic unity; for Parmenides, the goddess’s rational or argument; for Gorgias, ‘persuasive speech’; for rational account which transforms true knowledge. For Aristotle, the ability accordance with a logos is what from the lower animals. important term in early Greek philosophical language, and legacy of Greek philosophy to Christianity 'In the beginning was the logos.’ LOGIC, GEOLOGY, DIALOGUE, etc. part of the (cf. John I, 1: THEOLOGY, 'Greatness of soul', 'magnanimity', 'high mindedness’ For Aristotle, it was the ‘crowning ornament’ of virtue’, but to many modern ears, the great-souled man seems a pompous absurdity reflecting 4th-century Greek megalocux€a (megalopsuchia) tastes. tÚ t°low (to telos) realm of up to the their excited emulation of The ‘end’, ‘final state’, or ‘goal’ of a process. For Aristotle, action 'for the end' can be found throughout the nature, from the growth of the tiniest acorn heavenly spheres whirling about in divine perfection. TELEOLOGY nÒhsiw noÆsevw nÒhsiw Aristotle's (noêsis noêseôs noêsis) ' ‘[It’s] thinking is a thinking about thinking'. prÚw ßn (pros hen) 'Toward one', the phrase Aristotle used to refer to a special pattern of meaning that is neither univocal nor completely equivocal (‘focal meaning’). The key notion in the development of metaphysics as a single science. description of the divine mind, un-moved mover, or God. 'Syllogism' or 'connected reasoning’ The concept of sullogismÒw the (syllogismos) Aristotle's knowledge. as 'Barbara' syllogism (and the development of a detailed analysis of the validity of it various forms) played a major role in thinking about logic and the acquisition of He held that the first-form syllogism known provided the basis for the presentation of all scientific knowledge. SYLLOGISM.