Answer Key_ Name: _ Pretest: _______/50 Posttest: _______/50 Pretest Ch 16, 19.1 & 19.3: Evolution Part 1: Matching Vocab. Match the term on the right with the definition on the left by placing the letter on the blank where it best matches. H___ Darwin’s idea that organisms pass traits 1. __ down from one generation to the next with minor differences A. absolute dating B. acquired characteristic another has now become eukaryotic cells C. adaptation D. analogous structure J___ The idea that one prokaryote living inside 2. __ A___ Using half-life to find an exact date of a fossil 3. __ X___ As organisms change in the fossil record, 4. __ different fossils called __ __ are found that get closer and closer to modern species Z___ Parts of an organism that no longer have a 5. __ function, e.g. human’s appendix or tailbone R___ Geologist who first proposed processes 6. __ happening today were the same in the past K___ Process where living organisms change over time 7. __ W___ Organisms with the best traits for their 8. __ environment pass this down to children G ___ Scientist who first proposed organisms 9. __ change by inheriting traits E___ Consciously choosing one trait over another 10. __ as a reason to reproduce U___ Determining one fossil is older than another, 11. __ without knowing exactly how much older F___ Using similarities and differences of organisms 12. __ and their location to see changes over time B___ Characteristics that develop during an animal’s 13. __ life-time; Lamarck’s ideas on evolution S___ Did an experiment simulating earth’s early 14. __ E. artificial selection F. biogeography G. Darwin H. descent with modification I. embryology J. endosymbiosis K. evolution L. Hutton M. fitness N. gradualism O. half life P. homologous structure Q. Lamarck R. Lyell S. Miller & Urey T. natural selection U. relative dating V. struggle for existence W. survival of the fittest X. transitional species Y. uniformitarianism Z. vestigial structure conditions created amino acids D___ Parts on an organism that are similar to parts on another organism 15. __ although they do not share a common ancestor; e.g. wings on birds and wings on insects C___ A trait that helps an organism survive its environment 16. __ M__ How well an organisms fits into/survives in its environment 17. __ L___ Geologist who first proposed Earth is much older than a few thousand 18. __ years N___ Changes in species happen at a slow, regular rate over time, rather than 19. __ all at once I 21. __Y___ Geological processes happening today are the same as in the past 20. __ ___ Similarities in development before birth show evolutionary relationships O___ The time it takes for ½ of a substance to decay, used to find age of fossils 22. __ T___ Over time, organisms that fit their environment are “chosen” to survive 23. __ Q___ Scientist who believed organisms change traits during their lifetime and 24. __ pass that down to children. P___ Part of an organism that is similar to another organism due to a common 25. __ ancestor, e.g. wings on bats and wings on birds. V___ There is not enough food, water, shelter for organisms so they compete 26. __ for resources 27. Miller and Urey did an experiment to show how life may have first formed on Earth. Describe their experiment and how they thought life first arose. They simulated Earth’s atmosphere (mostly methane and CO2) and oceans in a flask and ran electricity through to simulate lightning. It created amino acids. 28. How did eukaryotic life first come to be? Endosymbiosis. A small organism lived inside another one and eventually became chloroplasts and mitochondria. They both have their own, separate DNA 29. How did living organisms have an effect on Earth’s early atmosphere? Early photosynthetic organisms called Cyanobacteria removed the CO2 and replaced it with O2. 30. Which is the oldest fossil on the right? How can we tell? E…it’s on the bottom, which was the first rock layer formed 31. Do we know exactly how old? Why not? No, we just know it’s older. This is called relative dating. 32. How could we tell exactly how old? Use the half-life of elements in the rock it’s in to get an idea. This is called radiometric dating and is a form of absolute dating. Charles Darwin set his theory of evolution on the work of other scientists. Describe each of these scientist’s ideas and how Darwin used them. Established the idea of deep-time…that the Earth was not 6,000 years old, but much, much older, based on geologic observations. 33. Hutton: Came up with the idea of uniformitarianism, “the present is the key to the past”. The processes we see now (erosion, etc.) happened in the past. 34. Lyell: Darwin used these two Geological ideas and applied them to living things. Said that living things acquire new traits during their life and pass these on. This is called inheritance of acquired traits. 35. Lamarck: Charle s Darwin made 3 observations on his voyage on the HMS Beagle. Name/describe them. Species Vary Globally. He noticed different flightless birds in similar ecosystems in S America, Africa and Australia (rhea, ostrich, emu). Kangaroos live only in Australia; rabbits don’t live in S. America in similar ecosystems. 36. Globally… Species Vary Locally. Similar animals live in different ecosystems nearby, e.g. 1 Rhea in grassland, 1 in colder scrubland. Different tortoises on different Galapagos Isl. 37. Locally… Species vary over time…fossils of extinct animals are similar to today’s animals. 38. Fossils… Darwin’s theory of Evolution relies on 4 points. Explain each: 39. struggle for existence: organisms produce more offspring then can survive, so they compete for resources some organisms are different and this makes them better. 40. variation and adaptation: The best suited to that environment live to make more with that same trait (adaptation) 41. survival of the fittest: The ones that survived become more common in that environment. They have been “chosen” by nature to survive. 42. natural selection: There are many pieces of evidence for the modern Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Explain each of these: The younger a fossil is, the more similar it is to current organisms. The older it is, the less similar. 43. Fossil evidence: some closely spaced species are similar, with small differences in different ecosystems. Some widely separated species are also similar with small differences, in similar ecosystems. 44. Biogeography: 45. Anatomy: Bones in organisms are similar, although the animals are not, e.g. our arm bones, alligator front leg bones and bats’ wings 46. Embryology: Very early in development, many look very and are hard to 47. Biological Molecules: DNA/RNA/ Amino sequences organisms show ancestors. organisms similar tell apart. Similar Acid between common 48. Differentiate between a scientific Law and Theory. A law is a short description of what happens. It is considered to be a fact by the scientific community, and rarely changes. E.g. Newton’s Laws of Motion, Laws of Conservation (energy, matter) A theory is a long, detailed explanation of how something happens. It is considered to be a fact by the scientific community, and frequently changes. E.g. Big Bang Theory, Theory of Evolution, Theory of Relativity 49. True or False. Explain. The Theory of Evolution is not very well accepted by the scientific community because it is just a theory. False. It is well accepted by scientists, though not always by regular folks who don’t understand the scientific definition of theory and confuse it with a hypothesis, which is just a guess. 50. True or False. Explain. The Theory of Evolution would be accepted by more of the scientific community if it was a Law. False. Laws and Theories do 2 different things in Science (describe what, explain how). One does not get promoted to the other when more experiments are done. They are both equally important in the eyes of science. Again, regular folks don’t understand these definitions and often think a theory is less than a law, but more than a hypothesis.