Appendix Supplementary Materials and methods Patient Selection Patients were studied prospectively at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), a tertiary-care university hospital with 72 ICU beds in 4 ICUs, from May 2004 through November 2006. The protocol was approved by the hospital institutional review board (IRB00001403) and consent was waived. Prospective data collections were made from patients who were at least 18 years of age and receiving IIP for hyperglycemia in the medical, surgical, neurosurgical and trauma ICUs. Cardiothoracic surgery patients were excluded as they were treated with a different IIP. Insulin Infusion Protocol The IIP has been in use at OHSU since 2002. It is based on the Leuven protocol and modified by the OHSU ICU oversight committee. The protocol was recommended for all non cardiothoracic ICU patients if blood glucose was greater than 120 mg/dL. The protocol defines the starting dose of insulin and the rates of increase of insulin to control blood glucose. Hourly blood glucose measurements are required until blood glucose is controlled and the target glucose is 80-110 mg/dL. Physicians caring for the patients determined whether two or four hourly glucose measurements were optimal once the glucose values were stable, and whether corticosteroids were to be given as infusions or bolus. The bedside nurse controlled the insulin infusion rate based on the protocol. Human insulin (Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark) infusions were prepared by the hospital pharmacy at 1 unit/mL in normal saline. Data Collection Blood for glucose measurement was obtained using finger stick or indwelling catheters by the nurse caring for the patient. Glucose measurements made using ICU based point-of-care glucose meters that were calibrated daily (LifeScan, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Milpitas, CA). Patient charts in four intensive care units were prospectively reviewed. If the IIP was stopped for >24 hours and then recommenced the second data collection was considered a new patient episode. Prior to the first data collection period, we audited ICU patient charts for two week periods during May 2004, August 2004, November 2004, and June 2005, and determined blood glucose values for patients receiving insulin by the IIP. Data were collected by two or three team members. Between these audits, measures were undertaken to improve the proportion of measurements in target range. These interventions included supplementary nursing and physician training, performance feedback to nurses and physicians and the purchase of additional glucose meters. In 2006, data were collected between 05/05-08/06 and 08/30-10/31 daily by the volunteers of the Critical Care Academic Associates Program (CCAAP). The program consisted of ~30 volunteers who work as part of the Center for Intensive Care Research (CICR) at OHSU to conduct patient screening, enrollment and data collection. CCAAP volunteers received education on glucose control in the ICU, the IIP, and the data format for this study. All data collection was supervised by a CCAAP coordinator and audited for accuracy. Data Analysis Glucose measurements were entered into a database and the distributions compared for each period of data collection. The data were tested for Gaussian distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, GraphPad Prism version 4.03 for Windows (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). In the absence of a Gaussian distribution we compared different continuous data groups using the non-parametric Mann- Whitney test. Categorical comparisons were made using the Chi-square test. Pearson test was used to calculate correlation. All data are shown as mean ± standard error of mean or mean and range. Curve fitting to Gaussian or sine functions was performed using a non-weighted least squares technique using IgorPro (Wavemetrics, Lake Oswego, OR).