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NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT
Care
Early Years Care and Education
Child Development and Behaviour:
Teacher Resource Pack
[HIGHER]

Acknowledgements
This document is produced by Learning and Teaching Scotland as part of the National
Qualifications support programme for Care.
First published 2002
Electronic version 2002
© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2002
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes by
educational establishments in Scotland provided that no profit accrues at any stage.
ISBN 1 85955 931 X
CONTENTS
Introduction
Integration with other units
Unit content
Statement of standards
Core skills
Assessment
1
1
1
2
3
3
Section 1: Guidance for teachers
Approaches to learning and teaching
Unit induction
Learning environment
How to use the pack
Recording student attainment
Scheme of work
5
5
5
6
7
8
8
Section 2: Student activities and information
Outcome 1
Outcome 2
Outcome 3
Outcome 4
Outcome 5
Outcome 6
11
11
47
73
110
137
161
Appendix
Resource information
Candidate record of progress
Internal assessment record
175
177
179
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IN T RO D UC T IO N
INTRODUCTION
Integration with other units
This unit is a mandatory 1 credit unit within the Early Years Care and
Education (Higher) course. It has close links with the other mandatory unit in
the Early Years Care and Education (Higher) course – Holistic Approaches to
Child Health.
This unit forms a progression from Human Development (Intermediate 2)
which is a mandatory unit within the Care Intermediate 2 course.
Unit content
The unit has six outcomes:
1.
Investigate a theoretical approach to the study of growth, development
and behaviour of children 0–7 years.
2.
Describe the physical growth, development and behaviour of children
0–7 years.
3.
Describe the emotional, personal and social development and
behaviour of children 0–7 years.
4.
Describe the cognitive development and behaviour of children 0 –7
years.
5.
Describe the linguistic development and behaviour of children 0–7
years.
6.
Evaluate the use of developmental theories in the study of
development and behaviour of children 0–7 years.
The unit content can be summarised as follows:
• fundamental concepts in theories of growth, develop ment and behaviour
in children
• the methods used by psychologists and educationalists for studying
children’s growth, development and behaviour
• the relevant theories and influences on the child’s development covering
the following strands of development:
– physical
– emotional, personal and social
– cognitive
– linguistic
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IN T RO D UC T IO N
•
•
evaluating the use of developmental theories in relation to an identified
aspect of the behaviour and development of children 0 –7 years
the impact of culture on the child’s development and behaviour.
For further details refer to the unit specification in the Arrangements
Document.
Statement of standards
Outcome 1
Investigate a theoretical approach to the study of growth, development and
behaviour of children 0–7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Investigate fundamental concepts in theories of growth, development
and behaviour in children 0–7 years.
(b)
Describe methods for studying growth, development and behaviour in
children 0–7 years.
Outcome 2
Describe the physical growth, development and behaviour of children 0 –7
years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe features and principles of growth, physical development and
behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences on a child’s growth, physical
development and behaviour.
Outcome 3
Describe the emotional, personal and social development and behaviour of
children 0–7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe relevant theories in relation to emotional, personal and social
development and behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences of the child’s emotional, personal and
social development and behaviour.
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IN T RO D UC T IO N
Outcome 4
Describe the cognitive development and behaviour of children 0 –7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe relevant theories in relation to the cogn itive development
and behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences on the child’s cognitive development
and behaviour.
Outcome 5
Describe the linguistic development and behaviour of children 0 –7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe relevant theories in relation to the linguistic development
and behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences on the child’s linguistic development
and behaviour.
Outcome 6
Evaluate the use of developmental theories in the study of development and
behaviour of children 0–7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe a theory of children’s development and behaviour.
(b)
Evaluate this theory in terms of research methods, criticisms and other
relevant research.
Evidence requirements for all outcomes
Written and/or oral evidence to ensure coverage of all performance criteria.
Assessment should be carried out under supervision.
Core skills
It is unlikely that attainment of this unit would lead to the automatic award of
a particular core skill.
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IN T RO D UC T IO N
Assessment
The Unit Assessment pack from the National Assessment Bank contains the
following internal assessment instruments for this unit:
Outcomes
1
PC
(a) and (b)
Assessment Instruments
Two extended response questions related to
stimulus material (around 150–250 words)
2
(a) and (b)
Same as above
3
(a) and (b)
Same as above
6
4
(a)
(a) and (b)
Same as above
6
5
(a)
(a) and (b)
Same as above
6
6
(a)
(b)
One extended response question (around
150–250 words)
Two alternative instruments of assessment are available from the National
Assessment Bank. Centres can, alternatively, devise their own internal
assessment items and submit them to the Scottish Qualifications Authority
(SQA) for prior moderation.
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SECTION 1
Approaches to learning and teaching
In delivering this unit it is useful if teachers/lecturers achieve a balance
between teacher/lecturer exposition and experiential learning. Students can be
encouraged from the beginning to draw on their own experience and previous
and current learning. Where students have experience of working in an early
years care and education setting these experiences can be drawn on to explore
the theories and information covered in this unit.
Students should be encouraged from the beginning of the unit to gat her
leaflets, newspaper and magazine articles related to child development and
behaviour. Attention should be drawn to television programmes on child
development and behaviour. Visiting speakers can also broaden the students’
learning.
In delivering the unit it is important that a multicultural approach is taken.
Approaches and attitudes to child development and behaviour are culturally
specific and therefore people’s views on some aspects of child development
and behaviour can vary according to their cul tural background.
Teachers/lecturers can ensure a multicultural focus is adopted during
exercises and discussions on differing perceptions of child development and
behaviour.
Unit induction
Students can be given the Candidate Guide from the Unit Asse ssment pack
which helps explain what the unit is about and how it is assessed.
Teachers/lecturers should ensure that students understand the nature, purpose
and outcomes of the unit, the learning and teaching approaches to the unit and
the assessment requirements of the unit. The necessity for induction exercises
will depend on the particular group, their familiarity with each other, their
familiarity with the teacher/lecturer and the education setting and the Course
or Group Award they are undertaking. If the group is a new one, induction
exercises to ensure that students feel comfortable talking to each other should
be included.
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G UI DA N CE FO R T EA CH ER S
Learning environment
Teachers/lecturers should aim to create a supportive and motivating learning
environment. The unit examines some issues of a sensitive nature and it is
essential that the needs of students in the learning environment are
considered and met wherever possible.
The ‘people’ element in the classroom is therefore of paramount importance.
The following conditions should always be in place:
• the provision of a learning climate in which students feel supported to
share their own thoughts and feelings
• a teaching style which promotes a supportive learning climate
• teaching and learning methods which draw on studen ts’ past and present
learning experience and which enable them to integrate new ideas and
skills into their interactions with others.
The learning environment is established at the outset through factors such as
the style adopted by the teacher/lecturer a nd the physical layout of the room.
How to use the pack
Purpose of the pack
This pack is designed to provide guidance and support materials to help
teachers/lecturers in the delivery of the unit. The student information sheets
and activities are designed to be used by teachers/lecturers in whatever way
suits their preferred style of delivery and the needs of their particular student
group. The pack has not been designed for open learning purposes. Answers
and group discussions relating to the exercises and worksheets will be
provided and facilitated by the teacher/lecturer. The student exercises and
activities will need to be followed up and brought together by the
teacher/lecturer in whatever way is appropriate for the particular student
group.
The student activities in the pack cover the six outcomes and their
performance criteria. The material is presented to cover Outcomes 1 to 6 in
sequence.
The materials are a resource for teachers/lecturers to use, adapt and add to in
whatever way best meets the needs of the student group.
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Using the materials
The materials in Section 2 of this pack have been identified as either student
activity
A
or information sheets
I
.
The materials can be photocopied, adapted, altered, presented in a different
order, added to and delivered in the way that best suits the particular teaching
situation. Many of the worksheets and exercises could be written onto OHTs,
blackboards or flipcharts where photocopying is not possible. The essential
knowledge required for the unit has been covered on the pages which have
the information symbol. These information sheets could be used as the focus
for input by the teacher/lecturer and to promote question and answer sessions
and group discussions.
The information sheets can be photocopied as a separate pack if the
teacher/lecturer prefers to use them either as teaching notes or as separate
handout material. The materials could be assembled into smaller topic packs
or into a pack for each outcome.
Additional useful information may be found in the teacher resource pack for
Human Development and Behaviour (Higher) which is a unit in the Care
Higher course. In particular it may be helpful to use some information sheets
and activities from Outcome 1 of this pack covering theorists such as Freud,
Erikson, Skinner, Bandura and Rogers.
Exercises and activities
All the worksheets, assignments, group activities, etc., have the student
activity symbol. The exercises and activities have been suggested for
individuals, pairs and small groups to carry out. Teachers/lecturers may well
wish to alter the way in which these exercises and activities are carried out
according to their particular group. It is not suggested that all of the exercises
must be used and equally there are many additional activi ties that could be
used.
Current media articles, videos, situations from soap operas and students’ own
experiences are likely to provide other sources of material for discussion and
exercises. Where students have work placement experience this is likely to
provide a rich source for discussion.
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G UI DA N CE FO R T EA CH ER S
Preparation for assessment
Many of the worksheets are for formative assessment purposes and will allow
teachers/lecturers to monitor the understanding of their students on an
ongoing basis.
The ‘test yourself’ questions at the end of the material for each outcome can
be used by teachers/lecturers, in whatever way they wish, prior to internal
assessment. They could be taken in and marked by the teacher/lecturer or
students could mark their own as the teacher/lectu rer explains the correct
answers. Alternatively they could be marked in peer groups facilitated by the
teacher/lecturer. Completion of them should give the student and the
teacher/lecturer a good indication of whether students are ready for internal
assessment. Following each ‘test yourself’ question sheet is an information
sheet giving a brief summary of the expected answers. Teachers/lecturers may
wish to give this information sheet to students, to reinforce what they are
expected to know prior to internal assessment.
Recording student attainment
A recording pro-forma for teachers/lecturers to complete for individual
candidate attainment (Teacher’s Record of Candidate Progress) is available in
the Unit Assessment pack.
Two pro-formas can be found in the Appendix of this pack:
• Candidate Record of Progress – for individual candidates to have a record
of their own attainment
• Internal Assessment Record – to record the internal assessment results of
the whole student group.
Teachers/lecturers may alternatively prefer to devise their own recording
system.
Scheme of work
On the following two pages is an exemplar teaching plan showing how the
pack could be used to deliver the unit. This example is based on a delivery
pattern of three hours a week over twelve weeks. Where the delivery pattern
is different, e.g. one hour a week or less over a longer period, then each
three-hour lesson can be subdivided into three or four shorter sessions.
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Week
1
Content
Outcome 1: Introduction to unit; views of childhood; reasons for
studying child development and behaviour, nature/nurture debate;
behaviour genetics and environmental influences – the individual
and timing of environmental influences
2
An ecological perspective; continuous or stages development;
maturation; culture; test yourself questions
3
Types of theory
4
Methods of research; test yourself questions
5
Outcome 2: Terms growth and development; reasons for studying
growth and physical development; the newborn baby; growth
6
Fine motor skills; gross motor skills; test yourself questions
7
Influences – ante-natal care; genetic influences; hormones
8
Environmental influences on growth and physical development; the
role of ‘practice’; culture; health and illness; test yourself
questions
9
Outcome 3: Bowlby – theory of attachment; related research and
criticisms
10
Freud’s theory of personality development; play therapy; criticisms
of Freud’s theory
11
Erikson’s theory; Rogers’ theory; Skinner’s theory in relation to
social and emotional behaviour; Bandura’s social learning theory;
test yourself questions
12
Influences on emotional, personal and social development and
behaviour; test yourself questions
13
Outcome 4: Cogntive development; perceptual and sensory skills;
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
14
Piaget’s theory and criticism
15
Chris Athey’s schemas; Bruner’s theory; Vygotsky’s theory;
Fischer’s theory; test yourself questions
17
Influences on cognitive development – test yourself questions
17
Outcome 5: What is language? Main stages/sequence of language
development
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G UI DA N CE FO R T EA CH ER S
Week
10
Content
18
Joan Tough’s uses of language; language transcripts; Skinner’s
theory of language acquisition
19
Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition; Language theories of
Brown, Trevarthen, Whitehead; Bilingualism; test yourself
questions
20
Influences on language development and behaviour
21
Outcome 6: Choosing the theory to evaluate; planning the
timescale; gathering materials; input on presentation and
referencing, etc.
22
Researching and making notes on background information;
describing the theory
23
Researching and making notes on follow-up studies; criticisms
24
Presenting the evaluation study – oral or written
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S TU D EN T AC T IV I T I E S A ND I NFO RM AT IO N
SECTION 2
I
Outcome 1
Investigate a theoretical approach to the study o f growth, development and
behaviour of children 0–7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Investigate fundamental concepts in theories of growth,
development and behaviour in children 0–7 years.
(b)
Describe methods for studying growth, development and behavi our
in children 0–7 years.
Introduction
In this outcome we will be investigating fundamental concepts in theories of
children’s growth, development and behaviour and identifying the main
methods employed by researchers in this field of study.
We begin by exploring some fundamental concepts involved in studies of
growth, development and behaviour.
These are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Views of childhood
Reasons for studying children’s growth, development and behaviour
The nature/nurture debate
Behaviour genetics
Environmental influences
Interaction between nature and nurture
Continuous development or stages
Maturation
Culture
Types of theories: Psychoanalytic
Cognitive
Learning theory
Social learning theory
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S TU D EN T AC T IV I T I E S A ND I NFO RM AT IO N
A basic understanding of these concepts shoul d assist study of later
outcomes.
In Outcome 1 we will also look at the main methods employed by
researchers of child development and growth and behaviour.
The main methods are:
•
•
•
•
12
Case studies
Surveys
Experiments
Naturalistic observation.
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Outcome 1
I
Definitions
At the outset it is important to be clear about definitions. Studying children’s
growth, development and behaviour is a ‘holistic’ process, yet the three
aspects can also be examined apart.
Growth:
‘Growth is the process by which cells divide to increase the size of the
body.’
from Child Care and Education, Tassoni, Beith and Eldridge
We will be studying how children grow; what affects their growth, and also
how their growth affects their development and behaviour.
Development:
‘Development is the process by which children master the control of their
body’.
from Child Care and Education, Tassoni, Beith and Eldridge
We will study patterns of development, and how development is influenced
by a variety of factors.
Behaviour:
‘A person eats breakfast, rides a bicycle, talks, blushes, laughs, and cries.
All these are forms of ‘behaviour’, those activities of an organism that can
be observed.’
From Introduction to Psychology, Atkinson, Atkinson and Hilgard
We will study how children behave, and how their growth, development and
other factors might influence their behaviour.
This unit is not particularly focusing on positive and negative aspects of
children’s behaviour. These aspects of behaviour are studied closely in the
unit called ‘Promoting Positive Behaviour’.
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S TU D EN T AC T IV I T I E S A ND I NFO RM AT IO N
Outcome 1
I
Theories of children’s growth, development and behaviour
Throughout history, ideas about children and attitudes towards children have
varied. Early pioneers in philosophy, psychology and ed ucation have
developed ‘theories’ explaining their ideas of children’s growth, development
and behaviour, based on their own observations.
We have learned a great deal from the early theories, but our knowledge is by
no means complete. Our understanding of children’s growth, development
and behaviour continues to grow and change rapidly due to on -going studies
and research. Some might say that with the use of sophisticated technology
which allows us to study brain patterns and see inside the human body , we
are only beginning to understand how and why children grow, develop and
behave as they do.
We have also developed the means of accessing all parts of the world by
travel and by computer technology, giving us a much greater understanding
of cultural and environmental influences.
The study of children’s growth, development and behaviour is one of today’s
most important areas of research.
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Outcome 1
A
Individual activity – Gathering materials
While studying this unit pay attention to newspapers , magazines, journals,
television and radio broadcasts, news items and the Internet. Gather articles,
and take notes on any current research in the area of children’s growth,
development and behaviour. This will be useful during class and group
discussions and for assignment purposes. Keep a record of items you have
collected (see table below). Typical examples you may come across are:
Does television influence children’s behaviour? Do our children have an
unhealthy diet?
Research item
Television and
children’s behaviour
Children’s diet
Source
ITN News
Location
Notes in my folder
Sunday Times
Article in folder
Constructing a glossary
As you come across new words and terms used in this unit or in your own
study, write them down with a definition. K eep this glossary in a safe place
so that you can consult it when necessary.
Referencing
When you carry out a more detailed piece of research in Outcome 6, you will
be required to keep a reference section. You will find information about this
in Outcome 6. For now, however, it would be wise for you to keep detailed
notes of the books you use. Include author, publisher, title of book/article or
Internet site, date of publication, and page numbers of any specific quotes
you may use.
Your reference notes might look something like this at this stage:
Sara Meadows
Understanding Child Development
Publisher: Routledge, 1989 (third impression)
Useful piece on ‘Theories of Play’ – pp. 25–30
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Outcome 1
I
Views of childhood
There are conflicting accounts of how adults viewed childhood and how
children were treated in the past. Today, in education, we acknowledge that
young children are different from adults in terms of how they think and how
they view the world. We also acknowledge that children need prote ction and
that they have rights. Legislation such as the Children Act 1995 and the UN
Convention on the Rights of the Child ensure that we treat children with
respect and kindness. This has not always been the case.
A study by Philippe Ariès (1962) suggests that before the sixteenth century
children were regarded as miniature adults who were inferior and of no real
importance. There are reports of maltreatment and cruelty towards children,
and a high infant mortality rate caused by infection, accident s and bad
upbringing.
A different picture, however, is painted by Houlbrooke (1984) who described
a much happier situation, where children were loved, protected and cared for
affectionately from the Middle Ages into the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries.
These two different accounts demonstrate that throughout history, two basic
viewpoints on childhood have been held. One school of thought was that
children were born with original sin, and had to be corrected and disciplined
for their own good, so that they might turn into good adults. There is an old
saying ‘spare the rod and spoil the child’.
The other viewpoint was that children were born innocent and our duty as
adults was to guard and protect them against the influences of the wicked
outside world. (This was the view of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712–78.)
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Outcome 1
A
Group exercise – Childhood
1.
Work in small groups of three or four and consider the various views
of childhood. Compare these views with your own views.
2.
When you have had this discussion go on to discuss and make notes
on why we should study children’s growth, development and
behaviour.
1.
Views of childhood
Are children born innocent?
How might the answer to this question influence the way adults treat
children?
2.
Reasons for studying children’s growth, development and behaviour.
You will be asked to share your answers with the whole group.
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Outcome 1
I
Reasons for studying children’s growth, development and
behaviour
Here are some of the main reasons for studying children’s growth,
development and behaviour. You may have come up with some more.
Understanding how children learn
We can find out if there is a best time to teach children – i.e. are there
particularly sensitive or critical periods when children are likely to learn or
be affected by things? We can try to find out about the best methods for
teaching. Do children learn by hands -on experience rather than by being
instructed? What learning goes on in the home and what takes place in an
educational setting? We can discover whether or not children and adults
think alike. We may find out whether all children learn in the same way and
at the same time, and what the main influences on a child’s learning are.
Finding out what affects children’s growth and development
Studies help us discover what kind of things influence children’s growth and
development. We can also find out about how much exercise and sleep
children need. What kind of a diet is best for children’s growth an d
development? We can find out to what extent emotional development
influences growth and other areas of development and vice versa.
Understanding why children behave in certain ways
Studying children helps us to understand things like childhood tantrum s and
how to deal with them. We can look at what motivates children; perhaps
discovering why some children respond to educational situations
enthusiastically while others may be bored or disruptive. Psychologists are
trying to find out what makes some children aggressive, and others not.
There is also much interest in gender issues, i.e. do girls and boys behave
differently because of inborn characteristics or the way society treats them?
We can also find out what influences the social interaction b etween children
and how this in turn influences behaviour – i.e. peer group pressure.
Identifying children’s needs
We study children to find out what they are interested in and what
special abilities they might have. We look at the effects of love and
affection and how the importance of this need being met compares with
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I
Outcome 1
Reasons for studying children’s growth, development and
behaviour (continued)
physical and other needs. We look at the needs of children in the context of
their different cultural backgrounds. We study children’s need for
protection, and their need to be independent and take risks.
Providing for children’s needs
Ultimately, answers to all of the above will help child care and education
professionals and parents provide the best care and education for children.
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Outcome 1
I
The nature/nurture debate
The discussion you had previously about whether or not children are born
innocent probably generated thoughts in your group about what influences the
child’s growth, development and behaviour. Will the child’s inborn (genetic)
make up have a greater influence or will outside influences be more
important? This is what has become known as the nature/nurture debate.
There is no doubt that in some families people do se em to ‘take after’ other
members of the family. Is this due to nature or nurture?
Researchers have compared characteristics of biological parents with
characteristics of their children who have been adopted and brought up in
another family to assess the extent of the genetic influences. They have also
compared characteristics of adopted children with those of their adoptive
parents, to see if the environmental influence in greater. As in most areas of
such complex study the answers are not clear -cut. Likewise, studies on
identical twins have been carried out, where twins have been reared in
different environments and studied for similarities in intelligence. Again the
answers are not definitive, mostly because it is very difficult to be sure of
how different the environments are.
However, there is conclusive evidence to show that genetic influences result
in inherited diseases and some physical characteristics. Some aspects of our
growth development and behaviour seem to be programmed from the m oment
of conception. Features like hair colour, eye colour, general body size, skin
colour are all determined by our genetic blueprint. (Later in this unit you
will study genetic inheritance in a little more detail.) In personality and
intellect the evidence is not so clear. These characteristics are also thought
to have a biological basis but to what extent is still being discovered.
As we live and grow the environment influences us. Before birth we are
influenced by factors inside and outside the womb. Mothers to be are asked
not to smoke, drink or take drugs as these can all adversely affect the
development of the child. Even sounds and experiences outside the womb are
said to be recognised by the unborn baby and can have some kind of effect o n
the child after birth (for example, some studies claim that being exposed to
Mozart’s music in the womb can make children more intelligent).
The nature/nurture debate asks, ‘Which has the greater influence on
development – nature or nurture?’
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Outcome 1
A
Group exercise – The nature/nurture debate
In small groups discuss members of your family who seem to share common
characteristics, e.g. looks, temperament, personality. Discuss whether these
similarities might be inherited or learned from family an d environment.
Can you think of any other strands of a nature/nurture debate?
You will be asked to share your answers with the whole group.
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Studies of behaviour genetics and environmental influences
Studies of behaviour genetics and environmental influences are helping us
learn more about the nature/nurture debate.
Behaviour genetics
In each cell of the human body there is a set of 46 chromosomes, arranged in
23 pairs. Chromosomes include all our genetic infor mation. At conception
23 chromosomes from the father and 23 from the mother come together and
provide what is often referred to as the genetic blueprint of the newly created
individual. Our genes determine our sex and many other characteristics.
Some genetic abnormalities can result in inherited conditions such as Downs
Syndrome and Sickle Cell Anaemia.
The study of how genetics contributes to the individual’s behaviour has
become known as behaviour genetics. In behaviour genetics, psychologists
are looking at how heredity influences aspects of growth, development and
behaviour such as: height, body shape, intelligence, reading ability,
aggressiveness, depression, temperament and sociability.
Psychologists are studying how heredity may affect an in dividual’s
environment. This involves looking at the tendency for parents with
particular genes – e.g. for intelligence – to not only pass these on, but also to
provide a more intellectually stimulating environment for the child. If there
are genetic aggressive tendencies, there may also be a more aggressive
environment.
Likewise, children who inherit certain genes will behave in particular ways
that will influence the responses of others. For example, if there is an
aggressive gene, it may be passed to a child, making her more aggressive in
her behaviour, which will possibly initiate negative responses to her
behaviour from others. A child who inherits a gene for high intelligence
may be more inquisitive and therefore find out more. She will ther efore
become more knowledgeable – but is this because she has the gene, or
because she found out more?
Environmental influences
As with studies of behaviour genetics, studies of environmental influences
are equally complex and are highlighting the interac tion between heredity and
the environment. It is not a straightforward matter of the environment
causing us to develop in certain ways.
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Outcome 1
Studies of behaviour genetics and environmental influences
(continued)
Psychologists are looking at the complexities of how the environment
influences various aspects of our growth, behaviour and development.
An example of this is that we have to be at a certain level of maturation in
some skills before the environment can have any obvious influenc e. For
example, the environment will not make a four -month-old child walk at that
stage, but it may eventually influence his walking at one year if we take
things like diet and exercise into consideration.
The individual
In your discussion about the nature/nurture debate you may have decided that
the individual is not merely passive in being affected by genetics and the
environment. Modern research is claiming that the individual affects her
own growth development and behaviour by the ways in wh ich she interprets
and responds to the environment. For example a child in school responded
to her teacher’s comment ‘you behaved very well in assembly today’, by
crying and looking very upset. This child may have taken the intended
praise as an indication that she did not normally behave very well. People
make assumptions about what happens to them and about what is said to
them, possibly because of past experiences or because of genetic disposition,
and these assumptions will influence all future experiences.
The child’s unique way of reacting to the environment also has an influence
on how others respond. For example, the bubbly, cheery little girl will in
turn be rewarded by adult praise and recognition, and numerous friends,
while the quiet child may appear unenthusiastic and may often be ignored or
disliked by peers and adults. This then sets up a vicious cycle of behaviour
and responses.
Timing of environmental influence
There is also evidence that the timing of when experiences occur in our lives
influences how they affect our development. A family bereavement, for
example, may have a different effect on a child who is nine months old to a
child who is nine years old. Some researchers refer to ‘sensitive periods’
and ‘critical periods’ when life experiences may have greater influences on
our growth development and behaviour.
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Activity in pairs – Discussion
How individuals might affect their own growth and development
Share examples with your partner of occasions in the past w here you have
made assumptions about things that have happened to you, or things that have
been said. How might these assumptions have affected you?
(For example – you may assume that because someone does not smile at you,
they do not like you.)
Share examples also of life experiences that you feel may have affected you.
How old were you? Do you think the experience affected brothers and
sisters in the same way? Examples might be a new baby in the family,
moving school, holidays, a family separation….
(Talk only about things you feel comfortable with in this situation.)
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An ecological perspective
This perspective sees growth, development and behaviour in a complex
environmental context.
Uri Bronfenbrenner (1979) puts forward the view that all of the following
ecosystems influence the child.
Microsystem: the environment closest to the child – family, toys, home,
day-care centre and (for older children) the peer group and school.
Mesosystem: the inter-relationships among the microsystems of the child –
for example the home, the school and peer group.
Exosystem: features of the environment that affect the child but in which the
child is not directly involved, such as the parents’ friends, parents’
workplace, school board, social welfare service.
Macrosystem: the beliefs and ideology of the country.
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Ecological systems
macrosystems
exosystems
microsystems
mesosystems
Bronfenbrenner sees the child’s ecological system as having a series of
concentric circles as above. Further information relating to Bronfenbrenner
will be found in some of the resource materials suggested in this unit. Make
notes of the types of ‘environmental features’ which would come withi n the
circles.
Think about your own childhood. Fill in details relevant to your upbringing
in each circle.
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Interaction of nature and nurture
Having looked at behaviour genetics and environmental influences it will be
apparent to you that the interaction of nature and nurture affects our
development. Nature and nurture are really inseparable. For example a
baby is born with the ability to learn a spoken language, but to what extent
this develops, will depend on his developmental stage (i.e. no child will
speak in sentences before he is one year old), and also the amount of
environmental stimulation he receives. The spoken language will belong to
that child’s own culture. Eventually, a child who has inherited exceptional
linguistic abilities will no doubt converse more, ask questions and make
comments, therefore initiating further language responses from adults and
thus further extending his abilities. So we can see that in language
development an interaction of nature and nurture i nfluences the progress, and
this is true in most aspects of development.
Continuous development or stages?
Some psychologists refer to a ‘stages’ theory of growth, development and
behaviour. We will return to some of these later in the unit. The id ea of a
‘stages’ theory is that human beings develop through various ‘stages’.
During these stages we would expect particular changes in development to
occur and progression to take place. The ‘stages’ theories of Piaget and
Freud are amongst those you will learn about during your study of this unit.
Others prefer to see growth development and behaviour as a continuous
process. The same sequences in growth, development and behaviour are
followed by all human beings. The individual will follow this sequence at
her own rate and the changes are smooth and less clear cut than is implied by
a stages theory.
Maturation
Maturation refers to sequences of growth or body changes, which are
universal to all the species. We can see maturation best in foetal
development where there is an orderly sequence of how the foetus
grows and changes. Maturation is determined by innate factors but also
can be helped or hindered by environmental changes. For example the
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Maturation (continued)
developing foetus will grow and change according to its genetic blueprint but
if affected by drugs, or some types of maternal illness, the development will
be altered.
In the developing child we can see maturation in abilities such as using the
whole hand to pick things up, followed by being able to use the thumb and
forefinger. All children sit up before they can stand. All young people go
through the same sequence of changes at puberty. The concept of
‘maturation’ was proposed quite some time ago by Arnold Gessell (1925) and
now modern research is highlighting the fact that although maturation seems
to be a genetically programmed process, external experiences are needed to
allow the maturational changes to take place.
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Class ‘brainstorm’ – culture
There is no ‘agreed’ definition of culture, but the one given by Helen Bee in
The Developing Child, is helpful:
‘The term culture describes a system of meanings and customs, including
values, attitudes, goals, laws, beliefs, morals, an d physical artefacts of
various kinds such as tools and forms of dwellings.’
With the above definition in mind, list examples of ‘meanings and customs’
that might be part of someone’s culture.
Some examples:
• some people belong to a culture where there is belief in reincarnation
• in some cultures people do not eat pork.
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Culture
When considering our definition of culture, it must encompass things that are
shared by an identifiable group and are passed on through generations.
Our culture influences our growth, development and behaviour and important
current research is looking at this concept.
Examples of cultural variations in how children are brought up include:
•
In some cultures mothers keep bodily contact with their infants at all
times – in others the infants are nursed and played with often, but also put
down in cots, baby chairs and pushchairs for a lot of the time. In some
other cultures there is very little affection shown by mothers to their
infants.
•
How children are cared for and by whom varies from one culture to
another.
•
In some cultures children are given more responsibility than in other
cultures.
•
There are cultural differences in how families live together, i.e. a
collective style of family life, or focusing on the individuals within the
family. Family commitment is stronger in some cultures than others.
•
In some cultures more respect is shown to older people than in other
cultures.
•
People in some cultures value successful relationships above material
gain.
•
Communication varies in each culture. The language is unique to a
culture and gestures and signs are different.
•
Discipline is different from one culture to another – what is acceptable
and what is not. Who has authority over whom is also a cult ural issue.
•
In religious beliefs, people from various cultural backgrounds have their
own procedures, and rules that have to be observed, and perhaps have
things that are sacred or taboo.
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Culture (continued)
•
Food is part of culture. Some people are restricted in what they can eat
because of their cultural beliefs. Food is one way in which cultures
celebrate important days and festivals. Ways of eating and serving food
differ.
•
Attitudes to work and play differ in various cultures, and art and music
are valued and expressed differently and sometimes have religious
connotations.
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Small group activity – Culture
In a small group, choose two or three examples from the previous list of
cultural issues and discuss how they might influence a child’s growth,
development and behaviour.
What might the implications of this be for the child in a care and education
setting?
Helen Bee’s book The Developing Child provides some useful material on
cultural influences on children’s growth, development and behaviour.
You will be asked to share your answers with the whole class.
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Types of theories
In this unit you will study various theories of growth, development and
behaviour. These theories can be classified into different types:
Psychoanalytical theory
This word comes from the Greek ‘psyche’ – which means ‘the mind’.
Psychoanalytical theory tries to analyse the mind to find out how it influences
our behaviour. This theory was developed by Sigmund Freud who proposed
that much of our behaviour – like fears, thoughts and deeply held wishes that
we might be unaware of – stems from unconscious processes.
Cognitive theory
Cognitive theory looks at how we actively process information. It refers to
the mental processes like thinking, memory, and problem solving.
Learning theory
This type of theory emphasises the processes by which behaviour is formed
from the outside, by the external environment. This theory looks at how
human beings and other species respond to certain stimuli and how
reinforcement and punishment influences our behaviour.
Social learning theory
This theory considers the social influences on our behaviour, for example
how we learn through imitation and role modelling. It also considers wider
social influences such as the media.
Glossary
The definitions of the different types of theories are very important for you to
understand. Add them to your glossary now, and as you progress through the
various outcomes, add names of psychologists whose theories fit these
definitions.
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Test yourself questions – Set A
The following questions will help test your knowledge and understanding of
the work covered in Outcome 1 so far. You will find some sample answers
at the end of the outcome.
1.
What two views of childhood have been held by society in the past?
2.
Explain two or three of the reasons for studying children’s growth,
development and behaviour.
3.
Explain what is meant by ‘the nature/nurture debat e’.
4.
What is the study of ‘behaviour genetics’?
5.
Describe two aspects of ‘environmental influences’ which might be
considered when studying growth, development and behaviour.
6.
What is meant by the ‘interaction’ of nature and nurture?
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Test yourself questions – Set A (continued)
7.
Explain the concepts of continuous development and ‘stages’
development.
8.
Explain the term ‘maturation’.
9.
Describe two or three aspects of culture that might influence a child’s
growth, behaviour and development.
10.
Which type of theory:
(a) looks at how children learn from social influences?
(b) looks at the unconscious mind?
(c) looks at environmental influences on behaviour?
(d) looks at thinking processes?
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Research methods
Studying children
Researchers study the growth, development and behaviour of children in a
variety of ways. One way is to carry out a study on a group of children, and
then apply the findings to the larger population of children . These studies
are called ‘cross-sectional’. Their disadvantages are that we cannot always
be sure that our chosen group for the study is truly representative of all
children.
Another type of study is the ‘longitudinal study’. In this children may be
studied at a particular stage in life, then later, perhaps at intervals of a
number of years. (There have been television programmes made in the past
40 years of longitudinal studies of children, with gaps of seven years between
each part of the study. These highlighted how some children changed
significantly in their hopes and aspirations as they grew and developed and
became influenced by the environment and events in their lives.) It is
difficult to make comparisons between children, however, be cause they will
all have had their own set of experiences.
Researchers are increasingly using cross-cultural studies to compare
children’s development in different cultures and contexts. This sometimes
involves a researcher living within a particular cu lture for a period of time.
Cultures within a country are studied also and help to provide information
about the impact of a child’s cultural background on development.
The case study
Case studies can provide us with information about one person or a gr oup of
people. Carrying out a case study might involve observing the ‘subject’
(person), or carrying out interviews. The case study allows the researcher to
study rare or sensitive occurrences, such as the effect of isolation on a child’s
growth, development and behaviour. An example of this is the study of
Isabelle, a child who was isolated with her deaf mother for six years – Mason
(1942), Davis (1947), in Cardwell, Clark and Meldrum, p. 380. Another
famous case study is the story of Dibs, by Virgi nia Axline, which describes
how play therapy helped a child overcome emotional trauma. The
disadvantage of the case study method is that we are not sure whether
all children would respond to experiences in exactly the same way as
the child in our case study.
Sigmund Freud is famous for his use of case studies in developing his
theory of personality. His theories are often criticised because his
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Research methods (continued)
subjects were his own patients who had emotional or mental problems. We
cannot be sure that their personality development is representative of all
human beings.
Another disadvantage of the case study is that the use of interviews with
children is not always reliable because children’s understanding and use o f
language may be limited.
One of the earliest famous examples of a case study is that of Charles Darwin
in the 1800s. Darwin formulated his theory of emotional development in
children on his observations of his own son’s emotional expressions.
Although we cannot always generalise the findings of one case study to the
whole population, our discoveries can often stimulate further, more scientific
research.
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Group discussion – Case studies
A researcher wants to find out about people’s atti tudes to using smacking as a
means of dealing with children’s unwanted behaviour.
Discuss why using your class group’s opinions may or may not be
representative of the whole adult population.
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Research methods (continued)
Surveys
The survey method of research involves the use of questionnaires and/or
interviews. Perhaps you have taken part in a street survey, or a telephone
survey. Subjects in a survey are asked to answer questions orally or provide
written answers to questionnaires devised by the researcher. The questions
are designed in such a way that they should not lead the answer in any way,
as this would give false results. The questions might require yes/no answers,
short responses or longer answers. Sometimes it is just a matter of ticking
boxes. In relation to child development, surveys are useful if answered by
parents or people who work with children. Children themselves, however,
may not give reliable answers to questions due to their limited understanding
and use of language. (This of course can also be true of adults.) The
advantage of the survey method is that the researcher can find out
information about a large number of subjects.
Experiments
Experimental methods set out to test a particular hypothesis. For example a
researcher may state the hypothesis ‘children’s mathematical skills improve
through play’. (A hypothesis is a statement of what you predict will
happen.) To test this a researcher might set up an experiment where two
groups of children are tested on a particular aspect of maths. One group will
have the experience of playing with relevant mathematical materials, while
the other group (the control group) will be taught by normal methods. It is
probably already obvious to you that the re sults of the test could be
influenced by other things as well as the teaching and learning methods. For
example some children in the ‘play’ group might be naturally more
mathematically gifted, or they may have already had experiences which will
help them with this problem. Researchers refer to these aspects of an
experiment as ‘confounding variables’ and they try to control as many of
these as possible by organising their experiment in such a way that most
things are equal, including the environment, te mperature, noise levels and
timing of experiment.
In the example above, the teaching and learning method (play) is called the
‘independent variable’, and behaviour that will change (i.e. the child’s results
in the test) is called the ‘dependent variable ’.
Experiments are often considered to be the most scientific method of
research because the researcher has more control over what happens to
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Research methods (continued)
the subjects, therefore there will be fewer confounding variabl es.
Experiments should be able to be ‘replicated’ (carried out in exactly the same
way) by others. When you study the outcome on cognitive development you
will look at experiments designed by Piaget and more recent researchers such
as McGarrigle and Hughes.
Disadvantages of the experimental method are that you are setting up false
situations, where the subject might not respond as they would do naturally,
perhaps because of the test situation. With children, sometimes they clam up
when asked questions in a test situation, or they try to please so much that
they will try to give the answer that they think the researcher would like!
As with all research, ethical issues are a very important consideration when
planning experiments. It would be unethical for researchers to place
children in difficult situations or to knowingly deprive them of any kind of
beneficial experiences. For example we could not apply negative criticism
to children just so that we could test how they reacted. However, evi dence
of this type may be gathered from the naturalistic observation method.
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Activity in pairs – Experiments
Discuss the following experiment. Try to identify:
• the independent variable
• the dependent variable
• any confounding variables there might be.
‘The researcher wants to find our whether a child can classify objects into
two categories, or more.’
His hypothesis is ‘children under four find difficulty in classifying
using more than two categories’.
The child is provided with a set of toy vehicles – red trucks and blue cars.
Some are big and some are small.
The experimenter says to the child, ‘put the red trucks on the table’. The
child manages this task.
The experimenter says to the child, ‘put the small cars on the table’. The
child does this easily.
The experimenter says to the child, ‘put the small, blue cars on the table’.
This time the child hesitates and sometimes places big blue cars as well as
small blue cars on the table.
What do the results of this experiment show?
What was the dependent variable?
What was the independent variable?
What confounding variables might there be?
Do you think this would be an ethical experiment?
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Naturalistic observation
Naturalistic observation refers to the method whereby researchers observe
subjects in their natural environment to find out how they behave and respond in
certain situations. This method is particularly useful with children because they
can be observed during their play, without being disturbed or put into unreal
situations. It can be carried out in the nursery setting, or at home. Studies have
been carried out in home situations, where a child’s behaviour has been a
problem. Specialists in children’s behaviour have been able to see how parent ing
has an effect on the behaviour of children, and can then offer advice for change.
Naturalistic observation can be interventionist (participant) or non interventionist (non-participant). Interventionist methods give the researcher
greater opportunity to see and hear really closely. If necessary they can
manipulate a situation in order to initiate certain aspects of behaviour that they
wish to observe, for example providing construction toys and playing alongside
so that the child is encouraged to join in and therefore demonstrate fine motor
skills. Non-interventionist methods are more useful when wishing to observe a
child’s social behaviour. You are more likely to get a true picture of a child’s
interaction with her peers if you, the adult, do n ot interfere.
When observing children you should set an objective – i.e. write down
exactly what it is that you are hoping to observe.
Naturalistic observation has to be done as precisely as possible, and makes
use of procedures such as:
•
•
•
time sampling
frequency sampling
duration sampling.
These help to observe the child across periods of time, and give pictures of
how often behaviour occurs and for how long.
The observation findings have to be recorded carefully, using checklists,
charts and grids. Often observers keep diaries of children’s behaviour to
give a more representative picture over time, rather than making judgements
from one-off situations.
When observing children it is important to be objective and not subjective.
This means recording exactly what you see and hear, without assuming the
intentions behind the behaviour.
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Small group activity – Observation
Work in small groups. Each group should choose a different objective from
the list below:
•
•
•
•
•
To
To
To
To
To
observe
observe
observe
observe
observe
the children’s use of fingers and hands (fine motor skills).
the children’s use of spoken language.
how the children interact with other each other.
what types of activities the children choose to participate in.
how children make decisions and solve problems.
Watch a section of the video provided by your lecturer, and focus on the
objective your group has set. Make notes of relevant skills, abilities and
behaviour you observe in the children as they pla y in the nursery.
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Test yourself questions – Set B
Here are some more questions to test yourself on the material covered in the
second part of Outcome 1. Sample answers follow on page 46.
1.
Describe one advantage of the ‘case study’ meth od of research.
2.
Describe a disadvantage of the ‘survey’ method.
3.
Describe a disadvantage of the ‘experimental’ method.
4.
Describe one advantage of the ‘observational’ method.
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Answers to test yourself questions
Please note that there is more than one answer to many of these questions.
Your answer may be different from the one given here, yet still be correct.
Check by looking back at the appropriate pages in the pack.
Set A
1.
One school of thought was that children were born with original sin.
The other viewpoint was that children were born innocent.
2.
Understanding how children learn.
Finding out what affects children’s growth and development.
Understanding why children behave in certain ways .
3.
The nature/nurture debate is a debate about which has the greater
influence on growth, behaviour and development – genetic inheritance
or the effects of the environment.
4.
Behaviour genetics is the study of how our genetic blueprint
contributes to the individual’s behaviour.
5.
How the individual affects his own environment by the ways in which
he interprets and responds to the environment.
The importance of the timing of when events occur in our lives.
Ecological perspectives – the different layers of our social
environment and how they affect us.
6.
Nature and nurture are inseparable. They both have influences on our
development, and they influence each other.
7.
Continuous development refers to sequences in development being
followed, with smooth changes.
A ‘stages’ theory of development implies that human beings develop
through various ‘stages’.
8.
Maturation refers to sequences of growth or body changes, which are
universal to all the species.
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Answers to test yourself questions (continued)
9.
In some cultures more respect is shown to older people than in other
cultures.
People in some cultures value successful relationships above material
gain.
Communication varies in each culture. The language is unique to a
culture and gestures and signs are different.
10.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Social learning theory
Psychoanalytic theory
Learning theory
Cognitive theory
Set B
1.
The case study allows the researcher to study rare or sensitive
occurrences.
2.
Children themselves may not give reliable answers to questions asked
in a survey due to their limited understanding and use of language.
3.
A disadvantage of the experimental method is that you are setting up
false situations, where the subject might not respond as they wou ld do
naturally, perhaps because of the test situation.
4.
This method is particularly useful with children because they can be
observed during their play, without being disturbed or put into unreal
situations. It can be carried out in the nursery sett ing, or at home.
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Outcome 2
Describe the physical growth, development and behaviour of children 0 –7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe features and principles of growth, physical development and
behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences on a child’s growth, physical development
and behaviour.
Introduction
In Outcome 2 we are considering physical growth, development and behaviour.
We look at, and clarify the meaning of, the terms ‘growth’ and
‘development’, and we explore the reasons for studying children’s physical
growth, development and behaviour.
We consider physical features of the newborn child, and her abilities, including:
•
•
•
•
•
Size and weight
Sleep
Eating
Crying
Reflexes.
Other features and principles of physical development covered in this outcome
are ‘motor development’ and ‘sequences and patterns’ of physical growth,
development and behaviour.
Finally, we consider some of the main influences on the child’s physical
growth, development and behaviour:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Antenatal care
Birth circumstances
Genetics
Environment
Diet
Exercise
Hormones
Health/illness
Culture.
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Outcome 2
A
Class ‘brainstorm’ – Growth, physical development and
behaviour of children
There is often confusion about the term ‘growth’ and the term ‘physical
development’. The two are closely linked, but can be clarified by these
simple definitions from Child Care and Education by Tassoni, Beith and
Eldridge.
Growth
‘Growth is the process by which cells divide to increase the size of the body.’
Development
‘Development is the process by which children master the control of their
body.’
Taking ideas from all the class members, try to come up with a list of
reasons for studying the growth, physical development and behaviour of
children.
You may wish to consider how studying this area of development would
assist adults caring for children.
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Outcome 2
Reasons for studying growth, physical development and
behaviour of children
Understanding the stage of physical ability
We need to know how children grow and develop physically because it is so
closely linked with what they will be able to do. A common failing of
students starting out in the field of child care and education is that they
provide activities for children that are too difficult or too easy for the child’s
abilities.
To provide quality care and education requires a good understanding of
children’s physical skills and abilities. For example, providing a ball and a
bat for a 3-year-old might be fun, but we cannot expect all 3-year-olds to be
able to hit the ball with the bat. (Of course there are exceptions – Tiger
Woods was playing fairly good golf at the age of 4 years!) At 8 years old
most children will be fairly capable of playing rounders, and some will be
very skilled at hitting the ball.
Understanding general patterns and sequences
We therefore need to have an understanding of general patterns and
sequences of growth and physical development, and still be able to spot
individual special abilities, or difficulties a child may have.
Understanding how physical development can influence cognitive
development
Studying children’s growth and physical development also helps us to
understand how this aspect of development can influence cognitive
development. As a child grows and becomes more physically competent, her
world becomes more accessible. She is now able to sit up or move, resulting
in more hands-on experiences, and opportunities to explore.
Understanding how physical development can influence emotiona l and
social development
Physical growth and development can also affect emotional and social
development. Research has shown that adults have different expectations of
children, depending on their size and physical appearance. Perhaps you can
remember a child who was expected to behave more maturely just because he
happened to be tall.
Some children who find physical activities difficulties lack self esteem, and
need to be shown that they have other skills and qualities equally as valuable.
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Outcome 2
A
Group research – The newborn baby
We are looking at growth, physical development and behaviour in this
outcome. At this stage it is interesting to consider exactly what physical
characteristics and abilities we have at birth. Babies are certainly born with
more abilities than we previously thought.
We will start by gathering some basic information about newborn babies
from mothers that you know.
Work in small groups to compile some questions around the topics below.
You will then put those questions to some new mothers or mothers who can
remember their newborn baby details. Perhaps a mother would agree to visit
your class.
Size and weight of babies at birth.
Features and patterns of sleep.
Feeding patterns.
Patterns of crying and what soothes the baby.
You might like to follow this up with some video and textbook research, to
see how your findings compare with averages.
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I
Newborn babies
Here are some facts that you may have found out in your research about
newborn babies.
Size and weight
The average baby weighs approximately 7½ pounds. and is about 20 inches
long. Boys are slightly larger and heavier. A baby’s head represents half
the length of the body.
Sleep
Newborn babies sleep for as much as 14–18 hours in a 24-hour period. They
have some long naps, and some short naps. The type of sleep behaviour
varies.
Crying
Crying is one of the earliest means of communicating. Newborn babies
usually cry because they are hungry or upset (maybe feeling insecu re and
shocked at this new environment). Their crying can also be because of a
pain (e.g. wind).
Rocking, swaddling, putting to the shoulder and singing softly can soothe
newborn babies. Newborn babies can also soothe themselves if they find a
thumb to suck.
Feeding
Newborn babies will suck at the breast or bottle as soon as they come into
contact with it. Some babies find this easier than others at first, but they all
have a sucking reflex which we will look at later. It used to be thought that
babies need fed at regular intervals, whereas today we feed babies ‘on
demand’. Initially a baby may feed as often as ten times a day, but this
reduces as the baby manages to take more milk at each feed. There is
evidence that breast-feeding is nutritionally more beneficial to the child than
bottle feeding and where it is possible it is advised that mothers breast -feed
their babies. Psychologists are also studying whether breast -feeding has
long-lasting benefits to the emotional and intellectual development of babies.
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Outcome 2
A
Research – The newborn baby’s reflexes
The newborn baby is born with certain reflexes (involuntary responses to
external stimuli). Doctors test whether these reflexes are present as they can
show whether the baby has normal development or not. Some of the reflexes
stay with us for life, while others disappear in the course of development.
Work in small groups to study video material about the newborn baby, and to
research textbooks. Draw up a chart explaining and describing the reflexes
using the following headings:
Name of reflex
Testing method
Response
Blink
Light flash
Closing of both
eyes
Developmental
course
Permanent
Palmar or
automatic hand
grasp
Moro reflex
Stepping
Rooting response
Sucking response
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I
The newborn baby
Sensory and perceptual abilities
The newborn baby also possesses many sensory and perceptual abilities,
i.e. seeing, hearing, tasting and smelling. Although these are part of the
baby’s physical development, these abilities will be looked at in Outcome 4
when we study cognitive development.
As we have already discovered, the areas of development are not isolated,
they are interrelated.
Motor skills of the newborn
The newborn baby may possess quite complex reflexes and, as we shall see
later, has sophisticated sensory and perceptual skills, but in terms of motor
skills (moving her body) the newborn is less capable.
The newborn cannot sit up, she cannot yet lift her head and she cannot
control her movements. However, all these things develop soon after birth,
as we will see later in this outcome.
Conclusion – the newborn baby
The newborn baby is already in possession of certain abilities and reflexes
which will help her to survive – crying will tell us she is hungry, rooting will
help her find the nipple, sucking will help her get nourishment.
Now we will go on to see how growth, physical development and behaviour
progress from 0–7 years.
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Outcome 2
I
Growth
There are two principles in relation to children’s growth:
1.
The cephalocaudal principle – growth begins from the head
downwards.
2.
The proximal (distal) principle – growth occurs from the centre
outward.
This means that growth of the child’s brain and neck comes before growth o f
legs and trunk (cephalocaudal).
The internal organs grow sooner than the arms and hands (proximal or distal).
Growth proceeds at different rates in different stages of development. It is
faster in the first six months than it will ever be again. If we continued to
grow at the same rate throughout life as in the first six months we would be
approximately 100 feet tall at the age of 10 years!
Doctors and health visitors measure and weigh babies and children at certain
stages in their development, to check that growth rate is in the normal range.
The growth changes we see in children, i.e. size and shape, are due to
changes in bones, muscles and fat.
Growth also includes changes in the size of internal organs, heart and lungs,
and growth in complexity of the nervous system and hormones.
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A
Individual activity – Growth
Find out some basic information about the changes in bones, muscles and fat
in the first seven years.
Bones:
Muscles:
Fat:
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Outcome 2
A
Activity in pairs – Motor development
Working in pairs, find out the definitions of the following terms and add
them to your glossary.
•
Motor development:
•
Fine motor skills:
•
Gross motor skills:
List examples of fine motor skills:
List examples of gross motor skills:
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Outcome 2
A
Group research – Motor development
Remembering that the sequence of development of motor skills is the same in
all normally developing children, but children vary in their rate of motor
skill development, draw up a chart showing the sequence of development of
motor skills in children aged 0–7 years. You can use video material and
textbooks to carry out your research.
You may wish to illustrate your chart.
Age
1–3
months
Gross motor skills
Fine motor skills
4–6
months
7–9
months
10–12
months
13–18
months
2–4 years
4–7 years
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Outcome 2
A
Test yourself questions – Set A
The following questions will help test your knowledge and understanding of
the work covered in Outcome 2 so far. You will find some sample answers
at the end of the outcome.
1.
Define ‘growth’.
2.
Define ‘development’.
3.
Identify two reasons for studying growth, physical development and
behaviour in children aged 0–7 years.
4.
How much sleep might a newborn baby need?
5.
Which method of feeding is advised for mothers, if it is at all
possible?
6.
List six reflexes present in the newborn baby.
7.
Describe two principles in relation to children’s growth.
8.
What is meant by the term ‘fine motor skills’?
9.
What is meant by the term ‘gross motor skills’?
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Outcome 2
A
Group research – Antenatal tests
Antenatal care
Antenatal care is the care of the mother and unborn child during pregnancy.
Its purpose is to ensure and maintain the health of the mother and the baby
and to prepare the mother for having the baby. In some books you will find
this is referred to as prenatal care.
Various screening tests are done when the mother attends for antenatal
appointments. The purpose of the tests is to check on the baby’s growth and
development and also to detect any conditions that could affect the health of
the mother or the baby.
Find out from relevant resource materials why specific tests are carried out
during antenatal care.
Complete the chart below:
Test
Blood tests
Reason for test
Blood pressure
Urine test
Listening to foetal heart rate
Weight of mother
Palpation
You will be asked to share your information with the whole class.
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Outcome 2
I
Summary – Antenatal tests
The reasons for antenatal tests are as follows:
•
The mother’s blood pressure is checked because if it becomes abnormal,
this could lead to poor growth of the foetus.
•
The mother’s urine is checked for proteins and sugar. If there are
proteins in the urine this could cause premature labour. Sugar in the
urine could indicate diabetes.
•
The mother is checked for steady weight gain. If the mother is losing
weight this could mean that the baby is not getting enough nutr ients.
•
Palpation means feeling the mother’s abdomen to check that the baby is
in the right position and is growing properly.
•
The doctor checks that the baby’s heartbeat is strong and regular, which
means a healthy baby.
•
The mother’s blood is checked in order to detect anaemia, which would
make the mother tired. Blood tests also show up rubella, which in the
first twelve weeks of pregnancy can cause developmental abnormalities.
Hepatitis B is also checked for in the mother’s blood test.
More complicated tests can be carried out, including:
•
Amniocentesis – which is done during pregnancy at 16 weeks and tests
for Down’s syndrome and spina bifida and other genetic abnormalities.
•
Chorionic villus sampling – which can also detect Down’s syndrome, but
is done at 11 weeks.
For many of the above, if warning signs are indicated, then the mother can be
advised to rest, and alter her diet, which can improve things like anaemia and
weight loss, and tiredness.
Where genetic abnormalities occur then the mother is given explanations and
information from which she may choose whether to go ahead with the
pregnancy or not.
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Outcome 2
A
Research in pairs – Birth circumstances
There are checks carried out as soon as the baby is born. Birth
circumstances can have a lasting effect on the child’s growth and
development.
Find out about the following birth circumstances, and how they might affect
the growth and development of the child.
Anoxia
Low birth weight
Respiratory distress syndrome
Find out about the Apgar Score. What is this? What is tested? What do
the scores mean? Perhaps you could draw a chart for this.
You will be asked to share your information with the whole class.
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Outcome 2
I
Genetic influences on growth, physical development and
behaviour
As we discovered in Outcome 1, part of how we grow and develop is
influenced by the genetic information that we inherit from our parents. This
is a complex subject, but we can look at some of the basics here.
Sex chromosomes
The normal human being has 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs.
A normal female has two X chromosomes on the 23rd pair (XX).
The normal male has one X and one Y chromosome on the 23rd pair (XY).
The sex of the child depends on the sex chromosome it get s from its father.
Half the father’s sperm will carry an X chromosome and half will carry a Y.
If the sperm that fertilises the egg carries an X, then the child inherits XX
and will be a girl.
If the sperm carries a Y, then the child will inherit XY and will be a boy.
Our sex therefore is one aspect of our physical development that is
genetically inherited.
Genetically inherited physical characteristics
Other aspects of our physical development that are genetically inherited are
eye colour, hair colour, and height.
Genetic errors
Genetic errors can occur and lead to abnormalities in development.
For example:
• Down’s syndrome – the child has an extra chromosome.
• Turner’s syndrome – the child has a missing chromosome (results in short
height in girls).
• Fragile X syndrome – where one of the chromosomes is abnormal and
results in abnormal cognitive development and certain physical
characteristics.
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Outcome 2
A
Group research/presentation – Genetically inherited conditions
Some medical conditions are passed on genetically. In your group carry out
some research into one of the conditions below and present your information
to the rest of the class, either in the form a handout, or in a 2 –5 minute oral
presentation.
Provide information on how the condition is passed on, whom it can affect,
how it affects them and what help is available.
Phenylketonuria
Sickle cell anaemia
Cystic fibrosis
Muscular dystrophy
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Influences on growth
Hormonal influences on growth
Hormones are secretions of the endocrine glands.
Growth hormone from the pituitary gland stimulates growth prenatally.
Testosterone is also produced prenatally and influences the development of
the male genitals.
The thyroid hormone and the pituitary growth hormone both influence growth
between birth and adolescence.
Environmental influences on growth, physical development and
behaviour
The influences of the environment on a child’s growth, physical development
and behaviour are present before the child is born. For example if the
mother smokes, drinks alcohol, or takes drugs these things can have an
influence. Also if the mother’s diet is poor, or if she is under too much
stress, the baby’s growth and development can be affected.
Fortunately, most babies are not subjected to these disadvantages and grow
and develop normally.
When the child is born, more environmental influences are taking effect, for
example the quality of care the child receives, and the safety precautions that
are taken.
Whether or not the child lives in poverty has an influence on her growth,
physical development and behaviour.
If the child is subject to abuse or neglect, this will influence her growth,
physical development and behaviour.
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Outcome 2
A
Group activity – Environmental influences
Find out about the following environmental influences, and remember to
concentrate your answers on how they can affect the growth, physical
development and behaviour of the child.
During pregnancy
Mother smoking:
Mother drinking alcohol:
Mother taking drugs:
Mother’s diet:
Mother’s stress levels:
After birth
Quality of care:
Safety:
Poverty:
Abuse/neglect:
You will be asked to share your information with the whole class.
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Outcome 2
A
Individul activity – Diet
‘We are what we eat’ is a phrase you may have heard before. There is no
doubt that what a child eats will influence growth, physical development and
behaviour, and may have a long-lasting effect.
The following nutrients are necessary for healthy growth and development.
Find out what they are, and how they influence growth and development.
Fats:
Carbohydrates:
Proteins:
Mineral elements:
Vitamins:
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A
Activity in pairs – Games and equipment for developing
physical skills
In Outcome 1 we saw that the process of maturation means that we develop
skills and abilities throughout life. We reach a stage of maturity where we
are able to do certain things. We also learnt that without practising these
skills, or having appropriate experiences, then development might be slowed
down. There is no real evidence yet that basic skills acquired by all
normally developing children, like sitting, walking, etc., can be greatly
influenced by extra practice.
However, some of the more specific skills like throwing, catching, jumping,
etc., can benefit from exercise and practice.
Certain games and equipment can help children develop some of these
physical skills.
Observe children playing in a nursery setting, and/or in the playgroun d.
Complete the chart below, adding more skills if you think of them.
Skill
Games and types of equipment
Throwing and catching
Holding, gripping
Co-ordinating hand and eye movements
Kicking
Skipping
Jumping
Running
Batting
Balancing
Steering
Pedalling
Turning and twisting small pieces
Picking things up
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Outcome 2
A
Group research – The influence of culture on growth, physical
development and behaviour
Maturation and practice may influence growth, physical development and
behaviour, but we should remember that cultural influences are also apparent.
Using textbooks and journals, investigate some of the cross -cultural studies
that highlight cultural influences on children’s growth, physical development
and behaviour.
Examples to look out for include:
• Variations in walking due to child-rearing practices such as methods of
carrying infants.
• Cultural patterns of breast-feeding.
• Sleep patterns.
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Outcome 2
A
Group discussion – How health and illness influence growth,
physical development and behaviour
‘… children growing up in poverty have significantly more health
problems than do those living in more affluent circumstances.’
Helen Bee, The Developing Child
Identify some of the health problems of children.
Discuss why the above quotation might be correct in its message.
Discuss how a healthy lifestyle will positively influence a child’s growth,
physical development and behaviour.
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Outcome 2
A
Test yourself questions – Set B
Here are some more questions to test yourself on the material covered in the
second part of Outcome 2. Sample answers follow on the next pages.
1.
What is meant by ‘antenatal care’?
2.
What is the Apgar score?
3.
What genetic pattern means that the baby will be a boy?
4.
Name two hormones that influence growth.
5.
List two environmental influences on the baby during pregnancy.
6.
List two environmental influences on the baby after birth.
7.
List five nutrients essential for healthy growth and development.
8.
Give two examples of how a child can practise ‘physical skills’.
9.
Give an example of how culture can influence a child’s physical
development.
10.
Give one example of a health problem that might influence a child’s
physical development.
11.
Give one example of how a healthy lifestyle will influence a child’s
growth, physical development and behaviour.
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I
Answers to test yourself questions
Please note that there is more than one answer to many of these questions.
Your answer may be different from the one given here, yet still be correct.
Check by looking back at the appropriate pages in the pack.
Set A
1.
‘Growth is the process by which cells divide to increase the size of the
body.’
2.
‘Development is the process by which children master the control of
their body.’
3.
To provide appropriate activities for children.
To understand how growth and physical development influence other
areas of development.
4.
Perhaps 14–18 hours in 24-hour period.
5.
Breast-feeding
6.
Blink, palmar grasp, Moro reflex, stepping, rooting, sucking
7.
The cephalocaudal principle – growth begins from the head
downwards.
The proximal (distal) principle – growth occurs from the centre
outward.
8.
Using movements of the fingers and hands
9.
Using large muscles, e.g. walking, running
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I
Answers to test yourself questions (continued)
Set B
1.
Antenatal care is the care of the mother and unborn child during
pregnancy. Its purpose is to ensure and maintain the health of the
mother and the baby and to prepare the mother for having the baby.
2.
The Apgar score is a score given when doctors or midwives test the
state of a baby’s health at birth. If the score is too low then the baby
will be kept under close observation or intensive care.
3.
XY
4.
Thyroid and pituitary
5.
Any two of: mother drinking alcohol, mother smoking, mother taking
drugs, mother’s diet and stress levels.
6.
Any two of: quality of care, safety, poverty, abuse/neglect.
7.
Fats, carbohydrates, proteins, mineral elements and vitamins.
8.
Providing crayons and paper can help a child practise holding and
gripping.
Giving rides on toys and bikes can help a child practise steering.
9.
In some cultures mothers carry their babies, holding them closely all
day and night, which allows the baby to feed at any time. These
babies will have a different sleep pattern from other cultures where
babies are ‘trained’ to go for longer periods without feeding during
the night.
10.
Malnutrition – the child will not grow properly.
11.
Exercise – the child will develop good motor skills.
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Outcome 3
Describe the emotional, personal and social development and behaviour of
children.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe relevant theories in relation to emotional, personal and
social development and behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences on the child’s emotional, personal
and social development and behaviour.
Introduction
In this outcome we will be focusing on the emotional, personal and social
development of the child. After a brief introduction to this area of development, we
will begin to study relevant theories. It may be worthwhile quickly reviewing the
material in Outcome 1, because you will be encountering many of the fundamental
concepts here. You will also recognise from Outcome 1 some of the types of theories
and methods of research, as you progress through the work for Outcome 3.
We will consider the theories of:
• Bowlby
• Erikson
• Freud
• Skinner
• Rogers
• Bandura
• Schaffer
• Ainsworth
• Rutter.
Some of the above will be studied in more depth that others, but in Outcome
6 you will have the opportunity to choose one particular theory from the unit
to study in more depth.
These theories will help us consider the main influences on a child’s
emotional, personal and social development:
• Parenting
• Peer group
• Position in family
• Life events
• Social influences
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•
•
•
•
•
•
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Bonding
Siblings
School
Gender
Conditional/unconditional positive regard
Culture.
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Outcome 3
A
Discussion in pairs – Emotional, personal and social
development
The study of emotional, personal and social development involves looking at
how children develop an awareness of themselves, how they feel about
themselves and others, and how they interact in society.
Psychologists have tried to find out what makes each child unique, and what
kinds of things affect the child’s emotions and personality development.
They have also looked at why some people have a positive self -image, while
others feel less happy about themselves. Some children seem confident and
willing to try new things, while others are insecure and afraid to make
mistakes.
Children interact in different ways. Some children make friends easily while
others are shy or aggressive. Some are very masculine in their behaviour
while others seem more feminine.
These kinds of issues are all part of the study of emotional, personal and
social development and behaviour.
In pairs, discuss memories of your childhood.
Try to think about what has been important in shaping your life so far.
Who has been important?
How have events and people affected your emotional, personal and social
development and behaviour?
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Outcome 3
Research on attachment theory
John Bowlby (1907–90) is well known for his theory of attachment that is
based on the premise that the mother–baby attachment is unique and different
from any other relationship the child may have. Bowlby believed that the
child required a secure emotional attachment (or bond) with his mother, or
mother substitute, to ensure healthy mental development.
Mary Ainsworth, a colleague of Bowlby, defined attachment as ‘an
affectionate tie or bond that an individual forms between himself and another
specific individual’.
Watch a video on attachment theory or one wh ich portrays mother and child
bonding. Making the bonds – are mothers really necessary? is a relevant
one. Use relevant texts to find out more about attachment theory.
Note down all the things that mothers and babies do which might help to
create a close bond.
Discuss why human beings may have developed this pattern of bonding.
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Outcome 3
I
Studies in attachment
Some psychologists say that the ‘attachment’ or bond established between
carer and baby is a survival mechanism. The human infant is helpless and
therefore needs to ensure that he receives the care and attention of the adult.
The smiles, gurgles and chubby cute appearance of the baby are attractive to
the adult, who in turn smiles, cuddles the baby, and talks in a soothing gentle
manner.
The attachment or bond becomes so strong that it ensures that the infant, even
when beginning to be mobile, stays close to the carer.
At around seven months the baby is really very anxious if the main carer goes
out of sight.
Bowlby thought that our need to form attachments was a biological one, and
uses genetically inherited skills. He thought that mothers had this biological
need too.
Some people have objected to Bowlby’s theory because it strongly puts
across the view that the mother’s place i s in the home.
Bowlby developed his theory on the basis of his own research and that of
other contemporary researchers.
John Bowlby’s study of 44 juvenile thieves
Bowlby carried out case histories of 44 of his patients who were emotionally
disturbed and also thieves. Their case studies showed that quite a few of
them had had periods of separation from their mothers between the ages of 0 –
5 years. From this he concluded that separating infants from their mothers in
the first five years of life might lead to them becoming delinquents later in
life.
Bowlby also drew on the research of the following:
•
•
•
•
Spitz and Wolf (1940s) – Observation of infants whose mothers were in
prison.
Goldfarb (1943) – Study of orphans.
Hinde and Harlow (1940s) – Study of rhesus monkeys.
James and Joyce Robertson (1940s/50s) – Studies of children in
residential nurseries.
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Outcome 3
A
Group research – Studies in attachment
Working in a small group, choose one of the research studies from the list on
the previous page:
•
•
•
•
Spitz and Wolf (1940s) – Observation of infants whose mothers were in
prison.
Goldfarb (1943) – Study of orphans.
Hinde and Harlow (1940s) – Study of rhesus monkeys.
James and Joyce Robertson (1940s/50s) – Studies of children in
residential nurseries.
Outline how the study was carried out and what conclusions were drawn.
Share your information with the whole group.
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Outcome 3
I
Criticisms of research studies of attachment
Bowlby’s study of 44 juvenile thieves has been criticised for being
unrealistic in terms of the sample – i.e. the group of people studied. He
studied only children who were delinquents. He did not study all children
who had been separated; therefore his sample might be said to be biased.
In Spitz and Wolf’s study, where babies were separated from their mothers
in prison, the study failed to explain the quality of care substituted for the
mother’s care. The quality of care might have had a bearing on the effect of
separation from their mothers.
Goldfarb’s study of orphans showed that the sooner babies were adopted
there were more improvements in many areas of development, including
intelligence. The study is criticised however because there may have been
other variables, e.g. how intelligent the children were in the fir st place.
Another variable may have been the lack of social and mental stimulation in
the orphanage, rather than the actual separation from the mother.
The studies of Hinde and Harlow have been criticised because of the danger
of applying animal research findings to humans. Also, the monkeys were
isolated, not just separated from their mothers. Isolation may have been the
important factor in the monkeys’ emotional disturbance. People also
criticised these studies for the cruelty involved.
The little boy John in the Robertsons’ study may have been upset by the lack
of attention in the nursery. This may have been more important than the
separation from his mother.
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Outcome 3
I
Challenges to Bowlby’s views on attachment
There are some famous studies that have come up with different conclusions
to the studies that Bowlby relied on:
The Bulldogs Bank Study (1940s)
Koluchova’s study of severe deprivation of twin boys (1972)
The Robertsons’ study of their foster child – Thomas
Michael Rutter’s correlational study of the possible causes of antisocial
behaviour.
Schaffer and Emerson’s theological study of Glasgow children (1964)
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Outcome 3
A
Debate and research – Criticisms of attachment studies
1.
Criticisms of attachment studies
Carry out further investigation into the criticisms of one of the
following studies:
•
•
•
•
Spitz and Wolf (1940s) – Observation of infants whose mothers
were in prison.
Goldfarb (1943) – Study of orphans.
Hinde and Harlow (1940s) – Study of rhesus monkeys.
James and Joyce Robertson (1940s/50s) – Studies of children in
residential nurseries.
In the light of these criticisms debate whether or not the study
produces clear evidence that separation from the main carer causes
emotional problems in human beings.
2.
The influence of attachment studies
Despite the criticisms of some of these studies, Bowlby’s work did
seem to have an influence on society at the time. There are some
examples in Davenport’s An Introduction to Child Development.
List examples from your reading, and from your own observations, of
how Bowlby’s work may have influenced childcare practice.
3.
Challenges to Bowlby’s views on attachment
In small groups, choose one of the studies from the following list:
• The Bulldogs Bank Study (1940s)
• Koluchova’s study of severe deprivation of twin boys (1972)
• The Robertsons’ study of their foster child – Thomas
• Michael Rutter’s correlational study of the possible causes of
antisocial behaviour
• Schaffer and Emerson’s theological study of Glasgow chil dren
(1964).
Outline the study and the conclusions drawn from it.
Explain how the study represents a challenge to Bowlby’s views.
Share your findings with the whole group.
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Outcome 3
A
Summarising studies in attachment theory
Complete the table to summarise the studies in attachment theory.
Complete the table in note form to start with – you will probably have to
draw up a larger table to include all your information.
Title of
study/ who
carried out
the research
Juvenile
thieves –
Bowlby
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Conclusion
drawn from
study
Explain how
it supports
Bowlby’s
view
Explain how
it challenges
Bowlby’s
view
Any
criticisms of
the study
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Outcome 3
I
Freud’s theory of personality development
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was interested in how the human being’s
personality developed. Freud was a psychoanalyst (see Outcome 1) and he
studied the unconscious mind. It is helpful to view Freud’s idea of the mind
in terms of an iceberg, with the tip of the iceberg bei ng the conscious part,
and the largest part being the unconscious:
Conscious
Unconscious
Freud thought that the unconscious mind was often the cause of our problems,
fears and anxieties, and influenced the way our personality was shaped.
We are going to look at the following features of Freud’s study:
The parts (or structure) of the mind –
Id
Ego
Superego
Freud’s psychosexual stages of development –
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
We shall also investigate some of the methods used b y Freud in his research.
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Outcome 3
I
Freud’s theory of personality
Freud used the case study method in his research. He studied his patients
who came to see him because of mental health problems.
During his work with his patients Freud adopted some of the following
techniques to help him study the unconscious minds of his patients.
Hypnosis: In Freud’s early work he used hypnosis but later he turned to
other methods which he found more successful.
Free association: the patient was encouraged to speak openly about
everything. Freud found that patients blocked off certain topics, however,
and resisted talking about them. Patients’ phobias were analysed by Freud
in this way. The case of Little Hans, which you can read about in most
psychology books, demonstrates how Freud concluded that Little Hans’ fear
of horses actually pointed at his fear of his father.
Dream analysis: Freud felt that our dreams could tell a lot about our
unconscious thoughts, feelings and desires. Things we wished for
(unconsciously) were uncovered in our dreams, although exact
representations of what we wished for were not obvious in our dreams – it
was more symbolic. For example a dream where we are unable to escape
from a monster might mean that we are feeling trap ped in another situation in
real life.
Freudian slips: Freud also noticed in his sessions with his patients that they
often made errors (slips of the tongue) and said something they didn’t
consciously mean to say, but which may unconsciously be what they really
felt.
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A
Pairs/group activity – Freud’s approaches
1.
Free Association
Work with a partner. Each of you write down a list of words.
Say the words one at a time to your partner who should respond with
another word that she relates to each word. For example: warm –
home (the person associates the word ‘warm’ with ‘home’). Try to
avoid just saying opposites as this is not really associating with the
word meanings. Let your partner read her words to you in the same
way.
2.
Dream Analysis
Work in small groups and discuss dreams you have had and try
suggesting what underlying meanings they might have had.
Think about recurring dreams.
Think about dreams that seem to be common to everyone in the group.
(There is obviously no correct answer to this – but it will highlight
how strange dreams are and make you think about whether or not
Freud was possibly right in his ideas of the importance of dreams.)
There are many books written about dream analysis, some of which
are interesting but not necessarily accurate – not everyone agrees with
Freud. Some people belong to ‘dream groups’ where they meet every
so often to discuss dreams they have had.
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Outcome 3
A
Groups of three – Research the id, ego and superego
Freud claimed that our mind consisted of three parts: the id, the ego and the
superego.
In the adult human being these parts of the mind battle with each other to
control our behaviour.
1.
One person in the group should investigate what is meant by the id,
one should investigate the ego, and the third person should investigate
the superego.
2.
The three people in the group should then try to explain to each other
how the three parts interrelate.
3.
Compare your answers with other groups.
4.
In your group, discuss and provide an example of a real-life situation
where your id, ego and superego may have been battling.
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Outcome 3
A
Group research – Freud’s psychosexual stages of development
Freud thought that children’s personalities developed through a serie s of
stages. He said that during each stage the child received pleasure from
different parts of the body. If the child encountered problems during these
stages and did not resolve them, then he would become ‘fixated’ in that stage.
This would lead to problems in later life.
Freud’s psychosexual stages are:
• the oral stage – 0–1 year
• the anal stage – 1–3 years
• the phallic stage – 4–6 years
• the latency period – 6 to adolescence
• the genital stage – adolescence to maturity.
In small groups, investigate each of these stages and share your information
with the whole group.
The oral stage
The anal stage
The phallic stage (including a description of the Oedipus/Electra complex)
The latency period
The genital stage
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Outcome 3
A
Individual activity – Play therapy
Freud believed that human beings developed certain defence mechanisms that
helped them to reduce stress and anxiety. One of these defence mechanisms
is ‘repression’.
Freud claimed that where people encountered emotional dif ficulties, they
might try to bury them in their unconscious mind – i.e. ‘repress’ them.
Anxiety that is repressed during childhood can appear later as emotional
difficulties in the adult.
Psychotherapy is a form of therapy that helps people deal with re pressed
anxiety.
Play therapy uses the same techniques, and is used in cases where children
have suffered emotional trauma. Play therapy allows children to express
feelings through play. The adult provides toys and materials that have
proved helpful in this way, including dolls, puppets, sand and water.
Earlier in this unit you discovered that James and Joyce Robertson used play
therapy with their foster child Thomas. Virginia Axline helped a little boy
‘Dibs’ through severe emotional problems by u sing play therapy, and
describes this in her book Dibs, in search of self.
1.
Find out more about how play therapy helped Thomas and Dibs.
2.
Observe children in the nursery setting. Make notes on how they
explore and express feelings through play in at least one of the
following play situations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Home corner
Puppets
Doll’s house
Sand
Water
Dressing dolls
Energetic play.
Discuss your findings and observations with the class.
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Outcome 3
A
Activity in pairs – Freud’s theory
1.
Implications of Freud’s theory
Work in pairs to discuss and reflect on the following stages of Freud’s
theory:
•
•
•
Oral
Anal
Phallic.
Using background reading material to help inform your discussion,
consider how the behaviour of adults in child care settings, or parents,
might be influential in the personality development of the child
(according to Freud).
What are your views in relation to Freud’s psychosexual stages of
development?
2.
Criticisms of Freud’s theory
Freud’s theory has been very influential in the field of psychoanalysis
and certain types of therapies for people/children with emotional
problems.
His theory has also been widely criticised.
Using textbooks and reference materials, investigate the criticisms of
Freud’s theory and list positive and negative comments.
Discuss this in your pairs – which comments do you agree with?
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Outcome 3
I
Erikson’s lifespan theory
Erik Erikson (1902–94) was a psychoanalyst like Freud but his theory of
development differed from Freud’s in some ways.
Where Freud says development passes through psychosexual stages,
Erikson’s stages were linked to social and cognitive development and are
referred to as psychosocial stages.
Another difference was that Erikson saw development continuin g throughout
life into adulthood and old age, whereas Freud’s stages end at adolescence.
Erikson thought that throughout life people found a series of dilemmas that
had to be resolved before progressing successfully onto the next stage.
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Outcome 3
A
Research – Erikson’s stages of development
Using textbooks, complete the following chart showing the stages of
development according to Erikson.
Age
0–1
Dilemma
Stage
Effect on personality
2–3
4–5
6–12
13–18
19–25
26–40
41+
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Outcome 3
A
Pairs – Reflection on Erikson’s stages
1.
Consider your own stage. How do you feel that Erikson’s ideas relate
to your personality development?
2.
Think about some older people you know. How would they ‘fit’ into
Erikson’s theory?
3.
Try to provide examples of dilemmas that children might have in the
first four stages of Erikson’s lifespan theory.
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Research – Rogers’ theory of personality
So far we have studied Freud and Erikson who both tak e a psychoanalytic
approach to personality development. Carl Rogers (1902 –87) was an
American psychotherapist. He did not see personality developing through
stages but saw it as an on-going process which arose from the human being’s
need for self-fulfilment, or ‘self-actualisation’ (1951).
Rogers centres his theory on the idea of the ‘self’. He claimed that we have
our own ‘ideal’ self, i.e. the person we would like to be. We also have a
clear idea of our real self – our self-concept. If the ideal self and the real
self are too far apart, then problems may arise with our personality.
To reach our potential Rogers claimed that we also have a need for ‘positive
regard’.
1.
2.
In a small group investigate the following:
(a)
Positive regard
(b)
Conditions of worth
(c)
Conditional positive regard
(d)
Unconditional positive regard.
Provide examples of how the above concept can be related to children
and parents or children and workers in a child care setting.
Discuss your answers with the rest of the group.
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Outcome 3
A
Research – Skinner’s theory
B F Skinner (1905–90) was of the behaviourist school of psychology. He
believed that study of psychology and development should focus purely on
overt behaviour, which is very different fro m the ideas of Freud, Erikson and
Rogers. He was concerned with how the environment controlled behaviour.
His theory also comes under the heading of ‘learning theory’.
Skinner showed that through a process of ‘behaviour shaping’ we could
change a child’s behaviour. This is the result of reinforcing certain aspects
of behaviour with rewards.
In attempts to change a child’s behaviour, for example if the child was
displaying extensive negative behaviour, Skinner said we should employ the
technique of continuous reinforcement at first, then to make the new
behaviour last we should change to a programme of intermittent
reinforcement.
1.
In a small group investigate what Skinner meant by continuous and
intermittent reinforcement.
Use video material and textbooks to find out more about continuous
reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement.
Give an example of how one aspect of a child’s behaviour could be
changed by these methods.
2.
Skinner explored the uses of other methods of changing behaviour
apart from ‘positive reinforcement’ – i.e. giving rewards for wanted
behaviour.
In your group find out what Skinner said about:
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(a)
Punishment
(b)
Negative reinforcement
(c)
Extinction.
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A
Research – Skinner’s theory (continued)
3.
Relate Skinner’s idea of ‘extinction’ and ‘positive reinforcement’ to
the following scenario:
Shirley is 4 years old. She has only been attending her nursery
school for 4 weeks. Her family has recently moved house and she
has a new baby brother. She seems to be trying to draw attention
to herself in the nursery by misbehaving and swearing. Mrs Key,
one of the nursery nurses, has noticed that Shirley likes doing
jigsaws.
Share your ideas with the rest of the class.
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Outcome 3
A
Group investigation – Bandura’s social learning theory
Alfred Bandura (born 1925, in Canada) is one of the social learning theorists.
He argued that people learn by observing the behaviour of others.
Bandura studied how people learn to behave in society in socially ac ceptable
ways. He believed that adults reward aggressive behaviour in children. For
example, games like rough and tumble are played with adults and children.
However, when children hit children younger than themselves, in socially
unacceptable ways, they are punished.
He carried out a famous study using a ‘bobo doll’, which emphasised how
children imitate aggression in adults.
1.
In a small group investigate Bandura’s research. Outline the study
with the ‘bobo doll’ and explain the conclusions dra wn.
2.
Explain possible implications of these conclusions for adults working
with children or with parents and their children.
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Outcome 3
A
Investigation – Policies on children’s behaviour
In small groups investigate the behaviour policy of a school or a childcare
setting. Review the policy in terms of the ideas of the following theorists:
•
•
•
•
Skinner
Rogers
Bandura
Freud.
Are there any aspects of the policy that seem to be based on these theories?
Things to consider are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Suggested methods of promoting positive behaviour
Rewards and sanctions
The ethos of the school
Developing children’s self esteem
Role modelling of adults and older children
Golden time – time for play.
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Outcome 3
A
Test yourself questions – Set A
The following questions will help test your knowledge and understanding of
the work covered in Outcome 3 so far. You will find some sample answers
at the end of the outcome.
Answer the following questions on the theories relating to personal, social
and emotional development and behaviour.
1.
Define ‘attachment’.
2.
List three of the studies that reinforce Bowlby’s theory of attachment.
3.
List two examples of the impact of Bowlby’s studies.
4.
List three studies that contradict Bowlby’s theory.
5.
What kind of psychologist was Sigmund Freud?
6.
What are the three parts of the mind according to Freud?
7.
List Freud’s stages of personality development.
8.
Describe what is meant by play therapy.
9.
State one of the main differences between Erkison’ s theory and
Freud’s theory.
10.
What did Carl Rogers mean by the term ‘unconditional positive
regard’?
11.
What kind of a psychologist was B F Skinner?
12.
Explain what is meant by ‘positive reinforcement’.
13.
What did Bandura conclude from his studi es of the ‘bobo doll’
experiment?
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Outcome 3
A
Discussion – The influence of parenting on emotional, personal
and social development and behaviour
Earlier in this unit you thought about things and people that have been
significant in your own emotional, personal and social development.
Parents will have featured in some of your thoughts.
Research has shown that the style of parenting can have an influence on a
child’s development.
There are three main styles of parenting:
•
Authoritarian – where parents ‘put their foot down’, say how things
should be done, and give no reasons for the rules they set down, apart
from perhaps ‘because I said so’.
•
Permissive – where parents allow their children to do as they please, and
allow them to learn from their mistakes.
•
Authoritative – where parents enforce rules, but take the time to explain
them. The children have more of a chance of understanding the reasons
behind rules and why they should be obeyed.
Discuss which of the above parenting styles are pr eferable, and give your
reasons.
It is important to realise that ‘perfect’ parenting is unrealistic to expect. The
term ‘good enough’ parenting is now sometimes referred to. Find out what
is meant by this term.
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Outcome 3
A
Influences of peer group and position in family on emotional,
personal and social development and behaviour
Peer group
The term peer group refers to the group of people round about the same age
and same status as an individual. By the time a child is 3 –5 years old, the
peer group is becoming important, and it becomes more influential as the
child grows older. The child can feel that she has to conform to the ideas
and kind of behaviour common to the majority, and most children do not like
to be very different from the crowd. Sometimes being different can lead to
bullying. There have been experiments to show that children even in nursery
school are influenced in terms of the kind of things they play with, e.g.
playing with dolls, and may be put off playing with these things if they are
teased by other children. This is said to have an effect on their ‘gender role
acquisition’.
Position in family
Studies have shown that a child’s position in the family can affect his
emotional, personal and social development. The first born may be given
more responsibility; the youngest child may be babied more. The middle
child may feel left out, being neither the oldest, nor the baby.
In pairs, investigate the following studies and describe how the study was
carried out and what conclusions were drawn:
(a)
Michael Lamb’s study of gender in nursery school
(b)
Frank Sulloway’s Born to Rebel (1996)
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Discussion – The influence of ‘life events’ on emotional,
personal and social development and behaviour
Throughout our lives there are many significant events that happen and
subsequently influence how we develop emotionally, personally and socially.
Looking back at Outcome 1, you will remember how Bronfenbrenner outlines
an ecological perspective on development, and d escribes certain aspects of
our microsystem, mesosystem and macrosytem that will influence us.
Here are some of the life events that will happen to some of us:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Moving house
Parents’ divorce
A new baby
Bereavement
Changing school
Starting school
New parents
Change in parents’ work situation.
1.
Taking each of the above life events in turn, discuss how they would
perhaps influence a child’s emotional, personal and social
development. You may think of positives as well as negatives for
some of them.
2.
Discuss how adults in child care settings, or parents, could reduce the
negative effects of some of these events.
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Group research – Social influences on emotional, personal and
social development and behaviour
In Outcome 1 we looked at different approaches to developmental
psychology, one of which was the social learning approach.
Quite a few influential researchers have recently provided us with evidence
of the many social influences on our emotional, personal and soci al
development and behaviour.
Some of the ways in which we are influenced are in relation to our behaviour,
i.e. whether we are aggressive or non -aggressive. How we develop our
gender role identity is said to be influenced by the people around us and ot her
social aspects, such as the media.
There are definite cultural differences in how we are influenced in these
aspects of our behaviour.
Summarise the following studies, describing how the study was carried out
and what conclusions were drawn:
(a)
Bandura’s study of children’s imitation of adults – with the ‘bobo
doll’ (you may have already looked at this study)
(b)
Goldberg and Lewis – study of gender role acquisition in nursery
school (you may have already looked at this study)
(c)
Beverly Fagot’s study of parents and their encouragement of gender
role behaviour
(d)
Margaret Mead’s studies of sex and temperament.
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Small group activity – The influence of the media on gender
role acquisition
How does the media influence our gender role acquisition?
1.
In your group consider this children’s nursery rhyme.
How might it influence what children think about boys and girls?
What are little girls made of?
Sugar and spice and all things nice
That’s what girls are made of.
What are little boys made of?
Slugs and snails and puppy dogs’ tails
That’s what boys are made of.
2.
In
•
•
•
your group identify:
a TV programme
an advertisement (from TV or a magazine)
a children’s story or poem.
Present them to the whole class, explaining what influence they might
have in terms of gender role acquisition.
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Research in pairs – The influence of ‘bonding’ on our
emotional, personal and social development
One study by Klaus and Kennel, which you can read about in Davenpor t’s
Introduction to Child Development, tried to establish the importance of early
bonding on our emotional, personal and social development.
From this and any other studies you find in your reference materials, try to
discover how important early bonding is – you may like to refer back to John
Bowlby and some of the work you have already covered in attachment theory.
Because you have studied this when looking at Bowlby’s theory, you may not
need to spend too much time on ‘bonding’ at this stage, but you might like to
return to it in Outcome 6.
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Outcome 3
Investigation – Other influences on emotional, personal and
social development and behaviour
Siblings
Siblings (your brothers and sisters) can have an influence on how you
develop. Using textbooks, and from observations of videos, investigate how
siblings can influence each other.
Sibling rivalry
Find out what is meant by this term. Discuss any personal examples of this
within your group.
School
How does school influence our emotional, personal and social development?
Find out what John Sheer discovered about the social benefits of early
schooling from Davenport.
Conditional and unconditional positive regard
You studied this when you were looking at the work of Carl Rogers. How
does conditional and unconditional positive regard influence the emotional,
personal and social development of children?
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Group investigation – Cultural influences on emotional,
personal and social development and behaviour
There are cultural differences in many of the issues we have looked at that
influence our emotional, personal and social development and behaviour. It
is important that we acknowledge these cultural differences so that we are
always alert to how our adult expectations of children’ s behaviour may be
unrealistic in terms of all children’s backgrounds. We can see cultural
differences in other parts of the world as well as cultural differences within
one community, where there are people of different backgrounds.
In groups, choose one of the influences below and investigate any cultural
differences.
•
Attachment (refer to Helen Bee’s The Developing Child)
•
Infant temperament (refer to Helen Bee’s The Developing Child)
•
Gender (refer to Davenport’s An Introduction to Child Development)
•
Maternal responsiveness (refer to Helen Bee’s The Developing Child)
•
Sex role stereotypes (refer to Helen Bee’s The Developing Child)
You will be asked to share your findings with the whole group.
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Test yourself questions – Set B
Here are some more questions to test yourself on the material covered in the
second part of Outcome 3. Sample answers follow on the next pages.
1.
Describe three different parenting styles.
2.
What is meant be the term ‘peer group’?
3.
Give three examples of life events that might influence our emotional,
personal and social development.
4.
What did Beverly Fagot conclude from her study of parents and their
encouragement of gender role behaviour?
5.
How might the media influence our gender emotional, personal and
social development?
6.
What is meant by ‘sibling rivalry’?
7.
Why is it important to acknowledge that there may be cultural
differences in the way things influence our emotional, personal and
social development?
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Answers to test yourself questions
Please note that there is more than one answer to many of these questions.
Your answer may be different from the one given here, yet still be correct.
Check by looking back at the appropriate pages in the pack.
Set A
1.
‘An affectionate tie or bond that an individual forms between himself
and another specific individual.’
2.
Spitz and Wolf (1940s) – Observation of infants whose mothers were
in prison
Goldfarb (1943) – Study of orphans
Hinde and Harlow (1940s) – Study of rhesus monkeys
3.
Young children are allowed to stay with mothers in maternity ward for
longer
Greater family allowance benefits
4.
The Bulldogs Bank Study (1940s)
Koluchova’s study of severe deprivation of twin boys (1972)
The Robertsons’ study of their foster child – Thomas
5.
A psychoanalyst
6.
The id, the ego and the superego
7.
Oral, anal, phallic, latency period, genital
8.
A form of therapy that helps children come to terms with emotional
trauma through play.
9.
Freud’s stages are psychosexual. Erikson’s are psychosocial.
10.
Showing someone that you love and care about him or her, always.
11.
A behaviourist
12.
Providing a reward for desired behaviour, so that it is repeated.
13.
He concluded that children copy the behaviour of adults.
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Answers to test yourself questions (continued)
Set B
1.
Authoritarian, permissive and authoritative.
2.
The group of people who are similar in age and status to you.
3.
Changing school, a new baby, divorce.
4.
She concluded that parents deliberately shaped the behaviour of their
children in relation to their gender.
5.
For example, we might see more pictures of girls playing with dolls
than boys, and therefore feel that it is not right for boys to play with
dolls
6.
The relationships between children in the same family which
sometimes lead to jealousy and fighting. This is often overcome as
children become older.
7.
We should acknowledge that there are cultural differences so that we
do not expect all children to respond in exactly the same way, and
also so that we can provide for all children’s needs.
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Outcome 4
Describe the cognitive development and behaviour of children 0 –7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe relevant theories in relation t o the cognitive development
and behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences on a child’s cognitive development
and behaviour.
Introduction
Outcome 4 focuses on the cognitive development and behaviour of children
aged 0–7 years.
The main cognitive theories that will be considered are those of:
•
•
•
Piaget
Bruner
Vygotsky.
We will also be touching on the work of other researchers such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fischer
Donaldson
McGarrigle
Hughes
Bower
Athey.
We will study the influences on cognitive development and behaviour, in
particular:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Pre-school
School
Genetics
Stimulation
Parents and the home
Experiences
Medical conditions
Culture.
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Cognitive development and behaviour
What is cognitive development?
‘Cognitive development is about the way our thought processes develop.
It is about the ways in which we organise our thinking and come to an
understanding of our environment.’
Tassoni, Beith and Eldridge, Child Care and Education
Perceptual and sensory skills
Perceptual and sensory skills are part of our cognitive development, and are
also linked with physical development.
In Outcome 2 we discovered that babies begin life possessing certain
reflexes, for example the sucking reflex that helps them get the nourishment
they require. We also saw that in terms of motor skills they have limited
abilities.
We begin our exploration of cognitive development by looking at babies and
just what they are capable of – it is surprising to see just how sophisticat ed
babies are in terms of sensory and perceptual skills.
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Group presentation – The development of sensory and
perceptual skills in babies
After viewing video material and investigating textbooks and other sources,
investigate one of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The development of sight from 0–1 year
The development of hearing from 0–1 year
Smelling and tasting from 0–1 year
Sense of touch and motion from 0–1 year
Depth perception
Responding to faces
Listening
Perception of social signals
Object permanence.
You may like to present your findings orally, or by preparing a handout for
the rest of the group.
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Group observations – Babies’ sensory and perceptual abilities
Plan and, if possible, carry out observations of babies so that you can observe
first hand how they use their perceptual and sensory skills.
For example, one group might like to make images of patterns, with some of
the patterns like faces.
Show these to a baby of 2 months and see if the baby shows more int erest in
the face-like patterns.
Even if you cannot carry out the observations just now it will be useful to
plan ways of doing them in the future.
Note: Always ask the parents’ permission before carrying out observations of
their babies!
Always check out your plans with your teacher first!
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Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget (1896–1980) has been very influential in our understanding of
children’s cognitive development. As you study his work, you will find that
some new research has shown that Piaget was wrong in some of the
conclusions drawn from his research, and his methods have been criticised,
but in general he gives us the basis for all our studies into children’s
cognitive development.
Reflexes
You may recall that babies are born with several reflexes, which are
involuntary responses to the environment.
Schemata
Piaget claimed that after these reflexes come schemata or schemas that are
patterns of behaviour, or thoughts that are based on our experie nces.
For example, the baby flaps out her hand and accidentally reaches toys.
Eventually, because of this kind of accidental exploration, the baby is able to
control movements in order to reach the toy. The movement (or operation) is
based on the mental schema that has developed for this action.
‘A schema is the cognitive structure which we use to guide and direct our
behaviour.’
Hayes and Orrell, Psychology – An Introduction
Schemata (more than one schema) are developed and adapted to deal with
new and more complicated things.
Piaget said that schemata are adapted through a process of assimilation
and accommodation.
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Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
Piaget claimed that cognitive development unfolds through four main stages:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The
The
The
The
sensory motor stage
pre-operational stage
concrete operations stage
formal operations stage
0 to 18 months/2 years
2 to 6 or 7 years
7 to 11 years
11 years to 18+
We will look at these stages in turn, but spend more time on the first three
stages, as these are more relevant to this unit.
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Activities in pairs – Piaget’s theory
1.
Examples of assimilation and accommodation
In pairs, investigate the terms assimilation and accommodation.
Provide a practical example of how you might have adapted schemata
through a process of assimilation and accommodation.
2.
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
In pairs or small groups, find out more about Piaget’s four stages.
Each pair/group should choose one of the first three stages to
investigate in more detail. Each group should also read over the
information relating to stage 4.
There is a lot of information to cover here but video material, and
your teacher’s explanations, will reinforce it. Remember that y ou
may wish to come back to this topic in Outcome 6.
Group 1 – Investigate the sensory motor stage
Include information about object permanence and new research by
Tom Bower.
Group 2 – Investigate the pre-operational stage
Include information about:
• Symbolisation
• Egocentrism (the Three Mountains experiment and newer research
by Hughes)
• Animism
• Moral realism.
Group 3 – Investigate the concrete operations stage
Include information about conservation and describe also research by
McGarrigle and Donaldson – the Naughty Teddy.
3.
Play experiences based on Piaget’s view of play
(a)
Investigate Piaget’s view of play – relating it to the stages of
cognitive development.
(b)
Plan a play experience for children at each of the first three stages ,
explaining why it is relevant to their cognitive development at that
stage.
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Research and observations – Piaget
1.
Criticisms of Piaget’s theory
In groups investigate:
1.
Why was Piaget’s method ‘the clinical interview’ criticised?
2.
Why were some of Piaget’s tasks too complicated?
3
Why was Piaget’s ‘sample’ criticised?
2.
Video
Observe a video that explains and demonstrates Piaget’s theory, and
some of the experiments you have studied.
3.
Plan experiments/observations to investigate cognitive
development
Plan experiments or observations that will help you try out some of
Piaget’s work.
Try the following:
•
Symbolism (an observation of the home corner?)
•
Conservation (playing with water; pouring drinks at snack time?)
•
Object permanence (observe a baby, hide a toy – does she look for
it?)
•
Egocentrism (playing with the farm set, or doll’s house – can the
little girl doll see what her mummy doll can see?)
These are only suggestions – you may come up with some of your
own.
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Chris Athey’s schemata
As we learned from Piaget’s work, children develop schemata that are
patterns of thoughts and behaviour based on experiences. (Review the pages
on Piaget.)
Chris Athey (1990) carried out some research into ch ildren’s schemata and
discovered that children like to repeat certain patterns of behaviour in their
everyday experiences.
She identified a number of these ‘patterns of behaviour’:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dynamic vertical
Dynamic back and forth/side to side
Dynamic circular
Going over and under
Going round a boundary
Enveloping and containing space
Going through a boundary.
For example if a child is focusing on the dynamic vertical schema, you may
see in her play that she likes to climb up the slide; running round quickly to
climb up again! She may climb on the climbing frame. She may paint and
draw up and down lines. Given a doll’s house or a garage she may place the
characters on the stairs and walk them up and down.
You can read more about schemata in Threads of Thinking, by Cathy
Nutbrown.
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Activity in pairs – Planning around a schema
Give an example of what you might see a child do when focusing on a
particular schema. Then list two or three more experiences that could be
provided for that child to give her more opportunities to develop that schema.
Dynamic vertical:
Dynamic back and forth/side to side:
Dynamic circular:
Going over and under:
Going round a boundary:
Enveloping and containing space:
Going through a boundary:
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Group investigation – Bruner’s theory of cognitive
development
Jerome Bruner (born 1915) is another famous psychologist who put forward a
view of cognitive development (A Study of Thinking, 1956; Acts of Meaning,
1990). Like Piaget he believed that children learned through play and
exploration. He differed in some respects however.
Bruner’s views on the following were in contrast to Piaget’s:
• He did not view cognitive development in stages.
• He saw more importance in the role of language.
• He saw the role of the adult as more important.
In your group investigate the following terms relating to Bruner’s theory.
The role of the adult (scaffolding)
The role of language
Bruner’s sequence of cognitive development:
Enactive
Iconic
Symbolic
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Activity in pairs – Applying Bruner’s theory of cognitive
development
Read the scenario below, then referring to Bruner’s theory give:
•
suggestions of one or two activities that might be appropriate for this
child
•
suggestions for the role of the adult in scaffolding the child’s learning.
John is 6 years old. According to Bruner, his thinking is in the iconic
mode. He is having difficulty with adding.
What strategies might help him?
Activities:
Role of the adult:
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Research – Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development
Lev Semenovitch Vygotsky (1896–1934) was a Russian psychologist who
influenced Bruner’s theory. Like Piaget and Bruner he saw cognitive
development as an active process.
The main difference between Vygotsky and Piaget was the emphasis that
Vygotsky placed on the child’s social world.
The role of the adult was important in Vygotsky’s theory.
Research – Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development
1.
Explain what is meant by the zone of proximal development.
2.
Provide a practical example of how the zone of proximal development
is relevant in a child’s learning – e.g. in reading, number or practical
skills.
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Fischer’s skill theory
In 1980 Kurt Fischer put forward a theory referred to as ‘skill theory’. He
sees skills developing in phases rather than stages, depending on the amount
of practice and experience one has in that area of development.
For example, artistically a child may have rapid d evelopment if he gains a lot
of practice and is stimulated by examples of art from people around.
Another child may make little or no progress because of lack of new
experience, or opportunity to practise.
Fischer’s three levels of skill performance co rrespond to Piaget’s main
stages.
Fischer’s skill level
Sensory motor action
Representation
Abstraction
Piaget’s stages
Sensory motor
Pre-operational
Concrete operations
Formal operations
Perhaps it is useful to think of Fischer’s levels in relatio n to art. At the first
level a person is experimenting and scribbling; at the second there is the
ability to represent real things, and then at the highest level the artist can be
more abstract.
An interesting point that Fischer makes is that we do not o ften perform at our
best possible level. Perhaps this is because we do too many things. Our
performance in a variety of skills becomes good, but only if we isolate certain
skills and practise them to a great extent do we perform at our best level –
e.g. Olympic gymnasts; musician of the year.
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Test yourself questions – Set A
The following questions will help test your knowledge and understanding of
the work covered in Outcome 4 so far. You will find some sample answers
at the end of the outcome.
1.
Define cognitive development.
2.
List three sensory skills.
3.
List three perceptual skills
4.
What did Piaget mean by a ‘schema’?
5.
What is meant be assimilation?
6.
What is meant by accommodation?
7.
List Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development.
8.
List the three modes of thought in Bruner’s sequence of cognitive
development.
9.
What is meant by Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development?
10.
What are Fischer’s three levels of skill?
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Group brainstorm and discussion – Influences of pre-school on
cognitive development
1.
In your group call out and write down all the opportunities a child
may get in a pre-school setting which might enhance cognitive
development.
2.
Discuss possible reasons for the following research findings:
•
Some research has shown that children’s cognitive skills are
slightly improved by high quality care. There is a bigger increase
in the cognitive skills of (economically) poorer children who
attend pre-school.
•
Other research (Bee, 2000) has shown that some children who
attend day care in the first year of their life have poorer language
skills than children who do not attend in the first year of their life.
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Activity in pairs – The influence of school on cognitive
development
Helen Bee in her book The Developing Child looks at some cross-cultural
studies of the effects of schooling on cognitive development and concludes:
‘Schooling exposes children to many specific skills and types of knowledge
and appears to stimulate the development of more flexible, generalised
strategies for remembering and solving problems.’
Work in pairs to provide some practical examples of the school curriculum
that provides us with the following opportunities:
•
•
•
•
specific skills
types of knowledge
the development of flexible generalised strategies for remembering
the development of flexible generalised strategies for solving problems.
Compare your answers with those of another pair of students.
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The influence of genetics on cognitive development and
behaviour
We discussed genetic influences in the other outcomes of this unit.
Some research has formed conclusions that there is some genetic influence on
intelligence. The evidence comes from some animal studies – looking at
selective breeding in animals – and studies of identical twins. The studies
are flawed in many ways however, and it is difficult to study the genetic side
of intelligence without being entangled with the influence of the
environment.
As we have seen, human beings are born with certain characteristics. Suffice
to say that at the moment it is difficult to say whether or not genetics is the
reason for some people having higher levels of intelligence. Some
researchers believe that genetics set the range of level of intelligence that an
individual can have and environmental influences determine where within
that range intelligence is.
Scientists will perhaps uncover more conclusive evidence as they progress
with their studies of brain activity and development and the isolation of
genes.
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Individual activity – Environmental influences on cognitive
development
There appears to be evidence that a more stimulating and enriched
environment can influence a child’s cognitive develop ment.
Look at:
• ‘Orphanage studies’
• ‘Operation Headstart’
• ‘Twin studies’
in Davenport’s An Introduction to Child Development.
Evaluate these studies and give your opinion of their validity.
Draw a diagram and explain Davenport’s ‘Rubber Band Hypo thesis’.
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Group work – Practical ideas
1.
In your group, complete the table below to give ideas for providing a
stimulating environment for children in a nursery setting and in a
home setting.
Stimulating environment in the
nursery
2.
Stimulating environment at home
Make a display of photographs showing examples of a stimulating
environment in nursery settings.
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Discussion in pairs – Medical conditions that might influence
cognitive development
Hospital
Give some examples of medical conditions that might result in a child being
in hospital, and therefore missing school.
What can be done in hospital to assist the child with cognitive development?
At home
Some children have conditions that mean they miss school often and have to
stay at home. Give some examples and suggest how they could be helped to
keep up with schoolwork.
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Group investigation – How special needs influence cognitive
development
In groups, research the following and explain how these special needs could
influence the cognitive development of the child.
Hearing difficulties:
Sight difficulties:
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder:
Intellectual disability:
Learning disability:
Giftedness:
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Group work – Cultural influences on cognitive development
Our example of the Rubber Band hypothesis shows that all children are born
with a certain cognitive potential and the experiences we have decide on how
much we are stretched.
Schools are taking great care to develop a curriculum that will give an equal
chance to children from all cultural backgrounds. This has not always been
the case.
Using videos, textbooks and the Internet:
(a)
Investigate the term ‘a multicultural curriculum’.
(b)
List at least ten ways in which you can ensure that the curriculum is
multicultural.
(c)
Explain why a multicultural education must permeate the whole
curriculum and be thought of as separate subject.
(d)
Explain why having children from varied cultural backgrounds in the
school is an advantage.
Discuss these ideas with your teacher and the rest of the class, in terms of
how this will help in the cognitive development of all children.
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Outcome 4
Individual assignment – Influences on cognitive development
From your studies of cognitive development and behaviour, what do you
think has the greatest influence on children’s cognitive development?
Write a one-page essay to argue your point and share this with other members
of your class.
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Test yourself questions – Set B
Here are some more questions to test yourself on the material covered in the
second part of Outcome 4. Sample answers follow on the next pages.
1.
Give two examples of opportunities in the pre-school that might
enhance a child’s cognitive development.
2.
Give two examples of specific skills children may experience and
develop in the primary school.
3.
Are there conclusive studies to show the extent of the hereditary
influence in cognitive development?
4.
Describe what is meant by Davenport’s Rubber Band hypothesis.
5.
Give one example of how you can create a stimulating environment in
a nursery setting.
6.
Give one example of how you can provide a stimulating environment
in the home.
7.
What can be done to ensure the continued cognitive development of a
child who has to have long stays in hospital?
8.
List three special needs which might influence a child’s cognitive
development.
9.
What is meant by a ‘multicultural’ curriculum?
10.
Give two examples of ways in which you can help to make the
curriculum multicultural.
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Answers to test yourself questions
Please note that there is more than one answer to many of these questions.
Your answer may be different from the one given here, yet still be correct.
Check by looking back at the appropriate pages in the pack.
Set A
1.
‘Cognitive development is about the way our thought processes
develop. It is about the ways in which we organise our thinking and
come to an understanding of our environment.’
2.
Hearing, seeing and smelling.
3.
Depth perception, distance perception and perception of social
signals.
4.
‘A schema is the cognitive structure which we use to guide and direct
our behaviour.’
5.
Taking new experiences into existing ones.
6.
Modifying existing schemas (or schemata) as a result of new
experiences.
7.
The
The
The
The
8.
Enactive, iconic and symbolic.
9.
The range of a task which is slightly too difficult for a child to do
alone, but should manage with adult help.
10.
Sensory motor action, representation and abstra ction.
sensory motor stage (0 to 18 months/2 years)
pre-operational stage (2 to 6 or 7 years)
concrete operations stage (7 to 11 years)
formal operations stage (11 years to 18+)
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Answers to test yourself questions (continued)
Set B
1.
Nursery rhymes, building with Lego.
2.
Reading and counting.
3.
No – more research is ongoing.
4.
Each child is born with cognitive abilities. The extent to which these
abilities grow and develop may depend on the kinds of experiences
she has throughout life.
5.
Wall displays.
6.
A variety of books.
7.
Visiting teachers can work with children in hospital.
8.
Hearing difficulty, sight difficulty, intellectual disa bility.
9.
A curriculum which reflects the backgrounds of all the children in the
class, and which teaches the children about their own and other
cultures.
10.
Provide materials and resources that are relevant to all cultures.
Know the backgrounds of the children and invite their parents to come
in to help in the classroom and share information about their culture.
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Outcome 5
Describe the linguistic development and behaviour of children 0 –7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe relevant theories in relation to the linguistic development
and behaviour of children.
(b)
Describe the main influences on the child’s linguistic development
and behaviour.
Introduction
In Outcome 5 we look at the linguistic development of children. We will
consider how children acquire language and how important language is in
relation to other aspects of growth, development and behaviour, and how they
are interrelated.
We will investigate the ideas and theories of the following people:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chomsky
Skinner
Vygotsky
Trevarthen
Brown
Whitehead
Tough.
When considering what influences language development we will look at:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Parental involvement
Experiences
Siblings
Physical development
Emotional development
Cognitive development
Education
Culture.
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Group activity – What is language?
One of the most fascinating aspects of child development is the complexity of
language skills that are acquired by children in the first few years of life.
In this outcome we look at how the human being is able to develop such skill
in the use of language.
Here is one definition of language:
‘Language is an organised system of symbols which humans use to
communicate. These symbols can be spoken, signed or written down.’
Davenport, An Introduction to Child Development
In her book The Developing Child, Helen Bee also reminds us that language
is ‘rule governed’ and ‘creative’.
Discuss the everyday uses of language, giving examples of how we use it and
where and for what purposes. Give consi deration to the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Symbols
Spoken language
Signed language
Written language
Rule governed
Creative.
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Group presentation – The main stages of linguistic
development
Before we look at the various theoretical explanations o f how we acquire
language, we will outline the apparent sequence of children’s language
development.
Work in small groups to investigate one of the following and prepare the
information in the form of an oral presentation to the rest of your class. You
may wish to include overhead projector slides giving examples of children’s
language, or perhaps even present examples in the form of audio or video
recordings.
Take notes from the presentations of each group.
1.
Pre-linguistic 0–12 months
Include:
• Early sounds
• Babbling
• Receptive language
• Gestures
• Interaction between mother/carer and baby.
2.
The first words 1–2 years
Include:
• Early words
• ‘Holophrases’
• Mistakes in pronunciation
• Mistakes in applying words.
3.
First sentences from around 2 years onwards
Include:
• Telegraphic speech
• Grammar
• Over-generalisation of ‘rules’.
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Notes from presentation – Pre-linguistic
Pre-linguistic 0–12 months
Early sounds:
Babbling:
Receptive language:
Gestures:
Interaction between mother/carer and baby:
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Notes from presentation – First words
The first words 1–2 years
Early words:
‘Holophrases’:
Mistakes in pronunciation:
Mistakes in applying words:
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Notes from presentation – First sentences
First sentences from around 2 years onwards
Telegraphic speech:
Grammar:
Over-generalisation of ‘rules’:
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Joan Tough – Uses of language
In her book Listening to Children Talking (available in libraries, but may be
out of print), Joan Tough highlighted the various ways in which children use
language.
The main uses she highlighted were:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Self maintaining (maintaining the rights and property of the self)
Directing – the child’s own activity and that of others
Reporting on present and past experiences
Logical reasoning
Predicting and anticipating possibilities
Projecting into the experiences of others
Building up an imaginative scene for play through tal k
A study of the way children use language could be the subject of a whole
unit, but here we can at least look at some examples which might fall into the
above categories. A close look at an individual child’s language will reveal
a variety of uses, and this will depend on his age and stage of all -round
development.
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Self maintaining – ‘I want my dinner.’
Directing – ‘You push your car into mine and they crash.’
Reporting – ‘That’s a nice teddy. I had a teddy like that.’
Logical reasoning – ‘Put the big one over there ’cos there’s more
room for it.’
Predicting – ‘When my granny comes back from work she’s going to
take me to MacDonalds.’
Projecting – ‘That little girl is sad ’cos she’s lost her mummy’.
Imagining – ‘Pretend you fall over and I have to bandage your leg.’
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Studying a child’s language – Making a language transcript
An example of a written transcript of a 4-year-old child’s language during a
story session is detailed below.
Note how each child’s utterance is numbered, and each adult’s utterance is
numbered.
This is so that when analysing the child’s language you can easily refer to
what was said.
The use of colour coding is also helpful to distinguish the child’s language
from the adult’s.
In some cases you will have more than one child’s language, which could
also require the use of colour coding.
Reading a book – Adult and Child (4 years)
A = Adult
C = Child
1.
A: ‘What’s this picture? Who is this?’
2.
C: ‘It’s mummy rabbit and baby bunny.’
3.
A: ‘Where do you think they are going?’
4.
C: ‘They’re going to hand out invitations to the party.’
5.
A: ‘Who do you think in this picture are going to the party?’
6.
C: ‘The chickens – they’re getting to go.’
7.
A: ‘What’s that they’re opening?’
8.
C: ‘The farmyard door. That’s where the chickens are – silly you.’
9.
A: ‘Who is in this picture?’
10.
C: ‘It’s the bunny rabbit with an envelope.’
11.
A: ‘What sort of animals do you see here?’
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Studying a child’s language – Making a language transcript
(continued)
12.
C:
‘Chickens. Ducks having a drink of water. A grey goose,
rabbits and mother hen.’
13.
A:
‘Yes. But who else? Who is this peeking out of the corner?’
14.
C:
‘The little pig.’
15.
A:
‘Yes it’s the little pig.’
16.
A:
‘The little bunny – it’s his party. He’s got an envelope for all
his friends. Look he’s coming through the gate.’
17.
C:
‘To say what it is for.’
18.
A:
‘To say that it is for his party. What is usually written on a
birthday invitation?’
19.
C:
‘To say what day to come.’
20.
A:
‘Yes. That’s right. What also does it tell you?’
21.
C:
‘Whose party it is and what time to go, and to say if it is going
to be in MacDonalds.’
Referring to statements in transcripts
The adult in this transcript asks a lot of questions, which makes a difference
to the child’s language. You will get a different style of language if you try
to record a conversation between two children.
You can see that it is easy to refer to a particular statement.
For example you might want to comment on statement 12.
Statement 12: This statement shows that the child has a good descriptive
vocabulary – she is reporting on the things in the picture and can use
adjectives such as grey and mother. She can also classify animals into
different types.
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Individual activity – Analysing a child’s language
Using a piece of recorded (either video or audio) child’s language, write out a
transcript of it, as shown previously.
You will probably find that writing this is quite time consuming, so you will
only need a small piece of language.
When you have transcribed this, go through the utterances made by the child
and try to write about it in terms of the sequences we have looked at, and in
terms of the use of language.
Remember that analysing a child’s language like this only gives a ‘snapshot’
picture, and may not always be a true reflection on the child’s abilities. You
would need to build up a fuller picture over time if you were attempting to
assess the child’s abilities.
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Investigation in pairs – Skinner’s theory of language
development
Just as we have seen with previous areas of development, so there are
different ways of viewing language development. The nature/nurture debate
is again prevalent in this aspect of development.
• Is language innate?
• Is it something we learn from our environment?
• Is it developed as a result of social interaction?
Firstly let us consider Skinner, who claimed that language is developed
through a process of reinforcement. You learnt about Skinner in Outcome 3.
Skinner said that parents reinforce the child’s utterances by rewards such as
smiles and pleased vocal responses, which encourage the chi ld to repeat that
language. The language the child uses that is ignored by parents is
extinguished.
Investigate Skinner’s theory of language development.
Try to use his theory to explain how a child acquires language.
Are there any disadvantages to this theory?
Back your comments up with examples, or other research you read about.
For example, could this theory explain how a child growing up in England
might not be able to say the ‘ch’ sound which is in many Scottish words such
as loch?
As far as grammar is concerned, it has been observed that parents respond
equally positively to incorrect grammar as correct grammar, yet the child still
eventually develops the correct version. Would this fit with Skinner’s
theory?
Do deaf children babble?
How is this reinforced?
Does the language development of a deaf child slow down because he does
not hear the reinforcement?
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Investigation in pairs – Chomsky’s theory of language
development
While Skinner’s theory supports the nurture side of the argument, Chomsky’s
theory highlights the innate aspect of language development, and therefore
supports the ‘nature’ side.
Chomsky explained that language acquisition must be innate because of its
sheer complexity – i.e. it would be incredibly difficult for an adult to learn a
new language so correctly and perfectly as a child does in the first five years.
He also believed in the nature side of the argument because children all seem
to follow the same sequence. If it were purely learned , then children would
learn in a different order depending on their experiences.
Chomsky said that human beings are born with a ‘Language Acquisition
Device’ which provides us with the potential to use and understand grammar
and vocabulary.
Investigate Chomsky’s theory and, as you did with Skinner’s theory, try to
provide arguments for and against this viewpoint.
If language were innate, would children make so many mistakes with
grammar?
Is this in fact why children make mistakes?
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Outcome 5
Vygotsky, Brown, Trevarthen and Whitehead and language
acquisition
Vygotsky
When we looked at Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development we saw that
he emphasised the social aspect of learning. He claimed that human beings
have a social need to communicate with others, and this is why language
develops – without it communication with others and social interaction would
be restricted.
He also believed that we need language to help us sort out our thoughts. Our
use of words helps us to understand and struct ure our thinking.
Roger Brown
Brown also focused on the uses of language when trying to explain language
acquisition. Brown studied the development of language using the
observational method in a longitudinal study. He transcribed children’s
conversations and analysed them (as we did in this unit). His findings have
stimulated further research into telegraphic speech, children’s use of
negatives and tenses, and the structure of early sentences.
Trevarthen
Trevarthen has highlighted the language that is apparent between mother and
baby in the ‘pre-speech’ stage. His video recordings show babies attempting
speech using lip and tongue movements. He also showed how mothers and
babies ‘talk’ to each other as if they are taking part in a conversation, taking
turns to communicate and the mother acts as if she really understands the
baby. Trevarthen also showed how all mothers, worldwide, use the same
tone of voice and talk in the same manner to their babies, even though the
actual words are in a different language. He has linked his ideas about
mother and baby speech to music and demonstrates that mothers talk in a
slow lilting voice – in musical terms andante.
Marion Whitehead
Marion Whitehead writes about language and literacy development and gives
a wealth of practical ideas for the role of the adult. She describes language
development in terms of a ‘push-pull’ theory. Emphasising the child’s needs
to communicate (push) and interaction with carers (pulling) – language will
not develop without both of these factors.
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Group activity – Theories of language acquisition
After reading further about the theories of language acquisition, each group
should take one theory and highlight the most important points. The theories
of language acquisition include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chomsky
Skinner
Vygotsky
Trevarthen
Brown
Whitehead
Tough.
The groups should then compare the theories, and try to show the similarities
and differences.
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Case study – Applying theory to practice
Read the following:
Luke is 4 years old and has good language abilities for his stage of
development. His parents spend a lot of time talking and listening to him,
and he also likes to chatter to his friends in the nursery. He is very
interested in cars and vehicles and spends a lot of time playing with his toy
garage. While he plays he directs his actions, speaking aloud about what is
happening in the game. He occasionally makes grammatical errors, for
example he says’ my car goed up the ra mp’. He likes to look at books on
his own and with an adult and one of his favourite books is A book of
rhymes. He likes to repeat the rhymes with the adult. Luke’s mother often
reminds him of how she used to sing his favourite nursery rhyme ‘Twinkle
Twinkle Little Star’ to get him to go to sleep when he was a baby, and how
he used to keep demanding more renditions by saying ‘mummy Twinkle’.
Answer the following questions basing your answers on the given theories.
1.
What explanation might Chomsky give for Luke’s grammatical errors?
2.
What evidence is there in the case study which supporters of Skinner’s
theory might use to explain why Luke’s language has developed well?
3.
What would Vygotsky say about Luke’s desire to use language?
4.
What might Trevarthen comment on from this scenario?
5.
What examples of Joan Tough language uses are there in this case
study?
6.
How would Roger Brown describe Luke’s baby speech – e.g. ‘mummy
Twinkle’?
7.
How would the evidence in this case study fit into Marion
Whitehead’s push-pull theory?
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Bilingualism
Bilingualism is the term used for children who use two languages.
The term is sometimes used for ‘multilingualism’.
Some children grow up speaking two languages because their parents spea k
to them using both languages. Others speak the language of the home until
they go to school, where they are exposed to another language – e.g. English
– which is therefore an ‘additional’ language.
Only a few years ago in this country some teachers co nsidered that it was a
disadvantage to have two languages. Children were encouraged not to use
their ‘home’ language in school and told to speak only in English.
Nowadays, as a result of research into this area, it is advised that children
should speak their home language in school while they are learning, as well
as gradually being taught English and being helped to use it fluently. This
way the child becomes truly bilingual, but is not disadvantaged in learning
new concepts, or being assessed, etc.
In small groups investigate the topic of ‘bilingualism’ and ‘bilingual
education’.
If possible ask a speaker from the ‘bilingual support team’ to visit your class
and explain the support that is available to young bilingual children.
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Test yourself questions – Set A
The following questions will help test your knowledge and understanding of
the work covered in Outcome 5 so far. You will find some sample answers
at the end of the outcome.
1.
Define ‘language’.
2.
What are the three main aspects of the sequence of children’s
language development?
3.
List six ways in which children use language.
4.
What is a language transcript?
5.
What process did Skinner say ensured language development?
6.
What do human beings possess, according to Chomsky, which assists
our language development?
7.
What main reason did Vygotsky give for the development of
language?
8.
What kind of a study did Brown carry out to study language?
9.
Give one example of what Trevarthen highlighted about langua ge
development.
10.
What is bilingualism?
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Group research – Influences on language development
There are many influences on language development, some of which we have
seen already when looking at the theories.
Each group should choose one of the influences below and research this
topic. The groups could combine their information into a class booklet.
•
Parental involvement
•
Experiences
•
Siblings
•
Poverty
•
Family size
•
Language environment
•
Physical development
•
Emotional development
•
Cognitive development
•
Education
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Case studies – Influences on language development
Explain and give examples of how the following factors might influence the
language development of the child in the case study below.
Parental involvement
Experiences
Siblings
Mary is 2 years old and lives at home with her parents, her brother John who
is 4 years old and her sister Janey who is 7 years old. Mary’s parents both
work full time, and from 8 am to 5 pm each weekday Mary is looked after
by a childminder. The childminder has no other children during the day,
but John and Janey arrive at the childminder’s at 3.30 pm and play with
Mary until their parents come to collect them at 5 pm.
Mary’s childminder Sally is studying language development as part of her
SVQ in Childcare and Education. This has given her a good understanding
of Mary’s language needs and strategies and experiences to promote
language development.
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Outcome 5
A
Case studies – Influences on language development (continued)
Explain and give examples of how the following factors might influence the
language development of the child in the case study below.
Poverty
Family size
Language environment
Emotional development
Paul lives at home with his parents and five brothers and sisters. His father
is unemployed and his mother has a part -time job in a shop three evenings a
week. Paul is nine years old and shares a bedroom with two of his younger
brothers. At school Paul is struggling with his language, both written and
oral. His teacher has given him some extra homework but he finds it
difficult to concentrate on this at home because of the lack of privacy. The
family does not have any spare money and in the home there is a lack of
books. Paul’s self esteem is quite low and he shows this by behaving
aggressively towards his brothers and sisters at home and ‘messing around’
at school rather than concentrating on his work. Paul’s dad feels depressed
about their financial situation and most nights just watches television, but
mum tries to do some reading with Paul on the two evenings she is at home.
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Outcome 5
A
Case studies – Influences on language development (continued)
Explain and give examples of how the following factors might influence the
language development of the child in the case study below.
Physical development
Cognitive development
Education
Sarah is a 6-year-old who has Down’s syndrome. She has just started school
and spends half of the time in the Primary One class and the other half in a
special language unit. Sarah’s cognitive abilities are delayed and she finds
understanding instructions quite difficult. When the class play ring games
Sarah finds it enjoyable but difficult because of her physical difficulties –
movement is slow and clumsy. The other children are very supportive and
help Sarah to catch up when going round the circle, and make sure she gets a
turn in the middle. The ring games help her learn new words, and say them
in a group. They also help to build up her confidence. Sarah would like to
take home a reading book like the other children in the class, but the
Primary One teacher has not yet given her one.
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Outcome 5
A
Test yourself questions – Set B
Here are some more questions to test yourself on the material covered in the
second part of Outcome 5. Sample answers follow on the next pages.
Explain how the following might influence language development:
1.
Parental involvement
2.
Experiences
3.
Siblings
4.
Poverty
5.
Family size
6.
Language environment
7.
Physical development
8.
Emotional development
9.
Cognitive development
10.
Education
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Outcome 5
I
Answers to test yourself questions
Please note that there is more than one answer to many of these questions.
Your answer may be different from the one given here, yet still be correct.
Check by looking back at the appropriate pages in the pack.
Set A
1.
‘Language is an organised system of symbols which humans use to
communicate. These symbols can be spoken, signed or written
down.’
2.
Pre-linguistic, first words and first sentences.
3.
Self-maintaining, directing, reporting, logical reasoning, predicting
and projecting.
4.
A language transcript is a written copy of a piece of spoken language.
5.
Reinforcement.
6.
A language acquisition device.
7.
Humans have a social need to communicate.
8.
Longitudinal.
9.
Turn-taking between mother and baby.
10.
Speaking more than one language.
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Outcome 5
I
Answers to test yourself questions (continued)
Set B
1.
Parents encouraging language in general conversation will therefore
be encouraging the child to use language.
2.
Storytelling is one experience which is crucial to language
development, because of the skills involved – i.e. listening,
concentrating, new vocabulary.
3.
Older child may speak for younger one – this may give the younger
child no incentive to talk.
4.
Lack of access to resources may mean the child does not experience
language in the same way.
5.
Lack of one-to-one attention from an adult, if in a large family, can
mean fewer language-rich opportunities.
6.
A rich language environment, books, stories, written word will help to
increase the child’s language experience.
7.
Children who have problems with physical development, for example
movement, may have difficulty joining in some of the physical
activities that promote language development – e.g. ring games.
8.
Emotional difficulties can sometimes lead to lack of concentration at
school, for example low self esteem may make the child do other
things rather than pay attention, to gain admiration of friends.
9.
Slow learners may find it difficult to follow instructions and therefore
taking part in language activities will be more difficu lt.
10.
Enthusiastic teaching and stimulating activities will motivate the child
to use language.
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I
Outcome 6
Evaluate the use of development theories in the study of development and
behaviour of children 0–7 years.
Performance criteria
(a)
Describe a theory of children’s development and behaviour.
(b)
Evaluate this theory in terms of research methods, criticisms and
other relevant research.
Introduction
In Outcome 6 you will be reflecting on the whole of the unit ‘Child
Development and Behaviour’.
The outcome gives you the opportunity to study your particular area of
interest in more depth.
Your in-depth study should enable you to evaluate the theory of your choice,
in terms of how it helps adults to understand children’s growth, development
and behaviour and provide for their needs.
Your evaluation of the theory will include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Description of theory
Research methods
Findings and conclusions
Replications
Criticisms
Other relevant research
Your own conclusions
References to background material.
You will present your evaluation in the form of an oral or written
presentation.
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Outcome 6
I
Possible theories you may wish to consider in more depth
Here are some of the main theories and studies you have learned ab out.
Along with these theories you have studied other research which you will
bring into your evaluation.
Cognitive – main theories
• Piaget
• Bruner
• Vygotsky
Linguistic – main theories
• Chomsky
• Skinner
• Vygotsky
• Trevarthen
• Tough
Emotional, personal, and social – main theories
• Bowlby
• Skinner
• Freud
• Rogers
• Erikson
• Bandura
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Outcome 6
I
Planning your work for this outcome
It may be helpful to plan your work along the following lines:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Decide on the topic.
Plan your timescale – i.e. how many sessions in college, how much of
your own time can you commit to this?
Gather materials for main theory/study: books, journals, CD -ROMs,
Internet, videos.
Outline some background material on the theorist or person who carried
out the study.
In note form write a description of the main theory/study – take down
page numbers and book titles, web sites, etc., as this will save much time
later.
Make specific notes about the research methods used in this theory/study.
Make specific notes about the conclusions drawn from the theory/study.
While writing about the main theory/study, keep careful notes of criticism
from other research, or replications of the main research, which have
drawn similar or different conclusions.
Note down the main points from this theory/study, its criticisms and
related research, noting how it would have implications on how we
understand children’s development and behaviour and provide for their
needs.
The following worksheets will help you structure your work.
You may wish to work in pairs or groups but you need to share the workload
fairly and be able to bring it all together logically.
Deciding on your topic
In deciding on your topic it may help to answer the following questions:
•
Which topic was I most interested in while studying this unit?
•
What would I like to know more about?
•
Why does this interest me?
•
Will I be able to find enough information about this topic?
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Outcome 6
A
Individual plan – Planning the timescale
Assume that you will have four weeks to cover Outcome 6. (Discuss this
with your tutor, as you may have more or less.)
Decide how many hours each week you can commit to this piece of work.
Then draw up your study plan, remembering to leave time for the final
written or oral presentation.
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
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Outcome 6
A
Gathering materials
Title of book,
Internet paper,
CD-ROM,
journal article
Example:
Listening to
Children Talking
Author
Date
Publisher
Note of content
Joan Tough
1976,
1985
Ward Lock
Background to
Piaget and
Vygotsky – and
information on
children’s uses of
language
This will help you add a bibliography at the end of your work (although you
will not need the content part in a bibliography).
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Outcome 6
A
Background information
Try to provide the following information where possible in relation to the
author/s of your main theory/study.
Remember to note down page numbers and book titles in case you want to
return for more information.
Full name:
Date of birth and death (if applicable):
Country of birth:
Country where the work was carried out:
Educational/professional background:
Photograph?
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Outcome 6
A
Description of theory/study
Remember to note down page numbers and book titles in case you want to
return for more information.
Why did the theorist carry out his/her work? What thoughts/concerns
influenced the research?
Who was/were the subjects in the research?
What research methods were used?
What evidence did the researcher find?
What conclusions did he/she draw from the findings?
What main points are emphasised in this theory/study? For example, what
knowledge does the theory/study impart about children’s development and
behaviour?
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Outcome 6
A
Follow-up studies – Replications
Remember to note down page numbers and book titles in case you want to
return for more information.
Have there been any further studies that followed up the work of your main
theorist/study?
Who carried out the work? Where? When? Why?
Did they replicate the study exactly, or did they change it in any way?
What did they find?
What conclusions did they draw?
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A
Criticisms
Who has criticised the work of your main theoris t/study?
What criticism did they make? For example, did they criticise:
• the research methods?
• the subjects?
• the type of questions?
On what basis did they form their criticisms? What was wrong with the
research methods, etc?
How do criticisms change the conclusions of the main theory/study?
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Outcome 6
A
Main implications of the theories/studies
How does the information you have uncovered from main theories/studies and
other relevant studies help us understand children’s developmen t and
behaviour?
How might the information you have uncovered from main theories/studies
and other relevant studies influence the adult’s role in providing for
children’s needs?
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Outcome 6
I
Presenting your information – Referencing
If you are presenting your information as a written piece you need to beware
of plagiarism. You must not copy directly from books without putting this
in quotation marks and providing a reference for it.
For example:
In Joan Tough’s book Listening to Children Talking she claims that language
has more functions than purely communication. She says ‘The first and most
important aspect is that the development of language may play an important
part in the child’s intellectual or cognitive development.’ (Tough 198 5) 1
(This will be your first reference that will go in a list at the back of your
work.)
If you had written this sentence without acknowledging that it came from
Joan Tough’s book you would have been taking credit for someone else’s
work – plagiarising.
It is often quite hard to put things into your own words. The best and surest
way is to read the section from the book, then close the book and write down
what it meant to you. If you really think that it needs to be said in the
original way, then put it in quotations and reference it.
Your tutors will encourage your use of referencing, but references should be
used sparingly and sensibly.
Your reference list should be presented at the back of your work like this:
References:
1.
Tough, J (1985), Listening to Children Talking, Ward Lock
(This gives author, date, title, publisher.)
You can either number the references as they occur in your work or put them
in alphabetical order. Discuss this with your tutor.
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Outcome 6
I
Presenting your work – Layout
Your written presentation should have the following:
•
A title page (title of your study; your name and class; date)
•
A contents page
•
An introduction
•
Main content
•
Conclusion
•
References/bibliography
•
Appendices
The difference between a bibliography and references is that a bibliography is
a list of the books that you used for your study, whereas the reference section
lists book that you have referred to specifically, and/or quoted from.
Appendices: these are extras that you may wish to include in your study –
for example a language transcript, or photographs, or a timetable, etc.
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Outcome 6
I
An oral presentation
If you are presenting your study orally to the rest of the class, then you will
still need a written version, but perhaps some of your material will be written
on handouts or overhead projector slides.
You will need to think about:
•
How to introduce your study
•
Which parts of your study are the most interesting to present in detail
•
Any diagrams or tables which could be used
•
How to draw your study to a satisfactory conclusion for your audience
•
Any questions you may be asked!
Conclusion
Hopefully you have enjoyed studying children’s growth, development and
behaviour. Carrying out your detailed study in Outcome 6 will have
provided you with skills that you may well go on to use in a more complex
study at a higher level.
You may be required some day to carry out your own piece of research.
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APP EN D IX
APPENDIX
Resource information
Atkinson, Richard C; Atkinson, Rita L and Hilgard, Ernest R, Introduction to
Psychology, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983
Athey, Chris, Extending Thought in Young Children, Paul Chapman, 1990
Axline, Virginia, Dibs, in seach of self, Penguin, 1981
Bee, Helen, The Developing Child (9th edn), Allyn and Bacon, 2000
Birch, Ann and Malim, Tony, Developmental Psychology – from infancy to
adulthood, Macmillan Education, 1988
Bruce, Tina and Meggitt, Carolyn, Child Care and Education, Hodder and
Stoughton, 1997
Cardwell, Mike; Clark, Liz and Meldrum, Claire, Psychology for A-Level
(2nd edn), HarperCollins, 2000
Crain, William, Theories of Development, Prentice Hall, 1980
Davenport, G C, An Introduction to Child Development, Collins Educational,
1994
Flanagan, Cara, Applying Psychology to Early Child Development, Hodder
and Stoughton, 1997
Gleitman, Henry, Psychology, Norton Publications, 1998
Hayes, Nicky and Orrell, Sue, Psychology – an Introduction, Longman, 1993
McIlveen, Rob and Gross, Richard, Developmental Psychology, Hodder
Stoughton, 1997
Nutbrown, Cathy, Threads of Thinking: Young Children Learning and the
Role of Early Education (2nd edn), Paul Chapman, 1999
Steinberg, Laurence and Meyer, Roberta, Childhood, McGraw-Hill, 1995
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APP EN D IX
Sulloway, Frank, Born to Rebel, Little, Brown, 1996
Tassoni, Penny, et al, Child Care and Education, Heinemann, 1998
Tough, Joan, Listening to Children Talking (2nd edn), Ward Locke, 1985
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APP EN D IX
Unit: Child Development and Behaviour (Higher)
Candidate record of progress
Candidate’s name:
Outcomes
Performance Criteria
1. Investigate a
theoretical approach
to the study of
growth,
development and
behaviour of
children from 0–7
years
2. Describe the
physical growth,
development and
behaviour of
children from 0–7
years
a.
3. Describe the
emotional, personal
and social
development and
behaviour of
children from 0–7
years
a.
b.
a.
b.
b.
Teacher’s
signature and
date
Investigate fundamental
concepts in theories of
development and behaviour in
children 0–7 years
Describe methods of studying
growth, development and
behaviour in children 0–7 years
Describe features and
principles of physical
development and behaviour of
children
Describe the main influences
on a child’s growth, physical
development and behaviour
Describe relevant theories in
relation to emotional, personal
and social development and
behaviour of children
Describe the main influences
on the child’s emotional,
personal and social
development and behaviour
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APP EN D IX
Outcomes
Performance Criteria
4.
Describe the
cognitive
development and
behaviour of
children 0–7 years
a.
Describe the
linguistic
development and
behaviour of
children 0–7 years
a.
Evaluate the use of
developmental
theories in the
study of
development and
behaviour of
children 0–7 years
a.
5.
6.
b.
b.
b.
Teacher’s
signature and date
Describe relevant theories in
relation to the cognitive
development and behaviour
of children
Describe the main influences
on the child’s cognitive
development and behaviour
Describe relevant theories in
relation to the linguistic
development and behaviour
of children
Describe the main influences
on the child’s linguistic
development and behaviour
Describe a theory of
children’s development and
behaviour
Evaluate this theory in terms
of research methods,
criticisms and other relevant
research
Teacher’s signature
Date
Candidate’s signature
Date
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APP EN D IX
Internal assessment record
Student’s name
Teacher’s signature
Outcome 1
Outcome 2
Outcome 3
Date
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APP EN D IX
Internal assessment record
Student’s name
Teacher’s signature
180
Outcome 1
Outcome 2
Outcome 3
Date
C AR E: C HI LD DE VE LOP M ENT AND B EH AVI OU R ( H )
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