Instructors` Manual: Chapter 3

Laudon/Traver’s E-commerce 5/e
Instructor’s Manual: Chapter 3
Teaching Objectives
 Discuss the origins of the Internet.
 Identify the key technology concepts behind the Internet.
 Describe the role of Internet protocols and utility programs.
 Explain the current structure of the Internet.
 Explain the limitations of today’s Internet.
 Describe the potential capabilities of Internet II.
 Explain how the World Wide Web works.
 Describe how Internet and Web features and services support e-commerce.
Key Terms
Internet, p. 122
World Wide Web (Web), p. 123
packet switching, p.127
packet, p. 127
router, p. 128
routing algorithm, p. 128
protocol, p.129
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), p. 129
TCP, p. 129
IP, p. 129
Network Interface Layer, p. 129
Internet Layer, p. 129
Transport Layer, p. 129
Application Layer, p. 129
Internet address, p. 129
domain name, p. 131
Domain Name System (DNS), p. 131
Uniform Resource Locator (URL), p. 131
client/server computing, p. 131
client, p. 132
server, p. 132
cloud computing, p. 135
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), p. 137
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), p. 137
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), p. 137
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), p. 137
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), p. 138
Telnet, p. 138
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), p. 138
Ping, p. 138
Tracert, p. 139
Pathping, p. 139
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Network Technology Substrate layer, p. 140
Transport Services and Representation Standards layer, p. 140
Applications layer, p. 140
Middleware Services layer, p. 141
Network Service Provider (NSP), p. 141
backbone, p. 141
bandwidth, p. 142
redundancy, p. 142
Internet Exchange Point (IXP), p. 142
campus area networks (CAN), p. 142
Internet Service Provider (ISP), p. 144
narrowband, p. 144
broadband, p. 144
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), p. 144
cable modem, p. 144
T1, p. 245
T3, p. 245
intranet, p. 145
extranet, p. 146
latency, p. 150
Internet2®, p. 151
GigaPoP, p. 152
fiber-optic cable, p. 153
photonics, p. 154
second generation (2G) cellular networks, p. 156
2.5G network, p. 156
GPRS (General Packet Radio Services), p. 156
Third generation (3G) cellular network, p. 156
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), p. 156
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), p. 156
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity), p. 158
Bluetooth, p. 160
ZigBee, p. 160
IP multicasting, p. 162
diffserv (differentiated quality of service), p. 163
Mosaic, p. 165
universal computing, p. 165
Netscape Navigator, p. 165
Internet Explorer, p. 165
Hypertext, p. 165
HyperText Markup Language (HTML), p. 166
eXtensible Markup Language (XML), p. 168
Web server software, p. 170
database server, p. 171
ad server, p. 171
mail server, p. 171
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video server, p. 171
Web client, p. 171
electronic mail (e-mail), p. 172
attachment, p. 172
instant messaging (IM), p. 172
search engine, p. 173
intelligent agent, p. 176
online forum, p. 177
online chat, p. 177
streaming media, p. 179
cookie, p. 180
blog (weblog), p. 180
Really Simple Syndication (RSS), p. 181
podcast, p. 182
wiki, p. 182
IP telephony, p. 183
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), p. 183
IPTV, p. 185
Brief Chapter Outline
All Mashed Up
3.1 The Internet: Technology Background
The Evolution of the Internet 1961-The Present
The Internet: Key Technology Concepts
Other Internet Protocols and Utility Programs
Insight on Business: Peer-to-Peer Networks Rescue Hollywood and TV
3.2 The Internet Today
The Internet Backbone
Internet Exchange Points
Campus Area Networks
Internet Service Providers
Intranets and Extranets
Who Governs the Internet?
Insight on Society: Government Regulation of the Internet
3.3 Internet II: The Future Infrastructure
Limitations of the Current Internet
The Internet2® Project
The Larger Internet II Technology Environment: The First Mile and the Last Mile
Benefits of Internet II Technologies
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3.4 The World Wide Web
Markup Languages
Web Servers and Clients
Web Browsers
3.5 The Internet and the Web: Features
Instant Messaging
Search Engines
Intelligent Agents (Bots)
Insight on Technology: Chatterbots Meet Avatars
Online Forums and Chat
Streaming Media
Web 2.0 Features and Services
3.6 Case Study: Akamai Technologies: The Web’s Jukebox
3.7 Review
Key Concepts
Web Site Resources
Figure 3.1 Stages in the Development of the Internet, p. 123
Figure 3.2 Resolution of the Federal Networking Council, p. 124
Figure 3.3 Packet Switching, p. 128
Figure 3.4 The TCP/IP Architecture and Protocol Suite, p. 130
Figure 3.5 Routing Internet Messages: TCP/IP and Packet Switching, p. 131
Figure 3.6 The Hierarchical Domain Name System, p. 132
Figure 3.7 The Client/Server Computing Model, p. 133
Figure 3.8 The Cloud Computing Model, p. 136
Figure 3.9 The Result of a Ping, p. 138
Figure 3.10 Tracing the Route a Message Takes on the Internet, p. 139
Figure 3.11 The Hourglass Model of the Internet, p. 140
Figure 3.12 Internet I Network Architecture, p. 141
Figure 3.13 Some Major U.S. Internet Exchange Points (IXPs), p. 143
Figure 3.14 Internet2 GigaPoP Exchanges, p. 152
Figure 3.15 Bandwidth Demand of Various Web Applications, p. 155
Figure 3.16 Wi-Fi Networks, p. 160
Figure 3.17 IP Multicasting, p. 163
Figure 3.18 Example HTML Code (A) and Web Page (B), p. 168
Figure 3.19 A Simple XML Document, p. 169
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Figure 3.20 Sample XML Code for a Company Directory, p. 169
Figure 3.21 Top Five Search Engines, p. 174
Figure 3.22 How Google Works, p. 175
Figure 3.23 The Growth of Internet Telephony, p. 184
Table 3.1 Development of the Internet Timeline, p. 125-127
Table 3.2 Pieces of the Internet Puzzle: Names and Addresses, p. 132
Table 3.3 Major U.S. Internet Backbone Owners, p. 142
Table 3.4 ISP Service Levels and Bandwidth Choices, p. 145
Table 3.5 Time to Download a 10 Megabyte File by Type of Internet Service, p. 146
Table 3.6 Major Photonics Opportunities and Players, p. 154
Table 3.7 Wireless Internet Access Telephone Technologies, p. 157
Table 3.8 Example Hybrid Cellular Wireless Devices, p. 158
Table 3.9 Wireless Internet Access Network Technology, p. 159
Table 3.10 Potential Wireless Internet E-commerce Services, p. 161
Table 3.11 Top-Level Domains, p. 167
Table 3.12 Types of Web Bots, p. 177
Table 3.13 Key IP Telephony Players, p. 185
Teaching Suggestions
This chapter provides a description of today’s Internet, the World Wide Web (including
new Web 2.0 features and services), and the future Internet II that will emerge in the next
few years. The key take away from this chapter is that the Internet was never a static
technology. Instead, it has evolved over a period of forty years into an unparalleled new
communication media that combines elements of text, television, and radio. The Internet
will more than triple in communications capacity in the next five years, bringing about
entirely new business applications. The challenge in this chapter is to understand the
technical elements of the Internet, and understand their business implications while not
becoming overwhelmed by the details. The opening case study examines the role that
Web 2.0 applications such as mashups are playing in driving down the costs of building
Web sites and enabling localized e-commerce.
Key Points
Evolution of the Internet. The Internet has evolved over three stages: Innovation (19611974), Institutionalization (1975-1995), and Commercialization (1995 to the present).
You may want to point out to students the length of time required to build the Internet as
we know it today and the irony of the phrase “Internet time”. You may also want to
describe how long it took radio and television to develop into their current national and
international networks.
Internet Foundation Technologies. The Internet relies on three foundation technologies:
packet switching, TCP/IP, and client/server technology. You may want to illustrate each
of these technologies, and in particular, describe how Internet addresses work. You
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should also note the sheer power of the computer chip as a driving technology force.
Compare the power growth curves of the basic computer chip with that of trains,
automobiles, and television. Trains for instance, moved from 15 miles an hour in 1865, to
over 100 miles per hour by 1965. While this is impressive, it is nothing compared to
computer chips. The cost performance of computers has improved by ten to the seventh
power in the last forty years. A computer purchased in the year 2000 runs ten million
times faster than a computer purchased in the 1960s. There is every reason to believe this
performance curve will be maintained in the short-term future.
Another important development to discuss with students is the growing importance of
“cloud computing,” which refers to a model of computing in which firms and individuals
obtain computing power and software applications over the Internet, rather than
purchasing the hardware and software, and installing it on their own computers. Cloud
computing is the fastest growing form of computing right now, and radically reduces the
cost of building and operating Web sites because the necessary hardware infrastructure
and software can be licensed as a service from Internet providers at a fraction of the cost
of purchasing these services as products.
Internet Protocols and Utility Programs. The Internet relies on a number of
communications protocols such as HTTP, SMTP and POP mail protocols, FTP, and
utility programs (software applications) such as Ping, Tracert and PathPing. You can
illustrate many of the protocols and programs in class. A favorite is tracing a message
using Visualroute (see Figure 3.10).
The Internet Today. The current Internet’s network architecture relies on four primary
elements: the backbone, Internet Exchange Points (IXPs), Campus Area Networks
(CANs), and Internet Service Providers who provide the last mile of service to the home
or office. You can use Figure 3.13 to illustrate how a message would move from the
client on the left of the figure to the client on the right. Also, Figure 3.12, The Hourglass
Model of the Internet, is very useful for illustrating how Internet hardware and software
relate to one another.
Limitations of the Internet. Today’s Internet has a number of limitations: limited
bandwidth to the home; there is no guaranteed level of service; the network architecture
is not optimized for delivery of rich media materials such as video; and HTML is limited
in its ability to describe rich documents. It is helpful at this point to have students give
examples of their experience with Internet limitations. Students will usually experience
this as extended waits times, lengthy downloads, and interrupted downloads of musical
This may be a good time to discuss the Insight on Society case, Government Regulation
of the Internet, as one example of the difficulties that Internet content may pose for
various societies, including the United States. Is an unregulated Internet a risk for
society? Is it possible to regulate the content of the Internet? How do students feel about
the conduct of Chinese government and the way U.S. companies operating in China have
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Internet II. Internet II is a series of initiatives by many groups to build a much faster and
more powerful Internet in the near future. Improved technologies include: advanced
network architecture, new networking capabilities, improved middle ware, and more
advanced applications that incorporate video and audio. These improvements will make
possible feature film distribution to millions of viewers, differentiated quality of service,
guaranteed service levels, and lower error rates.
How the Web Works. The World Wide Web was created between 1989 and 1991. In
1993, a graphical user interface was built for the Web. The Web allows formatted pages
to be displayed and linked with one another. Key concepts for understanding the Web are
hypertext, URLs, HTML, XML, Web servers, and Web clients. You may wish to show
the HTML code behind a popular Web page such as Amazon.
How the Web Supports E-commerce. Without the Web and the Internet, e-commerce
would be a fraction of its current size. The Web has enabled e-commerce to explode
rapidly because of its ability to store and display product information (enabling order
entry), receive payments, allow consumers to search for products, and support a wide
range of commercial communication. You may wish to visit a retail Web site such as or to illustrate how the Web enables commerce through
catalogs, payment systems, community features, advertising and communications. The
Insight on Business story, Chatterbots Meet Avatars, illustrates the use of chatterbots and
avatars (both of which students might find interesting, given their kinship with video
games) as customer support tools. Ask students if they have ever had any personal
experience dealing with a chatterbot or avatar in an e-commerce context, and if so, what
they thought about the experience.
Web 2.0 Features and Services. This section of the text highlights a number of Web 2.0
applications and technologies that are beginning to have a significant impact on ecommerce. Blogs, podcasts, RSS, wikis, video sharing, widgets, and gadgets are at the
forefront of the explosion in services-based e-commerce. Ask your students to offer
examples of each of these features/services that they have used within the past month.
Case Study Questions
1. Why does Akamai need to geographically disperse its servers to deliver its customers’
Web content?
The Internet was originally developed to carry text-based e-mail messages among a
relatively small group of researchers, not bandwidth-hogging graphics, sound, and video
files to tens of millions of people all at once. Also, every 1,500-byte packet of
information sent over the Internet must be verified by the receiving server and an
acknowledgment sent to the sending server. Each packet can go through many different
servers on its way to its final destination, multiplying by several orders of magnitude the
number of acknowledgments required to move a packet from New York to San
Francisco. This means that the Internet today spends much of its time and capacity
verifying packets, causing “latency”. One of the founders of Akamai, Daniel Lewin,
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came up with the idea to store copies of Web content such as pictures and video clips at
many different locations around the Internet. This is so that a client can always retrieve a
nearby copy, making Web pages load faster. EdgeSuite, Akamai’s main product, does
just that: it allows customers to move their Web content closer to end users, which
increases the speed at which the content can be served.
2. If you wanted to deliver software content over the Internet, would you sign up for
Akamai’s service? Why or why not?
Bandwidth requirements of the software or content, the number of simultaneous
downloads, and the customer requirements are all factors in determining whether a firm
should use a service such as Akamai’s. A small piece of software, less than 1 megabyte,
can be downloaded from a single server to a single user in a few seconds using a DSL or
cable modem. However, if 10,000 users sought to download the same software
simultaneously, the time required to serve all users would be significantly higher-- on the
order of several minutes or more. Firms that expect this sort of demand would be well
served by Akamai.
3. What advantages does an advertiser derive from using Akamai’s EdgeScape service?
What kinds of products might benefit from this kind of service?
EdgeScape provides advertising firms with intelligence generated by Akamai’s
knowledge base of Internet network activity. This kind of intelligence allows advertisers
to deliver ads based on country, region, city, market area, area code, county, zip code,
connection type and speed. EdgeScape enables firms to deliver personalized content to
end-users. Bandwidth-appropriate presentation is also automatically determined, enabling
companies to leverage high-speed end-user connections without leaving behind those
customers who are still on dial-up. EdgeScape also allows companies to present locationspecific pricing and promotions. It tailors programs around regional and connectiondefined market differences. EdgeScape helps firms to validate an end user’s location,
ensuring that information and goods are delivered only to trusted users in authorized
geographies. This capability allows firms to protect goods and information and reduce the
occurrence and expense of distributing products to unauthorized locations/customers.
4. With the demand for high-bandwidth music and video exploding, why isn’t Akamai’s
stock performing better? If you were an investor, what factors would encourage you to
invest in Akamai? What factors would discourage you?
Akamai’s stock was initially crippled by the industry slowdown in 2001 and 2002, and
though the company has rebounded since then, other content delivery networks have
entered the market. This increased competition has lowered Akamai’s profit margins and
forced them to lower prices as well. The increased demand for high-bandwidth music and
video has not been enough to offset these factors and drive up Akamai’s stock price.
Factors that might encourage investment in Akamai include the fact that it is one of the
leaders in its field, with a strong customer base. It has taken steps to reduce costs by
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reducing its work force, and increasing revenues by broadening its product lines.
Akamai's revenues are affected by the amount of online advertising, which has continued
to rise. In 2007, Akamai recorded $636 million in revenues, and doubled its net income
compared to the prior year. Factors that would discourage investment include the fact it
carries significant long-term debt. In addition, Akamai faces direct competition from
companies such as Inktomi, which is now owned by Yahoo and other new upstart
companies using less expensive technology such as P2P video delivery networks. Other
large Web infrastructure players such as MCI or other backbone operators could also
easily enter this market.
End-of-Chapter Questions
1. What are the three basic building blocks of the Internet?
The three basic building blocks are packet switching, the Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) communications protocol, and client/server
computing. Packet switching is a method of splitting messages up into parcels, routing
them along available communications paths, and reassembling them at the destination
point. The TCP protocol is the set of rules that specifies how these messages should be
formatted, ordered, compressed, and error-checked. The IP protocol provides the
addressing scheme for the Internet. Client/server computing refers to networks of
powerful client computers that are connected to one or more server computers. The
clients are powerful enough to display, process, and store very large files including
graphics and sound files. The servers are dedicated to common functions that all of the
clients need including file storage, and they also house many software applications and
utility programs that the clients frequently use.
2. What is latency, and how does it interfere with Internet functioning?
Latency is a delay in messages caused by the uneven flow of information packets through
the network. It interferes with the functioning of the Internet today because with
streaming video or synchronous communication transmissions, there may be noticeable
gaps causing the video or voice to arrive looking or sounding jerky.
3. Explain how packet switching works.
In packet-switched networks, messages are broken up into fragments (packets) and a
digital code with the source address is attached. Sequencing and error-control instructions
are also added. Instead of being sent directly to their destination, the packets travel
between router computers that interconnect the thousands of networks that make up the
Internet. The routers use programs called routing algorithms to ensure that each packet
takes the best available communication path towards its destination. If some lines are
disabled or busy, the packets can be sent along any available line. At the destination
point, the packets are reassembled and delivered. This method enables nearly full use of
all of the available communication lines and capacity.
4. How is the TCP/IP protocol related to information transfer on the Internet?
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The TCP/IP protocol determines how messages are formatted, compressed and errorchecked and how they are addressed so that they reach the correct destination in the
correct order and format. TCP establishes the connections between sending and receiving
computers, and it handles the assembly of packets at the point of transmission and their
reassembly at the receiving end. IP provides the Internet’s addressing scheme, and is
responsible for the actual delivery of the packets.
5. What technological innovation made client/server computing possible? What impact
has client/server computing had on the Internet?
The technological innovation that made client/server computing possible is the personal
computer. Without the invention of the PC and local area networks, we would not have
the Internet and the Web. In client/server computing, capacity can be expanded
constantly by adding servers and clients to the network. A client/server network is much
less vulnerable than the centralized computing architecture that preceded it because if one
server malfunctions, backup servers can take over. If a client is down, the rest of the
system continues to operate without a hitch. The processing load can be balanced over
many powerful, smaller machines rather than being concentrated in a single huge
mainframe computer, both the software and the hardware can be more economically
6. Despite the number of PCs connected to the Internet, rich information sharing is still
limited. Why?
Rich information sharing is still limited because much of the Internet’s infrastructure is
already over 30 years old. Bandwidth limitations throughout the backbone, and especially
to most small businesses and houses, cause congested service and only a limited ability to
transmit video and voice files. Because packet-switching involves the use of a circuitous
route, latency causes uneven transmission of these files. Today’s Internet also gives each
packet the same level of service no matter who the user or what type of file. A higher
quality of service will have to be developed in which packets are given priority service
based upon the type of content they contain in order for information sharing to continue
to improve. Furthermore, there are some architectural limitations that slow Internet
transmissions down: a file cannot be transmitted once to all who request it. Instead, the
file must be downloaded separately to each person placing a request. Finally, there are
some language development limitations as HTML, the language of Web pages, is not
adequate for defining and communicating databases, business documents, and graphics.
7. Why isn’t the Internet overloaded? Will it ever be at capacity?
The Internet is not overloaded and will never be at capacity because client/server
computing is highly extensible. Capacity can be continually expanded by adding client
computers and server computers to the network. In this way, the population of Internet
users can continue to grow indefinitely. It is also not overloaded because the Internet
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architecture is built in layers so that each layer can change without disturbing
developments in other layers.
8. What types of companies form the Internet backbone today?
The Internet backbone is formed by the Network Service Providers (NSPs) that own and
control the major networks; NSPs are for-profit companies. Some of the major U.S.
Internet backbone owners include: AT&T, Cable & Wireless, and Sprint, among others.
The backbones in foreign countries are usually operated by a mixture of governmentowned and for-profit companies.
9. What function do the IXPs serve?
The IXPs use high-speed switching computers to connect the Internet backbone to
regional and local networks. They function as the hubs, or interconnect points, where the
backbone intersects with these regional and local networks; it is where the backbone
owners connect with one another.
10. What is a campus area network, and who uses them?
A campus area network is usually a local area network that operates within a single
organization. These organizations are sufficiently large that they lease access to the Web
directly from the regional and national carriers. There are an estimated one million
campus area networks attached to the Internet worldwide that connect to the Web at
speeds ranging from 10 – 100 Mbps. Campus area networks are generally used by large
organizations like universities or large corporations, which in fact, often have hundreds of
these local area networks.
11. Compare and contrast intranets, extranets, and the Internet as a whole.
An intranet is a TCP/IP network located within a single organization whose function is to
fulfill the communication and information processing needs of the organization. An
extranet on the other hand, is formed when organizations allow outsiders to access their
internal TCP/IP network. For example, a company may permit suppliers to gain access to
their intranet in order to view information (like production schedules or inventory
allotments) so that the suppliers will know when the company will need to restock. It is
the exact same technology that enables the operation of the Internet. It provides
capabilities for private or governmental organizations to operate their own internal
networks and to create extranets to allow for the exchange of information across
organizational boundaries. All of the protocols that are used on the Internet are also used
on private intranets and extranets. Also, all applications available on the Internet are
compatible with intranets and extranets.
12. What are the four major limitations of today’s Internet?
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The four major limitations of today’s Internet are bandwidth, quality of service, network
architecture, and language development. There is insufficient bandwidth capacity
throughout the backbone, the metropolitan switching centers, and most importantly, to
the houses and small businesses at the end of the information pipeline. Due to insufficient
bandwidth and the circuitous nature of packet switching, video and voice traffic suffers
from latency. This causes these types of messages to arrive with noticeable delays and a
jerky quality. Because today’s Internet uses “best efforts” quality of service, each packet
is provided with the same level of service. This means that all packets traveling through
the communication system are treated the same, no matter who is sending them or what
type of message they are.
Network architecture restrictions also limit the performance of the Internet. A thousand
requests for the same file result in a server having to download the file one thousand
times rather than being able to transmit it once to all one thousand computers at the same
time. This significantly slows down network performance. Finally, HTML, the language
for displaying Web pages, has proven to be insufficient for displaying rich documents
such as database files, business documents and graphics.
13. What are some of the challenges of policing the Internet? Who has the final say when
it comes to content?
One challenge of policing the Internet is that there are multiple organizations that
influence the system and monitor its operations. It is hard to make the Internet conform to
the laws of the sovereign nation states in which it operates, and it is difficult to enforce
the various and often contradictory laws of all of these nations. Many countries want to
put far stricter restrictions on freedom of expression than the U.S. does. Different cultures
have different social morals, and what is acceptable in some countries is decidedly not in
others. The issue of who has the final say is also quite controversial and varies from
country to country. For instance, in China, the Chinese government has “the final say”
about what content is available to viewers who access the Internet from within China.
Other countries also regulate the availability of certain types of content. Critics complain
that attempting to create “legal harmony” will result in major content restrictions on the
Internet with only content that is legally acceptable worldwide being made accessible.
14. Compare and contrast the capabilities of Wi-Fi and 3G wireless networks.
There are two basic types of wireless Internet connectivity: telephone-based systems and
computer network-based systems. Wi-Fi is an example of a computer network-based
wireless access system, and 3G wireless networks are telephone-based wireless access
Telephone-based wireless Internet systems such as 3G systems connect the user to a
telephone system and use a packet-switched technology that is more efficient and faster
than traditional circuit-switched networks. 3G networks have speeds ranging from 384
Kbps for mobile users in a car, to up to 2 Mbps for stationary users. These networks are
wide area networks of nearly unlimited range for hybrid cellular wireless devices that
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combine the functionality of a PDA with that of a cell phone, and require a cellular phone
company service connection. They enable consumers to have voice conversations, send
and receive text messages or e-mail, and allow for some limited ability to surf the Web
(due to smallness of screens).
Computer network-based wireless Internet systems have a completely different history
that is based on corporate local area networks. Here, the task is to connect stationary
client computers to server computers within local areas of a few hundred meters. Wi-Fi
was the first commercially viable standard for wireless local area networks. In a Wi-Fi
network, a wireless access point connects to the Internet directly via a broadband
connection (cable or DSL telephone or T1 line), and then transmits radio signals to other
transmitters/receivers usually installed in laptop computers. Wi-Fi offers high bandwidth
capacity (up to 11 Mbps), suitable for Web surfing and other corporate uses, but a much
more limited range (300 feet).
15. What are some of the new wireless standards, and how are they relevant to Internet
Wireless cell phone standards include Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM),
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and General Packet Radio Services (GPRS).
These are cellular standards that control how wireless telephones connect to the Web.
The development of these standards is highly relevant to the concept of Internet II
because while Internet I was mostly a land-based technology, Internet II will increasingly
rely on wireless technology to connect user’s handheld telephones and personal
organizers to the Web.
Wireless local area network (WLAN) standards include Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Bluetooth,
Ultra-Wideband, and ZigBee. Wi-Fi is a standard for WLANs that offers high bandwidth
capacity (up to 11 Mbps; 54 Mbps for Wi-Fi 5), suitable for Web surfing and other
corporate uses, but a limited range (300 feet). Wi-Max extends the range of Wi-Fi to 30
miles. Bluetooth, Ultra-Wideband and ZigBee are all wireless standards for short-range
(under 30 feet) wireless communication. In Internet II, these WLAN standards will be
used to develop such wireless LAN applications as handheld devices that can be used as a
credit card, identification card, and key all in one. They can be a person’s laptop that can
synchronize with telephones to exchange information and download data, handheld
devices for processing vending machine purchases, and handheld devices for paying
highway tolls.
16. What are some of the major technological advancements that are anticipated to
accompany Internet II? Define and discuss the importance of each.
First, a bandwidth explosion fueled by fiber optic technology, will allow the Internet to
move from narrowband to broadband digital service. Second, wireless Web and 3G
technologies, will allow the Internet to move from cable-based stationary service to
mobile service. Third, wireless LANS will allow laptop computers to be connected to
other computers, as well as to other digital devices including: home appliances, vending
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machines, and remote sensors. Fourth, new Internet appliances will make it possible to
connect nearly all the electronic devices in our lives to the Internet and to private
intranets. These new Internet appliances will include thin client computing devices (PCs
without hard drives), which rely totally on the Internet server to handle all information
processing. Lightweight, portable, full-function PCs and handheld devices will be able to
activate and deactivate virtually any device that can be connected to the Internet. This is
expected to include home appliances-- TVs, stereos, telephones, games, security systems,
cars and Net PCs-- which will be interconnected so that they can all be controlled from
one source.
17. Why was the development of the browser so significant for the growth of the Web?
The development of the browser was an extremely significant breakthrough that enabled
rapid growth of the Web. Once it progressed from a simple line interface device to a
graphical user interface (GUI), it made it possible to view documents with colored
backgrounds, images, and animations. Besides the natural interest stimulated by viewing
such documents, the graphical Web browser also created the possibility of universal
computing: the sharing of files including graphics, sound, video, and all sorts of different
information by all computer users in the world, no matter what platform or operating
system they were using. A browser could be made for each operating system, and Web
pages created for one system could be displayed either exactly or nearly the same on a
computer using a different operating system.
18. Name the different Web markup languages and explain the differences between them.
The different Web markup languages include:
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML): This language was developed
to help very large organizations format and categorize large collections of
documents. It is very complicated, hard to learn, and was not widely adopted.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): This relatively easy to learn language
consists of a set of tags that are used to instruct the Web browser how to display a
Web page. It defines the structure and style for a document including the
headings, positioning of the graphics on the page, construction of tables, and the
formatting of text.
eXtensible Markup Language (XML): This is a markup language that, instead of
functioning to format the style and page layout for a Web page, sets out to
describe the data on the page. Tags such as <name> and <address> are used to
describe and display data according to the user’s definitions. It is extensible
because new tags can be continually defined to transform data into new formats,
in contrast to HTML that has only a set number of predefined tags.
19. Name and describe five services currently available through the Web.
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Services that are currently available through the Web are:
E-mail: This is the most widely used application on the Internet which allows text
messages and file attachments to be transferred from one Internet user to another.
Instant messaging: This comes in the form of a software program that allows
typed text to be displayed on a recipient’s computer almost instantaneously,
making real-time conversations between two people possible on the Web.
Search engines: Search engines are Web sites or services within a site that enable
users to locate information by matching keywords that the user provides to a list
of documents containing those words or the closest matches.
Intelligent agents (bots): These are software programs that gather and/or filter
information on a specific topic and provide a list of the results. For example,
intelligent agents have been written to search through e-mail messages for certain
keywords or simple concepts or phrases.
Online forum: Forums are Web applications that enable Internet users to
communicate with each other via a message board, bulletin board, or discussion
Online chat: This software enables several people or even a group of people to
carry on a live conversation.
Blogs (weblogs): Blogs are personal Web pages that are created by an individual
or corporation to communicate with readers.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS): RSS is a program that allows users to have
digital content, including text, articles, blogs and podcast audio file, automatically
sent to their computers over the Internet.
Podcasts: These are audio presentations stored as an audio file and posted to the
Web, where it can be downloaded onto a computer, or iPod.
Wikis: These Web applications allow a user to easily add and edit content on a
Web page.
Internet telephony: IP telephony is a general term for technologies that use Voice
over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and the Internet to send voice, fax, and other forms
of audio communication over the Internet.
IPTV: IPTV uses high-bandwidth Internet connections to deliver television
programming to the home.
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Video conferencing: Internet video conferencing is now accessible to anyone with
a broadband Internet connection and a Web camera.
Web applications, widgets and gadgets: Web services provide software
applications that run off of Web servers instead of a computer’s hard drive.
Widgets are small software applications that pull content and functionality from
one place on the Web to another, such as a blog or social networking page.
Gadgets are closely related to widgets and are small chunks of code that you can
add to a Web page usually provide a single limited function, such as a clock or
20. What are at least three new services that will be available through the next
generation of the Internet?
New services that will be available through the next generation of the Internet include:
 Digital video on demand: This is considered by many to be a “killer app” for the
future Internet.
Web distribution of software as a service will become increasingly prevalent. For
example, Microsoft is planning for a future where Microsoft Office will be a Web
M-commerce applications: Currently, m-commerce in the United States is still
small. But the introduction in 2007 of wireless devices such as the iPhone and
Blackberry Curve, and in 2008 of the iPhone 3G and TMobile G1 3G cell phone
that have the combined capabilities for voice, data, images, audio, and video, will
encourage the development of many sophisticated mobile commerce applications
in the near future.
1. Visit the Web site and investigate the following types of purchases: an
iPod, a copy of the book The Tales of Beetle the Bard, and a dozen red roses. What did
you find as you searched for these items? Describe the process, the search results, and
any limitations you encountered. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of
such intelligent agents?
The purpose of this project is for students to examine a shopping bot, how it works, and
its effectiveness of use. For example, when they enter “iPod”, they will be confronted
with a list of products in range of prices. When they enter “Tales of Beetle the Bard”,
they will be able to compare prices for various versions of the book, available from
different Web sites. When they enter “a dozen red roses” in the Flowers section, they will
receive several pages of rose combinations, including for two-dozen assortments. If they
refine the search to “one” they will get a more compact selection to choose from and a
more exact search that weeds out the two-dozen options. However, rose assortments that
include other colors besides just red (i.e. one dozen yellow and red roses) will still be
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included. The rose search typifies some of the limitations to search engine efficiency that
students might point out.
2. Locate where cookies are stored on your computer. (They are probably in a folder
entitled “cookies” within your browser program.) List the top 10 cookies you find, and
write a brief report describing the kinds of sites that placed the cookies. What purpose do
you think the cookies serve? Also, what do you believe are the major advantages and
disadvantages of cookies? In your opinion, do the advantages outweigh the
disadvantages, or vice versa?
The purpose of this project is for students to begin thinking about the implications of
cookie use by Web sites. The location of cookie files on a computer depends on the
browser version being used. Cookie files can be accessed on a computer using Mozilla
Firefox by opening the Tools menu, clicking Options, selecting the Privacy tab and
clicking the Show Cookies button. Cookie files on a computer using Internet Explorer 7
can viewed by selecting Tools, clicking Internet Options, and on the General tab, in the
Browsing History section, clicking the Settings button, and then clicking View Files.
Both Internet Explorer and Firefox have menu options that allow users to accept all,
some, or none of their incoming cookies. Students may not be able to identify all cookies
they locate because abbreviations and acronyms are used, but they should be able to
identify many of them because they are familiar with the sites they have visited.
Advertising cookies that they may not have been aware of are also deposited. For
example, cookies from DoubleClick,, 247RealMedia, RightMedia, and
other advertising networks may be discovered. These firms use cookies to track users and
serve advertising content.
Most sites on the Internet do not keep their advertisements locally. Rather, they subscribe
to a media service that places those ads for them. When an HTTP request for an
advertising image is made to a media service, it returns the ad and also a cookie. Or, if a
user has received a cookie previously, it can read that first and check to see what ad to
send. Advantages would include the faster loading of pages on future visits and the
ability to only register once when a user visits a site. Disadvantages include the privacy
implications having one’s Web surfing habits tracked by cookies. Opinion will vary on
whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
3. Call a local ISP, cable provider and DSL provider to request information on their
services. Prepare a brief report summarizing the features, benefits, and costs of each.
Which is the fastest? What, if any, are the downsides of selecting any of the three for
Internet service (such as additional equipment purchases)?
Student reports should include the name of the companies they called to request
information from, statistics on upload and download speeds, price, and availability. Cable
companies may present the arguments listed below to discourage DSL use, and DSL
providers might present some of what is discussed below to support their market position.
Students should discuss at least some of these issues in summarizing the features, benefits
and downsides of the three systems.
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With cable connections, available bandwidth decreases when the other users in the
neighborhood are online because the bandwidth is shared with everyone on the block.
This could particularly cause a problem at peak hours when this form of high bandwidth
connection becomes very popular in a locality, and the local company has not kept pace
with the growth in the number of users. One of the reasons that cable service costs less
than DSL is because it is a shared facility. A coaxial cable traveling in a neighborhood
from house to house can provide high-speed service to thousands of customers. DSL on
the other hand, requires a separate pair of wires for each subscriber: the phone company
needs to install a special DSL modem for each phone line at its central office. However,
although DSL is a dedicated line, it is still only as good as the local service provider's
connection to the Internet backbone. This creates several potential disadvantages for DSL
relative to cable modem. DSL customers each require their own line, and the provider
incurs extra expense in managing each of these lines individually. DSL technology also is
distance sensitive. Essentially, the longer a customer’s telephone line runs from their
house to the phone company, the less performance they can achieve with DSL.
4. Select two countries (excluding the United States) and prepare a short report
describing their basic Internet infrastructure. Are they public or commercial? How and
where do they connect to backbones within the United States?
The purpose of this project is for students to understand the global Internet infrastructure
and the significant jump the United States still has on the rest of the world. In to order
prepare this report, students should consult online reference sources. They are likely to
find that New York plays a big role in connecting the United States to Europe. New York
is the "capital" of the global Internet because it has the highest aggregation of Internet
capacity that travels between the world's regions. The United States is still a key staging
ground for the rest of the world's Internet. For example, France Telecom is not based in
the United States, but it has a substantial presence in the United States. France Telecom,
and other companies like it, must deploy bandwidth in the United States and connect with
other ISPs to effectively serve their customers.
Students may also find that Miami has more Internet capacity into Latin American
countries than any Latin American city does. Miami is the capital of that region's Internet
infrastructure because the Internet originated in the United States. If they choose an
African country, they will likely find that there are few regional links in Africa, and that
almost all upstream Internet circuits connect to the United States (with a few to the UK,
Italy and France).
ISPs in countries with borders shared with South Africa benefit from low tariff policies of
the public South African telecom operator for international links to neighbouring
countries. As a result, South Africa is a hub for some of its neighbours: Lesotho,
Namibia, and Swaziland. There are no other regional backbones or links between
neighbouring countries aside from Mauritius to Madagascar and the links to South
Africa’s neighbours, so much local traffic must go via the United States. This means that
significant and rapidly increasing capital outflows from the region are occurring for
Internet traffic between African countries paid to United States or European telecom
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operators and ISPs. Vast amounts of telecom transit payments a year leave the continent
that could have been invested in local infrastructure. This project should help students
grasp the extent of the worldwide digital divide.
5. We have mentioned several high-speed gigabit networks throughout this chapter.
Investigate the topic of high-speed networks and try to find the fastest recorded network
(usually used for research purposes). Then try to find the fastest commercial network
handling routine Internet traffic.
To explore the topic of the fastest recorded research network, students should visit the
Internet 2 Web site ( Internet2 sponsors a competition known as the
Internet2 Land Speed Record; the current record for IPv6 is 272,400 terabit-meters per
second, set on December 31, 2006). For IPv4, the current record is 264,147 terabit-meters
per second, set on February 20, 2006. The IPv6 record was set by a team consisting of
members from the University of Tokyo, the WIDE project, NTT Communications and
other organizations; the IPv 4 record was set by a team consisting of members from the
University of Tokyo, the WIDE project, Chelsio Communications and other
Determining the “fastest” commercial network handling routine Internet traffic is
somewhat more difficult. Today, there are a number of backbone operators-- such as
AT&T, Cable and Wireless, and Sprint-- that offer OC-192 fiber optic links for their
inter-office trunk lines. The OC-192 standard supports data transfer at up to about 10
Gbps. OC-256, which supports data transfer at 13.27 Gbps and OC-768, which supports
data transfer at 39.813 (often referred to as 40-gig), are currently used primarily by
research networks.
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