“Introduction to Technology”

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Oswego Update Project – V2 “Bluebook”
A Graduate Research Project Updating a Course Outline
in Middle School Technology Education
June 2006
“Technology Systems”
In collaboration with:
Developers:
Daniel Bennett, Format Editor
Sheldon Cox
Michael Elliott, Bibliography Editor
Philip Meaney
Luke Morse
Anthony Schepis
Ryan Terpening
Carri-Ann Brittain, Copy Editor
Craig Cowell
Michael Fry
Benjamin Mitchell
Tyrell Musch
Kyle Syck
Daniel Western
Project Directors:
Dr. William Waite, Professor, SUNY-Oswego, waite@oswego.edu
Mr. Eric Suhr, Liaison, NYS Education Department, esuhr@mail.nysed.gov
Digitally available at
www.oswego.edu/~waite
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
2
Forward
The “Oswego Update Project – V2” is a collaboration between SUNY Oswego and the
NYS Education Department to refresh and modernize the existing Technology
Education middle school course outline. New York State Learning Standards will be
identified and organized. The original work was a NYSED initiative during the
transformation from Industrial Arts to Technology Education in 1986. This course has
proven to be very popular and most durable for the profession.
Hundreds of sections are offered in New York State each year, according to the Basic
Educational Data System (BEDS). However, the objectives need to be revisited with a
current eye, successful teaching strategies need to be surveyed in the field,
bibliographies should be updated, and Internet resources added, as they were
unavailable during the original project.
It is hoped that this graduate-level research endeavor will accomplish the following:

provide a solid graduate research project for the developers involved (learning by
doing).

involve known, successful teachers as consultants to the process through a
common interview template.

honor the work and dedication of the original writing teams.

refresh course objectives and teaching strategies.

update the bibliography of the course to reflect the last ten years of literature
review.

include Internet resources both useful as general professional tools, and as
specific content enhancement

develop an index showing how NYS M/S/T standards are accomplished for each
course objective.
The result will be an enhancement for graduate students at SUNY-Oswego, the
first use of NYSED standards for the middle school mandate, and electronic use
(rather than only print) by Technology Education teachers in New York State. The
course outline will be digitally reproduced and made available through appropriate
Internet and electronic media.
Dr. William Waite, Professor
SUNY Oswego, Dept. of Technology
School of Education
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
3
Overview of the Course
Course Rationale and Goals
Technology has been an integral part of human existence since prehistoric
times. It continues to be more and more pervasive in daily routines, and must
therefore be managed and manipulated by an educated citizenry. Students need
to develop skills ranging from small home repairs on up to revolutionary ideas
such as alternative fuels and bio-engineered food. The “Technology Systems”
course offers a wide-ranging template of learning about the processes and
systems of technology. Technological literacy is no longer the jargon of
engineers and architects, but a necessary ingredient for all aspects of life.
This course content is presented in a unique, laboratory-based setting that
focuses on the following:

Hands-on problem solving skills using design and inquiry, offering
confidence to students which other academic settings cannot achieve.

The practical and active application of all school subjects using
authentic tasks, reinforcing an interdisciplinary approach to learning.

Use of critical thinking and organizational skills, including group
process, teamwork, and leadership opportunities.

Expand the understanding of universal technologies though the study
of interrelationships in technology systems, processes, and
environmental concerns.

Study of the use and control of technological solutions to human
problems.

An economic orientation to technical knowledge with a pre-vocational
exploration of business and industry that uses a global workforce.

Impacts of technology on social, political, and economic outcomes of
our society.
“Technology Systems” is therefore a necessary contribution to the
student’s future and also to the advancement of society. While offering current
viewpoints on the subject of technology, the course prepares participants for the
future, and simultaneously teaches about the evolution of society’s technical
means. Through this approach, individuals learn to fuse ideas and concepts from
many subject areas while relating to their own interests and backgrounds. This
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
4
encourages students to become flexible and engaged learners; attributes they
will use throughout their academic, personal, and social lives.
Respectfully submitted by:
Daniel Bennett
Carri-Ann Brittain
Sheldon Cox
Craig Cowell
Michael Elliott
Michael Fry
Philip Meaney
Benjamin Mitchell
Craig
Luke Morse
Tyrell Musch
Anthony Schepis
Kyle Syck
Ryan Terpening
William Waite
Daniel Western
Original developers of the 1986 “Introduction to Technology” curriculum:
Patricia Ash, Tom Barrowman, Douglas Beard, Clagett Boehner, John Boronkay,
Jack Brueckman, Thomas Curtis, Frank Darzano, Michael Doyle, Peter Fish,
Marvin Fisher, John Gagliardo, Richard Gifford, Rodney Gould, Clark Greene,
Marshall Hahn, Henry Harms, William Hasenstab, Donald Hefner, Wayne
Hendrix, Patricia Hutchinson, Joseph Iacuzzi, Barry Johnston, Robert Jones,
David Kelsey, William Krolikowski, Dennis Kroon, Thomas LeClair, Robert Laux,
Arthur Levitt, Glen Listar, Anthony LoCascio, James Mooney, Ralph Nicolson,
Stephen Poydock, Debra Prouix-Batcher, John Riley, Robert Sanders, Frank
Sepa, Gary Shelhamer, Robert Silverman, Sandra Sommer, Frank Spor, Neal
Swernofsky, Ronald Todd, Gordon Turner, William Wilson, and Wally Yelverton.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
5
Course Description
This is a mandated, introductory course in the study of technology, using a
problem-solving approach in a hands-on laboratory setting. Students will be
engaged in a variety of learning activities that involve design and inquiry using
the processes and systems of technology.
½ year 7th grade – Modules T1-T5 (no prerequisite)
½ year 8th grade – Modules T6-T10 (prerequisite of 7th grade Tech Systems –
Modules T1-5)
NOTE: The degree has not been set for these intended learning outcomes (ILOs)
as it would be based on the technical problem presented to the students.
Course Skills, Knowledge, and Behaviors to be Developed
Module T1 – Technology and Society
The students will be able to:
T1 - 1 Comprehend the importance of problem solving. resources, systems,
and environmental responsibility in the current and future technology.
T1 - 2 Identify the difference between human needs and wants.
T1 - 3 Outline the evolution of technology from primitive to current.
T1 - 4 Define technology and list technological applications.
Module T2 – Problem Solving Using Technology
The students will be able to:
T2 - 1 State the steps of the design process and describe the activities/
procedures involved in each step, in written format.
T2 - 2 When presented with a technological problem, develop a design brief
and set of constraints through given criteria and questioning techniques.
T2 - 3 When presented with a technological problem, conduct various research
methods (questioning, source research, market investigations) to gather
information which will aid in the formation of the solution.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
6
T2 - 4 When presented with a technological problem, generate inventive/
innovative ideas through development of alternative solution practices:
brainstorming, mind map, concept tree, sketching.
T2 - 5
Select and justify an optimal solution for a technical problem based on a
set of criteria and model construction (appearance, functional, prototype,
scale) or simulation software.
T2 - 6
Design a working drawing and bill of materials when given a technical
problem.
T2 - 7
When presented with a technological problem, develop and follow a set
of procedural construction steps to construct the product.
T2 - 8
When presented with a technological problem create and utilize various
evaluation techniques to analyze features (aesthetics, durability,
ergonomics, impacts, life cycle cost, maintainability, performance, quality
and safety) that affect production.
T2 - 9
When presented with a technological problem, document and justify
(note the problem and solution suggestions) changes made to the
original plan.
T2 - 10
When presented with a technological problem, compile all information in
the design process to compose and present a portfolio illustrating the
stages of creation.
Module T3 – Resources for Technology
The students will be able to:
T3 - 1 Employ and relate the seven resources of technology.
T3 - 2 Weigh benefits of various types of materials.
T3 - 3 Compare and contrast the importance of alternative forms of energy.
T3 - 4 Employ various methods of exchange in order to obtain resources, such
as class money, debits, etc.
T3 - 5 Identify materials as either renewable or nonrenewable.
T3 - 6 Utilize the seven resources of technology through the creation of
manufacturing project.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
7
T3 - 7 Weigh the benefits of various types of materials.
T3 - 8 Compare and contrast the importance of alternative forms of energy.
T3 - 9 Employ various methods of exchange in order to obtain resources.
T3 - 10 Identify materials as either renewable or nonrenewable.
Module T4 – Systems and Sub-systems of Technology
The students will be able to:
T4 - 1 Analyze the need for systems theory
T4 - 2 Use systems theory as an analytical model and tool
T4 - 3 Differentiate between and among the various system components and
how they interrelate
T4 - 4 Use various communication systems as a component of technology
T4 - 5 Analyze transportation systems as a component of technology
T4 - 6 Differentiate types of construction systems as a component of current
technology
T4 - 7 Demonstrate manufacturing systems as an important component of
technology
T4 - 8 Differentiate how bio-related technologies are similar and different from
other manufacturing endeavors
Module T5 – Technology’s Effects on People and the Environment
The students will be able to:
T5 - 1 Demonstrate a working knowledge of outcome types produced by
technology.
T5 - 2 Analyze the effect that technology has on their life and daily routine.
T5 - 3 Assess the positive and negative effects that technology has on the
environment.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
8
T5 - 4 Design a solution to one of the problems created by technology.
T5 - 5 Explain the positive and negative effects that technology has had on
humankind in the last ten years.
Module T-6 - Choosing Resources T-6
The students will be able to:
T6 - 1 Evaluate material properties while working on problem solving activities
in the classroom.
T6 - 2 Apply the seven resources to each class project.
T6 - 3 Develop a plan to optimize the resources chosen.
T6 - 4 Utilize selected physical, mechanical, and electrical properties
Module T-7 - Processing Resources
The students will be able to:
T7 - 1 Use laboratory equipment safely every time when manipulating materials
during activities.
T7 - 2 Identify the three ways to convert materials (resources) and apply this
knowledge consistently to any activity.
T7 - 3 Differentiate between types of energy (potential, kinetic)
T7 - 4 Discuss conservation of energy and explain a given energy conversion.
T7 - 5 Apply information conversion techniques to related activities, by using
the laboratory computer to achieve an assortment of goals.
T7 - 6 Effectively utilize use the internet to as a resource to solve assignment
problems.
T7 - 7 Manipulate digital multimedia equipment, such as digital photography
equipment, to successfully convert still images or video into media that
can be installed into a presentation, bulletin board, or slideshow.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
9
Module T-8 - Controlling Technological Systems
The students will be able to:
T8 - 1 Distinguish the difference between an open loop and a closed loop
system.
T8 - 2 Explain the three different ways to get feedback from a system.
T8 - 3 Determine the most suitable sensors for a specific situation.
T8 - 4 Design and operate an open/closed loop that uses three types of
controllers.
T8 - 5 Propose a computer program that gives a desired feedback.
Module T-9 - Emerging Technology
The students will be able to:
T9 - 1
Anticipate and analyze the effect of emerging technologies on a
personal, local, national, and global scale.
T9 - 2
Compare and contrast the present job market and the effects that new
technologies have on them.
T9 - 3
Predict how human lives will change because of technology in the next
five to ten years.
T9 - 4 Reverse engineer a technological product.
T9 - 5 Propose alternative ways in which fuel can be conserved.
T9 - 6 Discuss the future of the world’s energy supplies (i.e. fossil fuels and
alternative energies).
T9 - 7 Research the emergence of bio and nano technologies.
Module T-10 - Engineering Design Project
The students will be able to:
T10 - 1 Exercise brainstorming skills in a classroom setting.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
10
T10 - 2 Critique concepts and ideas constructively.
T10 - 3 Generate skills needed for effective group cooperation and leadership.
T10 - 4 Develop management skills to capitalize on opportunities and be able to
reorganize when presented with unexpected issues.
T10 - 5 Develop efficient methods to determine cost effectiveness and ways to
raise funds.
T10 - 6 Examine performance results and assess strategies needed for technical
improvement.
T10 - 7 Administer system resources and prioritize tasks needing
accomplishment.
T10 - 8 Produce and judge quality craftsmanship.
T10 - 9 Generate specific ways to meet given outcomes.
T10 - 10
Develop a 3-D model of a design solution using proper tools, materials,
and equipment.
T10 - 11
Evaluate and select appropriate testing methods to assess a design
project.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
11
Content Outline
Module T1 – Technology and Society
1.1
Study of Technology
1.1.1 Problem Solving
1.1.1.1 Implementing problem solving
1.1.1.2 Required steps
1.1.1.3 Testing and solutions
1.1.2 Resources
1.1.2.1 Types of resources
1.1.2.2 Selections of resources
1.1.2.3 Influences of resources
1.1.3 Systems
1.1.3.1 Design
1.1.3.2 Theory
1.1.3.3 Types
1.1.4 Environment
1.1.4.1 Technological outputs
1.1.4.2 Effects on humans
1.1.4.3 Effects on the environment
1.1.5 The Future
1.1.5.1 Current advanced Technology
1.1.5.2 Research on new Technology
1.2
Technology Satisfies Human Needs and Wants
1.2.1 Construction
1.2.1.1 Residential
1.2.1.2 Commercial/industrial
1.2.2 Communication
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
12
1.2.2.1 Graphic
1.2.2.2 Electronic
1.2.3 Manufacturing
1.2.3.1 History
1.2.3.2 Techniques
1.2.3.3 Organization
1.2.4 Transportation
1.2.4.1 Land
1.2.4.2 Aerospace
1.2.4.3 Marine
1.3
Evolution of Technology
1.3.1 Early Technology
1.3.1.1 Primitive tools
1.3.1.2 Fire
1.3.1.3 Wheel and axle
1.3.2 Development and Innovations
1.3.2.1 Metallurgy
1.3.2.2 Electricity
1.3.2.3 Fossil Fuel
1.3.3 Emerging Technology
1.3.3.1 Types
1.3.3.2 Terms
Module T2 – Problem Solving Using Technology
2.1
Technological Problem Solving Steps Formulate an Interrelated Process
2.1.1 Design cycle/ design loop
2.1.2 Informed design
2.1.3 Problem solving process
2.2
Design Challenge: Technological Problems and Opportunities
2.2.1 Need versus want
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
13
2.2.2 Invention versus innovation
2.2.3 Design brief
2.2.4 Constraints/ specifications
2.2.4.1 Function/ purpose
2.2.4.2 Resources
.1 Materials
.2 Production
2.2.4.3 Client
.1 Aesthetics
.2 Ergonomics
2.2.4.4 Effects
.1 Economic
.2 Environmental
2.3
Technological Problem Solving Involves Research and Investigation
2.3.1 Forming questions
2.3.1.1 Economy
2.3.1.2 Product (effects, resources, and client)
2.3.2 Product
2.3.2.1
2.3.2.2
2.3.2.3
2.3.2.4
2.3.2.5
Need
Design
Life cycle
Production
Disposal/recycle
2.3.3 Sources
2.3.3.1 Experts in the field/ industry
2.3.3.2 Published information
2.3.3.3 Web resources
2.3.4 Investigations
2.3.4.1 Market analysis
2.3.4.2 Surveys
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
14
2.4
Technological Problem Solving Requires Generating Alternative Solutions
2.4.1 Problem solving techniques
2.4.1.1 Brainstorming
2.4.1.2 Mind map/ concept tree
2.4.1.3 Sketching and doodling
2.5
Technological Problem Solution Selection and Justification
2.5.1 Models and simulation
2.5.1.1
2.5.1.2
2.5.1.3
2.5.1.4
2.5.1.5
Appearance
Computer
Functional
Prototype
Scale
2.5.2 Trade offs and optimization
2.5.3 Matrix (comparing solutions to constraints)
2.6
Implementation of the Technological Solution
2.6.1 Design
2.6.1.1
2.6.1.2
2.6.1.3
2.6.1.4
2.6.1.5
Bill of materials
Isometric projection
Orthographic projection
Schematic
Sketching
2.6.2 Production
2.6.2.1 Procedural steps
2.6.2.2 Safety
2.6.2.3 Tool and equipment use
2.6.3 Modifications
2.6.3.1
2.6.3.2
2.6.3.3
2.6.3.4
2.6.3.5
Testing
Documentation and analysis
“Tweaking”
Experimentation
Re-testing
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
15
2.7
Testing and Evaluation of the Technological Solution
2.7.1 Methods
2.7.1.1 Checklist
2.7.1.2 Random testing
2.7.1.3 Surveys
2.7.2 Factors
2.7.2.1
2.7.2.2
2.7.2.3
2.7.2.4
2.7.2.5
2.7.2.6
2.7.2.7
2.7.2.8
2.7.2.9
2.8
Aesthetics
Durability
Ergonomics
Impacts
Life cycle cost
Maintainability
Performance
Quality
Safety
Presentation Techniques
2.8.1 Charts and graphs
2.8.2 Sequence diagram
2.9
Redesign the Technological Solution
2.9.1
2.9.2
2.9.3
2.9.4
2.9.5
2.9.6
2.10
Documentation
Notes on previous work
Updating working drawings and procedures
Justification
Record of problems as they occurred
Description of change, including how the change addressed the problem
Portfolio Development
2.10.1
2.10.2
2.10.3
2.10.4
2.10.5
2.10.6
Portfolio design layout
Documentation from design steps
Pictures, charts, graphs
Presentation to committee
Visuals
Presentation outline
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
16
Module T3 –Resources for Technology
3.1
Technological Development Utilizes Resources
3.1.1 People
3.1.1.1
3.1.1.2
3.1.1.3
3.1.1.4
Labor
Management
Consumers
Inventors/Innovators
3.1.2 Information
3.1.2.1
3.1.2.2
3.1.2.3
3.1.2.4
Processes
Techniques
Data
Distribution/communication
3.1.3 Tools and Machines
3.1.3.1 Hand tools
3.1.3.2 Manual machines
3.1.3.3 Automated machines
3.1.4 Materials
3.1.4.1
3.1.4.2
3.1.4.3
3.1.4.4
Natural
Processed
Renewable and nonrenewable
Synthetic
3.1.5 Capital
3.1.5.1 Means of exchange
.1
.2
.3
.4
Barter
Money
Stocks and bonds
E-commerce
3.1.5.2 Investments
.1
.2
.3
.4
Equipment
Facilities
Land
Research
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
17
3.1.6 Energy
3.1.6.1 Forms (select from the following)







Radiant
Mechanical
Electrical
Chemical
Thermal
Light
Magnetic
3.1.6.2 Sources (select from the following)









Human and animal muscle
Fossil fuels
Flowing water and tides
Solar
Wind
Nuclear
Geothermal
Biomass
Fuel cells
3.1.7 Time
3.1.7.1
3.1.7.2
3.1.7.3
3.1.7.4
3.1.7.5
3.1.7.6
3.1.7.7
3.2
Human limitations
Natural constraints
Importance of time
Agricultural age
Industrial age
Information age
Time zones and global use of technology
Technology Requires Skills in Using Resources
3.2.1 Selecting Resources
3.2.2 Processing Resources
3.2.2.1 Materials
.1 Growing, harvesting and mining raw materials
.2 Converting raw materials to basic industrial materials
.3 Processing materials
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
18
3.2.2.2 Energy
3.2.2.3 Information
3.3
Influences on Technology
3.3.1 Resource necessity
3.3.2 Culture of society
3.3.2.1 Developing countries
3.3.2.2 Beliefs and/or attitudes
3.3.2.3 Increasing global interaction
3.3.3 Resource availability
3.3.3.1 Renewable
3.3.3.2 Climate/geographic region
3.3.3.3 Alternatives
Module T4 – Systems and Sub-systems of Technology
4.1
People Design Systems to Satisfy Wants and Needs
4.1.1 Extend human capabilities
4.1.2 Needs for goods and services
4.1.3 Needs to transport people and goods
4.2
The Systems Model as an Analytical Tool
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.3
Analysis of existing systems
Adaptation of existing systems
Generic analysis of new systems
Symbolic representation of systems
Systems Theory
4.3.1 Components
4.3.1.1
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
4.3.1.5
4.3.1.6
Command input
Resource inputs
Process
Feedback loop (monitor, compare, adjust)
Output(s)
Open loop (define only – more in T-8)
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
19
4.3.1.7 Open loop (define only – more in T-8)
4.3.1.8 Relationship of system components to manufacturing
components and transportation components
4.4
Communications System
4.4.1 History of Communications
4.4.1.1
4.4.1.2
4.4.1.3
4.4.1.4
Cave markings
Spoken language
Written language
Reproduction process
.1 Hand copies
.2 Printing press
.3 Modern Copiers
4.4.1.5 Film
4.4.1.6 Radio
4.4.1.7 Computer generated
4.4.2 Types of Communication
4.4.2.1 Advertisements
.1
.2
.3
.4
Radio
Television
Mass marketing
Subliminal
4.4.2.2 Technical drawings
.1 Paper and pencil
.2 CADD
.3 Solid modeling/wire frame
4.4.2.3 Presentations/representations
.1
.2
.3
.4
Research
Internet/intranet
Presentation aids
Layout
4.4.2.4 Photography
.1 Silver halide theory – black & white, color
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
20
.2 Digital
4.4.2.5 Film and video tape
.1
.2
.3
.4
4.5
Animation
Sound
Color
Digital
Construction Systems
4.5.1 Applications
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
4.5.1.3
4.5.1.4
4.5.1.5
4.5.1.6
4.5.1.7
Natural / Earth
Clay
Stone
Wood
Metal
Commercial
Residential
4.5.2 Materials
4.5.2.1
4.5.2.2
4.5.2.3
4.5.2.4
4.5.2.5
Wood
Metal
Ceramics
Polymers
Composites
4.5.3 Fastening
4.5.3.1 Mechanical fasteners
4.5.3.2 Adhesion
4.5.3.3 Cohesion
4.5.4 Tools
4.5.4.1
4.5.4.2
4.5.4.3
4.5.4.4
4.6
Units of measure
Drawings
Hand tools
Power tools
Manufacturing Systems
4.6.1 Push /pull
4.6.2 Lean
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
21
4.6.3 Just in time
4.7
Transportation Systems
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.8
Public vs. private
Goods and services
Power through internal combustion
Land
Marine
Aerospace
Feedback to Help Control Outcomes
4.8.1 Open loop (no feedback loop)
4.8.1.1 No comparison
4.8.2 Closed loop (feedback loop)
4.8.2.1 Adjustable
4.8.2.2 Comparisons can be made
4.9
New Technologies May Result When Combining Existing Technologies
4.9.1 Manufacturing systems
4.9.1.1 More efficient production
4.9.1.2 Higher quality goods
4.9.2 Transportation systems
4.9.2.1 More economical vehicles
4.9.2.2 Larger carrying capacities
4.9.2.3 Safer
4.10
Sub-systems Combine to Produce More Powerful or Efficient Systems
4.10.1 Systems
4.10.1.1 Large manufacturing plants
4.10.1.2 Transportation
4.10.2
Subsystems
4.10.2.1 Specialized manufactures
4.10.2.2 Public and private transportation
4.10.3 Eco-friendly
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
22
Module T5 – Technology’s Effects on People and the Environment
5.1
Technology Outputs
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.2
Combinations
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3
Expected
Unexpected
Desired
Undesired
Expected/ desired (example: energy)
Expected/ undesired (example: unemployment)
Unexpected/ undesired (example: pollution)
Unexpected/ desired (example: recycling)
Problems Solved
5.3.1 Transportation (land, marine, aerospace)
5.3.2 Communication (World Wide Web)
5.3.3 Manufacturing (mass production)
5.4
Problems Created
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
5.5
Effects on Humans
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.2
5.5.4
5.6
Pollution
Weapons of mass destruction
Unemployment
Global imbalance (resources, products, technologies)
Technological mismatch (English vs. Metric systems)
Food
Shelter
Clothing
Desires
Mobility /Transportation
5.6.1 Transportation of goods and services
5.6.2 Global market
5.6.3 Individual transportation
5.7
Everyday Routine
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
23
5.7.1 Timeline (changes in routine)
5.7.1.1
5.7.1.2
5.7.1.3
5.7.1.4
5.7.1.5
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.8
Present routines
Work
Services & Repairs
Positive/ Negative
Health & Longevity
5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.9
Stone Age
Agricultural Age
Industrial Age
Computer Age
Information Age
Medical advancements
Diseases & Cures
Ergonomics
Overall wellness
Entertainment
5.9.1 Leisure time
5.9.2 Technology & games
5.9.3 Sports
5.10
Technology Must Adapt to the Environment
5.10.1 Human- made environment
5.10.2 Natural environment
5.10.3 Consequences (rural vs. industrial communities)
5.11
Effects
5.11.1 Positive
5.11.1.1
5.11.1.2
5.11.1.3
5.11.1.4
Recycling
Synthetic materials
Efficient use of resources
Testing processes
5.11.2 Negative
5.11.2.1 Pollution
5.11.2.2 Deforestation
5.11.2.3 Acid rain
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
24
5.11.2.4 Global warming
5.11.3 Solutions
5.11.3.1
5.11.3.2
5.11.3.3
5.11.3.4
Alternative energies (hydro-electric, solar)
Public awareness
Organizations (Green Peace)
Bio-Technologies
5.11.4 Effects on Humankind and the World
5.11.4.1 Social Impacts
.1 Global economy
.2 Social awareness
5.11.4.2
Information Transfer
.1 World Wide Web
.2 Computers, cell phones
5.11.4.3 Globalization
Module T-6 Choosing Resources
6.1
Identifying Resources
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
6.1.6
6.1.7
6.2
People
Information
Materials
Tools and machines
Capital
Energy
Time
Choosing Resources
6.2.1 Identified goals
6.2.2 Processes available
6.2.3 Constraints and limitations
6.2.3.1 Human
6.2.3.2 Natural
6.3
Combining Resources
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
25
6.3.1 Optimization
6.3.1.1 Resource efficiency
6.3.1.2 Time management
6.3.1.3 Cost effective
6.3.2 Compromises and Tradeoffs
6.3.2.1
6.3.2.2
6.3.2.3
6.3.2.4
6.3.2.5
6.3.2.6
6.3.2.7
6.3.2.8
6.4
Availability
Renew ability
Risk of depletion
Cost to obtain or process
Appropriateness
Safety of handling
Environmental impact
Profitability
Choosing Materials
6.4.1 Mechanical properties
6.4.1.1 Strength
.1
.2
.3
.4
Compression
Tension
Torsion
Shear
6.4.1.2 Electrical Properties
.1 Conductors
.2 Insulators
Module T-7 - Processing Resources
7.1
Processing of Resources
7.1.1 Material conversion
7.1.1.1 Combining
7.1.1.2 Separating
7.1.1.3 Conditioning
7.1.2
Energy conversion
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
26
7.1.2.1 Types of energy
.1 Potential
.2 Kinetic
7.1.2.2 Conservation of energy
7.1.2.3 Sources of energy
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
Human and animal Muscle
Solar
Chemical
Gravitational
Geothermal
Nuclear
7.1.2.4 Energy conversion (selection from)







7.2
Chemical to mechanical
Thermal to mechanical
Chemical to thermal
Mechanical to electrical
Electrical to light
Electrical to sound
Matter to energy
Information Conversion
7.2.1 Information management software
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
7.2.1.3
7.2.1.4
7.2.1.5
7.2.1.6
7.2.1.7
7.2.1.8
7.2.1.9
7.2.1.10
7.2.1.11
Internet
Digital multimedia
Collecting
Recording
Classifying
Calculating
Storing
Retrieving
Choosing computer software
Telecommunications
Specialized applications
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
27
Module T-8 - Controlling Technological Systems
8.1
Open and closed loop systems
8.1.1 Open loop
8.1.2 Closed loop
8.1.3 Feedback
8.2
Sensors
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.3
Electrical
Electronic
Optical
Thermal
Magnetic
Comparators
8.3.1 Mechanical
8.3.2 Electric
8.3.3 Electronic
8.4
Controllers
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.5
Electrical
Electro-Mechanical
Pneumatic
Hydraulics
Program Control
8.5.1 Timer Controls
8.5.2 Conditional Controls
8.5.3 Computers Controls
Module T-9 - Emerging Technology
9. 1
Assessing Technological Systems
9.1.1 Analyzing the systems model output
9.1.1.1 Impacts on humans
9.1.1.2 Impact on society
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
28
9.1.2 Technological evolution
9.1.2.1 The future world
9.1.2.2 Up-and-coming technologies
9.2
Impacts on Work, Job Opportunities, and Careers
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
9.2.5
9.3
Technological Impacts, Perceived, or Actual
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4
9.4
Constant change due to the evolution of technology
Adaptability
Development of future industries
Leadership and social skills
Careers with a higher level of technological responsibility
Personal
Local
National
Global
The Interdependent World
9.4.1 Consumption of resources
9.4.2 Competition for jobs, markets, and resources
9.5
Emerging Technologies
9.5.1 Alternative fuels
9.5.2 Bioengineering
9.5.3 Biotechnology
9.5.4 Fiber optics
9.5.5 Hybrid vehicles
9.5.6 Nano-technology
9.5.7 Wireless technologies
9.5.8 Military weapons
9.5.9 Medical imaging
9.5.10 Genetic mapping
T-10 - Engineering Design Project
10.1
Problem
10.1.1 Identify the problem
10.1.2 Apply constraints
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
29
10.1.2.1 Time
10.1.2.2 Budget
10.1.2.3 Material
10.2
Formation of groups/teams
10.2.1 Leadership opportunities
10.2.2 Assigning roles
10.2.2.1 Responsibilities of roles
10.2.2.2 Consequences of missed responsibilities
10.2.3 Entice competition
10.3
Research
10.3.1
10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.4
Brainstorming
Classroom resources
Internet
Printed materials
Solutions
10.4.1 Document research findings
10.4.1.1
10.4.1.2
10.4.1.3
10.4.1.4
Sketches
Written entries
Photographs
Web Images
10.4.2 Effectiveness
10.4.2.1
10.4.2.2
10.4.2.3
10.4.2.4
10.4.2.5
10.4.2.6
10.4.2.7
10.4.2.8
10.5
Constructive criticism
Meeting constraints
Time
Budget
Material
Aesthetics
Function
Advantages and limitations
Alternative Solutions
10.5.1 Improvements
10.5.2 Combinations
10.5.3 Entirely new
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
30
10.5.4 Select most viable
10.6
Construction
10.6.1
10.6.2
10.6.3
10.6.4
10.6.5
10.7
Funding
Schedule
Tasks
Craftsmanship
Testing
Presentation
10.7.1
10.7.2
10.7.4
10.7.5
Charts/graphs
Slideshow
Audio/video
Digital Multimedia
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
31
General Instructional Strategies
This course is designed for implementation as an 18 week seventh grade
course (Modules 1-5) and an 18 week eighth grade course (Modules 6-10). It is
for all students, male and female, and meets the middle school Technology
Education mandate of one unit, while also meeting New York State Learning
Standards and International Technology Education Association standards.
This 2006 revision is heavily based on the original “Bluebook” curriculum,
but updates resources, terminology, theory, and technological applications, while
addressing modern standards and assessments.
It should be presented to classes of no more than 20 students for best
effect, as it is a laboratory offering. The room should be approximately 2000
square feet of open space offering tools, equipment, benches, furniture, and
computers consistent with modern “Technology Systems” laboratories. Multiple
material processing equipment, and appropriate “clean” spaces for instruction
and computer equipment, should be incorporated. Typical lesson time is about
25% of available time, while “hands-on” activity should be about 75%. Specific
equipment needs may be contingent upon the activities selected, for instance
wind tunnels, CAM units, vehicle test tracks, etc.
Abundant latitude is given to the program and instructor to select activities,
but it should be emphasized that course objectives must be accomplished.
Students should leave with a broader understanding of the essential questions
posed by such content and not just the entertaining aspects of the individual
activities. Sample questions are included in this outline representing the content.
The instructor can always add more questions of various styles to broaden the
assessment to activity specifics.
“Technology Systems” is a unifying course designed to inculcate an
understanding of how all school subjects are used in authentic learning. Of
course, math and science principles can be emphasized and even team taught
with those teachers. But inclusion of content from English, social studies, health,
history, art, and even music can cause a synergy in the entire educational
process. A student once remarked when sanding a project and getting the
abrasive paper warm, “So THAT’S what friction is!” These kinds of experiences
are invaluable in their educationally integrating qualities.
A sufficient budget should be allocated to purchase supplies and small
equipment, with a routine method for keeping more expensive equipment
updated and safe. It makes little administrative sense to hire a professional for
$40,000 to $60,000 per year and then skimp on supplies for that person to be
effective. Computers have a life span presently of about four years, and school
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
32
programs should plan on this inevitability. Internet access is now a requirement
so students can conduct research on their activities.
Student activities can be found in the original “Bluebook” publication and
are not repeated here. There is also a 2004 publication by NYSTEA with many
ideas. PLTW has written a “Gateway to Technology” course with additional
activities. The journal “Technical Directions”, ITEA’s “The Technology Teacher”,
and NYSTEA’s “The NYS Technology Teacher” continually address new
activities. There are also many fresh examples provided as a supplement to this
course outline.
Programming such as “Technology Systems” makes schools special
places to learn. They bring the academic subjects to reality and provide
experiences for students that are woefully missed in schools that do not have
such courses. Education is more than completion of standardized tests – it is an
integration of learning that carries through a wide variety of life experiences. This
course is designed to support just that.
Module Specific Instructional Strategies
Following are descriptions and a narrative of instructional strategies to
address the essential questions of each module.
T-1 - Technology and Society
Within this unit students will be exposed to different areas of study
pertaining to the field of technology. Through lessons and activities, students will
be introduced to problem solving, resources, systems, environment, the future,
construction, communications, manufacturing, transportation, early technology,
development, Innovations, and emerging technology.
Student activities could be developed to focus attention on the areas of:






problem solving steps
types and utilization of resources
system theory and design
technological impact on the environment
technological impact on humans
current research of emerging technologies
Student activities could be developed to focus student’s attention on
human needs and wants in the areas of:


residential and commercial/industrial construction
graphic and electronic communication
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
33


history, techniques, and organization of manufacturing
land, aerospace, and marine transportation
Student activities could be developed to focus student’s attention on the
evolution of technology:



primitive tools, fire, and simple machines
metallurgy, electricity, and fossil fuels
emerging technology types and terms
Activities could include:





building a emergency shelter
construct a model bridge
produce a product from natural raw materials
develop an emergency escape plan for the school or the student’s house
construct a timeline of an invention or inventor
Providing sufficient time for students to complete activities and understand
materials is very important. This is essential as students need to be able to
absorb and explore new materials on their own, which instills deeper learning.
Instruction on the general safety and material manipulations are required to
promote the appropriate atmosphere.
This module is the introduction to technology for the middle school and
students need to be provided with activities that allow them to work towards a
higher level of understanding.
T-2 – Problem Solving Using Technology
During this unit of study, students will be exposed to a problem solving
system. Through lessons, investigations, and a given design challenge, students
will explore the various processes of design and problem solving, components of
each stage, and how they are interrelated in a non-linear cycle.
As this is the first introduction most students have had to this process, the
approach and purpose of study must be made clear and subdivided to prevent
feelings of being overwhelmed. Other topics may be incorporated into the unit;
however the main focus is on the problem solving steps and strategies.
First the problem solving system needs to be presented to the class.
Once sequencing, terminology, and application have been clarified, it is
necessary to demonstrate application. Some methods in which authenticity can
be exhibited are: by examining projects that have been completed by previous
students, through videos, magazine articles, stories or industrial tours.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
34
Advancing comprehension could then be achieved through games, puzzles, or
posters developed for or by the students.
The second section of the unit is further exposure to various phases of
problem solving. Mini lessons with concentration on only one or two stages of
the design process will allow for skill expansion. Focus in areas such as
research, brainstorming, working drawings and construction with specifications
and constraints will aid the student later when they are presented with a design
challenge.
Finally a design challenge will be presented to the class. For this activity
groups will formulate solutions while being guided through the design process.
As this is the first complete revolution through this process the instructor must
utilize the following strategies frequently: small group discussion, large group
discussion, formative feedback, modeling, and leading through questioning.
Addressing methods of exploiting team member’s strengths and conflict
resolutions are also required for a smoother progression.
In considering evaluation, formative feedback on techniques is more
important then the summative evaluation of the given design challenge, as these
practices will be applied continuously throughout the program of study. It is also
necessary to stress that the objectives lie in the process, not the final result, and
that much can be learned through a failed attempt.
Sufficient time and coverage of objectives in this unit is of utmost
importance, as it is the goal of technology education to be able to transfer these
skills to other settings, and to assist the student in leading a successful,
productive life.
T-3 - Resources in Technology
During the T-3 module, students will be introduced to the influence of
resources on technology. Strategies may include classroom activities, lectures,
homework assignments, verbal or written testing, or a combination of these.
However the information is conveyed, the students should gain an appreciation
of how the seven categories of resources interrelate with one another.
Since students will be introduced to many new terms, they should be
encouraged to engage in conversations utilizing the new vocabulary. Repeated
use of the terminology by the teacher will also help to improve student retention
and comprehension.
In an ideal situation, teachers will have students participate in an activity
that takes them through the process of retrieving raw materials and ultimately
delivering them to the consumer. An activity of this type could begin by having
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
35
students either mine or harvest materials from a mock or real origin. Materials
could then be processed into a useable product.
Some degree of difficulty should be introduced so that students come to
understand the challenges involved in each of the stages. For instance, goods
and materials may need to be transported across a fictitious body of water or
across the border of a neighboring country. Time limits, various constraints, and
other related factors, could also be introduced. The aim is not to introduce every
possible challenge that could relate to the use of technological resources, but to
instill a broad appreciation for the fact that challenges do exist.
To allow for differences in student interests, teaching styles and school
resources, a great deal of flexibility should be given to the teacher when
designing the activity. The essential feature is an introduction to the relationship
between people, information, materials, tools/machines, energy, capital, and
time.
T-4 - Systems and Subsystems in Technology
In this module students will be incorporating what they have learned in
previous units in relation to systems to actually create a system which completes a
task. They will also gain a more in-depth knowledge of systems and how various
types are closely related. This will be done mainly through in-class activities with
enhancing instructional assignments and homework.
This module should begin with a review of theory related to systems. This will
stress the interrelationship of various technology systems while demonstrating how
technological systems affect people in many different ways.
A follow up presentation on an assortment of open and closed loop systems
should be included. The characteristics of each system should be covered to
address variances between systems. Each type of system should then be given with
a real life example so students can draw relations between types of systems and
their applications. Lessons should also model how goods are produced, shipped,
and received.
Once basic comprehension on systems has been gained application by
means of a design challenge, based on a transportation system, will be explored.
An example could be a glider activity where the objective is for the glider to travel
from one point to another. In order to achieve success, students must design the
glider using specified time and resources, and then adjustments to designs can be
implemented by reentering the system loop at various stages.
Next, a multi-system manufacturing unit involving group work could be
assigned. Implementation of digital multimedia through the creation of a commercial
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
36
to sell the product being produced could be incorporated. In a large group activity
like a manufacturing unit, a great deal of preparation is required by the teacher to set
up the class in order for everything to flow smoothly. Lessons on cooperating in a
group in order to complete desired task, and should be completed at the beginning
of the unit.
It is important that comprehension be tested throughout the progress of the
module and at the end to ensure a positive result. Along with the work that the
students produce, testing will help ensure ability in the relationships that were
formed by systems throughout the module.
T-5 -Technology’s Effects on People and the Environment
Module T–5 is a unit in which students will explore the world of technology
through in-depth thought and analysis. They will be challenged to analyze how
technology affects them as an individual and the world around them. This unit
should include, but is not limited to: lessons, group discussion, group analysis,
and a culminating activity. It is important that throughout this unit each student
embrace a sense or responsibility and ownership for his/her work.
The foundation of T-5 is the four basic outcomes (expected, unexpected,
desired, and undesired). Each student should be able to categorize and analyze
a given technology. After demonstrating a working knowledge of the four
outcomes the course may progress onto the three areas that technology affects:
the individual, the environment and the human race as a whole. It is essential
that an equal amount of time be spent on each of the three topics.
The first subject that should be covered in this section is how technology
influences individuals and their routines. Key topics should include: ergonomics,
satisfying needs, changes in everyday life, and the positive and negative affects
on the human race as a whole. Throughout this section it is important to help the
student internalize the information; this can be done through Socratic Method,
personalization, and observation. A basic focus on what technology does for the
individual, and how these technologies can hurt individuals should be underlying
every discussion and lecture.
The second area is the environment. Students should be exposed to the
positive and negative by-products that technology has on the natural
environment. This can be done in a number of ways, such as: selecting a given
technology and then analyzing the positive/negative impacts of the technology, or
selecting a given area and analyzing that area in particular. For an additional
authentic learning opportunity, a field trip could be organized to visit a landfill, or
recycling plant, depending on what is available in the area.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
37
The third and final issue is the affect that technology has had on mankind
as a whole. This topic is similar to the first area, only now it is on a grander
scale. The student should observe how in the last decade technology has made
information widely accessible and with that comes consequences. The global
economy, global imbalance, and globalization should be three key terms
examined during lessons. It is important to open the student’s eyes and have
them scrutinize, if the ends justify the means.
A culminating activity should conclude this unit. The activity can range
from a recycling project, an ergonomics project, or even an alternative energies
project would be appropriate for this module. Projects can be done in groups or
individually depending on resources.
T-6 - Choosing Resources
In module T-6, students will be able to choose resources that are
appropriate for a problem. In order to be able to choose, students need to first
identify the seven resources. Once they have identified the resources, they will
be arranging them in the most optimized manner.
When choosing resources, students will need to know how the resource
was produced, whether it is natural or human made. Another key ingredient is
identifying the processing methods and production material.
Identifying, choosing, and using resources can be demonstrated by:




Choosing the most appropriate resources and fabricating a structure to
optimize the growth of a plant.
Plan out your day so that every minute is optimized.
Choose the most appropriate resources to design and fabricate a
machine shed
Identify different ways situations could hinder job completion.
There are many different compromises and tradeoffs that occur when
identifying and choosing a resource. We need to think how these impact our
society and environment before a resource is chosen. After the resource is
chosen, it has to be handled safely and properly, to minimize negative byproducts.
Once chosen, resources will need to be tested for different properties. We
need to know how the resource will react to different aspects of its environment.
Running tests will ensure that we know its different properties, and have a
thorough comprehension of the resources capabilities and limitations.
Testing for material properties can be demonstrated by:
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
38



Put an electrical charge through the resource, to determine whether it is
an insulator or conductor.
Squeeze a resource in a bench vise, seeing how much it compacts
Anchor a resource to the floor and pull it up using a pulley, seeing how
much it expands
T-7 - Processing Resources
Instructional strategies may be homework assignments, classroom
activities, and must include laboratory work. The focus is on processing
resources while analyzing the technological systems involved. A variety of
approaches should be used to address the needs of individual students. Final
assessment of student work should include the use of rubrics.
The instructor can demonstrate material conversion many ways for
example:
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Demonstrating combining resources by using the spot welder to weld two
pieces of steel on a sheet metal tool box.
Demonstrate separating resources by ripping a board on the table saw.
Demonstrate conditioning through research of metal work and forging
Students can discover the ways to convert energy by:
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Drawing, designing, and building CO2 cars. Students will learn about
potential energy in the CO2 as well as the kinetic energy as the result of
the car being launched down the track.
Discussing the ways that energy is created and used. Example: What
types of energy do we use to create electricity in our area and around the
world?
Constructing a solar panel converting light to electricity.
Constructing model wind mills and converting mechanical to electrical.
Constructing a locker alarm from a digital electronics kit, converting
electrical to sound.
During the construction and testing of various activities students will
use information management software to collect, record, classify, calculate,
store, and retrieve information about the activities they are working on.
Students will also be required to choose appropriate computer software for
the desired result.
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Using word processing software students can develop a technical
document explaining the steps needed to converting ft/sec to mph for their
CO2 cars.
Develop a spreadsheet to monitor the results of their windmills on a given
day over a period of testing days.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
39

Use the internet as a resource to develop a PowerPoint presentation on
fiber optics and the future of telecommunication technology or similar
assigned topic.
Digital multimedia should be incorporated into the instructional plan, using
digital photography and/or video. Students should edit the images and create a
video or slide show.
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Take digital pictures of various stages of progress on a given activity to
use as a slide show at the end of a semester or awards ceremony.
Visit a commercial manufacturing plant and video the processing of
resources, have students interview workers and then build an instructional
video for the course.
During a manufacturing unit create an advertisement video to aid in the
sale of goods produced.
During a manufacturing unit have students create a documentary of the
experience for the class as well as future classes.
Construction of jigs and fixtures or any other tooling can be recorded and
saved on file for reference.
Have students video tape instructor lessons, edit, and post on school
website for students who may have been absent.
T-8 - Controlling Technology
Controlling technology system will be 50% simulation and 50%
manufacturing. Using software called Control Studio 2 students will be able to
design and test electric circuits. During the manufacturing phase of the T8Controlling Technology module, students will build the designed electric circuit.
It is not necessary to construct every circuit designed with the software but, the
students should have examples of an open loop system and closed loop system.
However if your district has the necessary resources, (time, money, small class
size, etc.) assembling all of the recommended circuits will increase competency
and confidence of circuits and controlling systems. Students will have the
opportunity to evaluate the design, and experiment with different types of output.
Teacher activity can include:
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Spend two to three days reviewing problem solving system, and
developing strategies.
Cover concepts such as open loop systems, feedback, closed loop
systems, and sensors.
Familiarity with creating and evaluating circuit boards.
Have access to computers with the software Control Studio 2 installed.
Student activity can include:
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
40

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Apply problem solving strategy to design electronic circuits to meet
specific needs.
Using the software Control Studio 2 create and test circuits to meet
specified needs
Creating a circuit board from the design on the computer.
Keep paper or electronic journals of vocabulary, lectures, instruction and
written assignments.
Design a controlling system to solve a problem at home.
Suggested activities:
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Build a battery tester. The battery tester should have a LED light that
come on if the batteries has power.
Design a door bell circuit for a hearing impaired home owner.
Solar powered light system that only comes on at night.
Design sensor systems that will tell when your mail box has mail.
Design a cooling system for a room.
Design an alarm system for a jewelry box.
Some or all of these suggested activities can be combined to increase the
level of difficulty. For example students can build a model home for a hearing
impaired tenant that includes door bell, an intruder alarm, automatic lighting, and
cooling. It is extremely important to note that many students may design different
ways to solve that same problem. This kind of behavior should be encouraged
so students know that there are many ways to solve the same problem. All of the
necessary supplies can be purchase at www.kelvin.com
T-9 - Emerging Technologies
In an ever-changing technological society, we need to educate our youth
on up-and-coming technologies. Technological changes will continue to improve
our way of life, as the future unfolds.
In Module T-9, classes will be discussing how emerging technologies will
affect us on a personal, local, national, and global scale. Topics like alternative
fuels, bioengineering, biotechnology, fiber optics, global positioning systems,
hybrid vehicles, nano-technology, and wireless technologies should be
discussed.
Many of these technologies will have an immense impact on the
environment in which we live. Discussions on current technologies and related
problems, will give the students the foundation they will need to come up with
solutions. Current issues like pollution the ozone depletion, addresses societies
need to develop ways to solve problems.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
41
With many of our natural resources running out, we need to think about
ways in which to power our vehicles, homes, and businesses. Alternative power
sources such as hybrid vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, bio-diesel, hydrogen power,
and wind power will affect our lives and are important for future generations to
learn. An Internet research project would be a good way to expose the students
research an alternative power.
It is very important to express that technologies being introduced today will
impact the future world. Study should be of technologies that students might not
be currently aware. This would allow for communication among the class about
those various technologies and how they improve our lives. A project that
focuses the student’s attention on societal needs will accommodate this task.
Student may learn about emerging technologies, through the following:

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Constructing a model of an energy efficient home, describing all aspects
of what make the home efficient.
Use a solar paneling to create energy using light.
Map locations around the school using GPS.
Design and construct portable homeless shelter.
Emerging technologies will be a unit that will constantly change from yearto-year, and it will be the responsibility of the teacher to keep abreast, in order to
effectively teach this topic.
T-10 - Engineering Design Project
In Module T-10, “Engineering Design Project”, students must apply their
knowledge of systems and resources to develop multiple solutions to problems.
They will be taught how to work individually and cooperatively. It is important that
students experience various leadership roles and understand how responsibility
and accountability factor into the success of an individual.
Students are expected to design and develop solutions to technological
problems. T-10 is broken up into eight sub-categories that are organized
according to the design process. Ideally, this module should be incorporated into
each of the other nine modules so that the process of design can be utilized and
perfected throughout the student’s curriculum.
The key to this module is to spark the interests of the students and find
ways to motivate their interests. To make learning meaningful, the design
problems should be age appropriate and related to issues that students
understand. This can be accomplished by spending time discussing current
events associated with their daily lives, and how these events affect others.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
42
At the start of instruction, students must understand the objectives of the
activity. It is important that they know what is expected of them and how to make
connections between, what they learn, and the objectives of the lessons.
A teacher must do extensive planning for a project. Depending on what
materials and laboratory settings are available to the teacher, the way in which
the projects will be constructed is an important consideration. This can range
from basic manufacturing projects to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) based
projects. In any case, a laboratory work environment is essential. When working
with multiple groups of students, items such as classroom supplies, material
storage, project storage, and equipment maintenance are critical factors to
consider when planning any project.
Checking for understanding during and after a lesson is an essential
component of any module. It allows the teacher to gauge the progress of their
lessons, and it shows the progress of the students in relation to the student
objectives. This module is ideal for those teachers who like to incorporate a more
hands-on approach to the assessment strategies. For some students, this may
be a more realistic avenue for grading.
Themes or ideas for any projects in module T-10 should be generated by
the teacher as students in middle school often have a difficult time. The teacher
should focus project ideas around the equipment and materials present or
accessible in the laboratory. The teacher should also create the criteria and
constraints for any given project. Let the students have some freedom to make
important decisions but if you notice them heading in the wrong direction, offer
advice on how to advance. Management of resources such as materials, time,
and budget should be largely controlled by the students; but regulated by the
teacher.
Teamwork for students should be conducted in reasonably sized groups
and should be applied for any projects or activities taking place during this
module. Teams should be randomly assigned to get students to actively
participate with, and build skills with peers other than their friends. Do not assign
group roles; have the students decide upon roles. Teachers should look for
leaders while groups are working. Just because students do not have the “group
leader” title does not mean that they do not have great leadership attributes.
Students who lead and display such skills are often some of your best students
and should be challenged and encouraged by the teacher to strive for
excellence. Competition should be encouraged amongst groups. Rewards
should be given.
Rubrics for each project/activity should be provided to each student. When
rubrics are distributed, it helps the students to understand exactly what is
expected from the teacher. Students should evaluate their peers as well as
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
43
themselves for each project/activity. Have columns for their own evaluations,
along with the teacher evaluation. Separate anonymous evaluation sheets should
be provided at the end of each activity for peer evaluation and leadership skills.
All research for any project/activity should be accomplished by the students.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
44
Technology Learning Activities (samples)
The new learning activities, completed in this 2006 revision, are listed here and linked
electronically to other documents on the CD version. The CD will be needed for these
links, as the file size is too large for Internet posting.
T-1 Brain Teaser Puzzle By Western.ppt
T-2 Wright Stuff By Brittain
T-3 Electric Vehicle Design By Bennett.ppt
T-3 Flying Without a License By Fry.ppt
T-4 Photo Fantasy By Shepis.ppt
T-5 Fantastic Plastic By Syck
T-6 Destruction By Musch.ppt
T-7 CAM Clock By Mitchell.ppt
T-8 Home Alone By Cox.ppt
T- 9 Communicating With Satellites GPS By Terpening
T-9 Wind Farm By Morse
T-10 Homeless Shelter By Elliott.ppt
T-10 Hook Line or Sink By Meaney.ppt
Sample Technology Learning Activities from original 1986 “Bluebook” (available
in print from NYSED)
T-1
Early Technical Devices
Time: The Fourth Dimension
T-2
Logo Design and Production
Using Solar Energy to Cook Food
T-3
Energy Transfer Devices
Load Bearing Structure – Design Problem
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
45
Plants with One Parent
Simulations and Modeling
(Note: 2006 Update switches Modules T-2 and T-3 for better continuity)
T-4
Basic Security/Detection Devices
Production Systems
T-5
Hydroponics Greenhouse
Habitats in an Alien Environment
T-6
Production and Marketing Pharmaceutical Products
Choosing Materials through Materials Testing
T-7
Food Processing
Energy processing: Building an Energy Resource Bank
T-8
Sensors and Controls – The Ultimate System
Controlling Technological Systems
T-9
Future Visions: Becoming Part of the Solution
Surface Science Technology
Waste Processing Technology
T-10 Computer Control
Clean the Air
Telecommunication Systems
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
46
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47
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Websites
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
54
Allstar Network. (2006). Aeronautics learning laboratory for science, technology,
and research. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/
Archkidecture. (2006). Architecture for children. Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://www.archkidecture.org/
Auto-Code. (2006). Software packages to changes drawings into CNC coding.
Retrieved February 5, 2006, from http://www.autocode.com
BBC. (n.d.). Design and technology topics. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design
Bill Nye. (2005). Bill Nye’s web site. Retrieved January, 2006, from
http://www.billnye.com
Blender Foundation. (2006). Blender: Open source 3D graphics creation.
Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://www.blender3d.com/cms/Home.2.0.html
Bridge Contest. (n.d.). West Point bridge design contest. Retrieved February 1,
2006, from http://bridgecontest.usma.edu
CadStd. (n.d.). CAD standard. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www.cadstd.com
CADTutor (2005). CADTutor the best free tutorials on the web. Retrieved
February 5, 2006 from http://www.cadtutor.net
CES National Web (1996). Horace developing curriculum in essential schools.
Retrieved February 4, 2006 from www.essentialschools.org
Cislunar Aerospace, Inc. (2002). The k-8 aeronautics internet textbook. Retrieved
February 1, 2006, from http://wings.avkids.com/
Council on Technology Teacher Education (CTTE) (2005). CTTE web site.
Retrieved March 5, 2005 from http://teched.vt.edu/ctte.
CTE (2006). Technology Education activities and resources. Retrieved February
4, 2006, from
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/workforce_development/technology/res
ource.html
Discover Engineering. (2005). Zoom into engineering activities. Retrieved
February 4, 2006, from
http://www.discoverengineering.org/Engineering/zoom_activities.asp
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
55
Edheads. (2005). Edheads activate your mind. Retrieved February 2, 2006, from
http://edheads.org/activities/simplemachines/
Emachineshop.com. (2005). Machine custom parts online (free 3-d CAD
software). Received February 1, 2006, from
http://www.emachineshop.com
Energy Information Administration. (2006). Energy information: Energy kid’s
page. Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/index.html
Engineering.com. The engineer’s ultimate resource tool. Retrieved February 5,
2006, from
http://www.engineering.com/content/index.jsp?disciplineID=mechanical
&tab
Epsilon Pi Tau Honorary Fraternity in Technology (2005). Retrieved March 31,
2005 from http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/technology/ept
FreeByte (2006). FreeByte!. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from
http://www.freebyte.com
Gizmag (2005). Gizmag. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from
http://www.gizmag.com
Google. (2006a). Image search. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi&q
Google (2006b). Sketch Up: Model your world (free 3-D Cad Software).
Retrieved May14, 2006, from http://sketchup.google.com
History of Science Society (2005). History of science society. Retrieved March
31, 2005 from http://depts.washington.edu/hssexec/
HowStuffWorks. (2006). HowStuffWorks. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www.howstuffworks.com
I Support Learning (2006). Technology Education: Immersive curricula. Retrieved
February 4, 2006, from
http://www.isupportlearning.com/designtech.htm
Journal of Technology Education (2005). JITE. Retrieved March 31, 2005 from
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
56
ITEA. (n.d.) International Technology Education Association. Retrieved February
3, 2006, From http://www.iteaconnect.org/index.html
ITSE. (n.d.). International Society for Technology Education. Retrieved February
3, 2006, from http://www.iste.org
Jones, R. (n.d.). Welcome to Hannibal Technology Education. Retreived
February 2, 2006, from
http://www.hannibal.cnyric.org/teacherwebs/Rjones/technology/index.h
tm
Kid Compute. (n.d.). KidCompute: make a website. Retrieved February 5, 2006
from http://www.kidcompute.com/makeawebsite.html
LJ technologies. (2006). Creators of education and training resources. Retrieved
February 3, 2006, from http://www.ljgroup.com/index.asp
Macaulay, D. (2000). Building big. Retreived February 23, 2006, from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/
Mark Howard’s Technology Education Site. (n.d.). Mark Howard’s Technology
Education Site. Retrieved February 4, 2006, from
http://www.web.bsu.edu/teched2/
Mountain Brook Schools. (2003). Technology Education curriculum. Retrieved
February 4, 2006 from, www.mtnbrook.k12.al.us
Mr. C’s Co2 racing resources (2006). Design build and dust the competition.
Retrieved February 4, 2006 from,
Http://co2.technologyeducator.com./welcome.htm
NASA. (2006) Activities for students of all ages. Retrieved February 4, 2006,
from http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/index.html
NASA (n.d.). Aeronautics resources. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www.lerc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/aerores.htm
NASA (2006). NASA for kids. Retrieved February 4, 2006, from
www.nsa.gov/audience/for kids/home/index.html
NASA. (2006). NASA home page. Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html?skipIntro=1
National Museum of Science and Technology: Leonardo da Vinci (2006).
Leonardo’s machines. Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://www.museoscienza.org/english/leonardo/default.htm
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
57
National Parks Service. (n.d.). Aviation: From sand dunes to sonic booms.
Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/aviation/
National Science Resources Center. (n.d.). Science and technology concepts for
middle schools. Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://www.stcms.si.edu/stcms.htm
Online Science Activities. (n.d.). Calculate your EQ. Retrieved February 4, 2006,
from http://www.omsi.edu/Explore/online.cfm
Oregon Museum of Science and Industry. (n.d.). Engineer it. Retrieved February
4, 2006, from http://www.omsi.edu/visit/physics/engineerit/games.cfm
PBS & The National Science Foundation. (2000). Building big: Bridges, domes,
skyscrapers, dams and tunnels. Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/
Pitsco. (n.d.) Pitsco leaders in education. Retrieved February 3, 2006, from
www.Pitsco.com
Project Lead the Way, web site, (2004). Retrieved September 15, 2004 from
http://www.pltw.org
Re-Energy.ca. (n.d.). Renewable energy from water. Retrieved February 5, 2006,
http://www.re-energy.ca/t_waterpower.shtml
Science and Technology Tips (2006). Science fair project ideas. Retrieved
February 4, 2006 from www.knowledgehound.com
Smithsonian Education. (2006). Smithsonian education. Retrieved January 15,
2006, from http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/students/index.html
Smithsonian Institution. (2006). Transportation history. Retrieved February 5,
2006, from http://www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmah/transportation.htm
Society for Philosophy and Technology (2005). SPT. Retrieved March 31, 2005
from http://www.spt.org/
Southwest Wind Power. (2005). Renewable energy made simple. Retrieved
February 5, 2006, from http://www.windenergy.com
Structures Around the World. (2000). Activities for the elementary classroom.
Retrieved January, 2006, from http://www.exploratorium.edu/structures
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
58
Techne Journal (2005). Retrieved March 31, 2005 from
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/SPT/spt.html
Technology in Education. (2001). Resource center. Retrieved February 5, 2006,
from http://www.rtec.org/
Technology Student Association (2006). Organization for students. Retrieved
February 5, 2006, from http://www.tsaweb.org/
Tjomsland, P. (2004). Free stuff for educators. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from,
http://www.kalama.com/~zimba/freeforteachers.htm
TSA. (2006) Technology Student Association. Retrieved February 3, 2006, from
www.TSA.com
U.S. Department of Energy. (2005) EERE kids: Dr. E’s energy lab. Retrieved
February 5, 2006, from http://www.eere.energy.gov/kids/index.html
USGS (2006). United States energy and world energy production and
consumption statistics. Retrieved May 11, 2006, from Central Region
Energy Resources Team via
http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/energy/stats_ctry/Stt1.html
Wikipedia. (2006). The free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Wolfram Research. (2006). Recreational mathematics – from MathWorld.
Retrieved February 5, 2006, from
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/RecreationalMathematics.html
Workers’ Compensation Board of BC (2006). Work safe BC: Safety at work.
Retrieved February 1, 2006, from
http://www2.worksafebc.com/Topics/YoungWorker/ResourcesEducators.asp
Classic Bibliographic Resources for Technology Education Curriculum
AIAA (Warner, W., Ed.) (1947). A curriculum to reflect technology. Columbus,
OH: American Industrial Arts Association.
Cochran, L. (1970). Innovative programs in industrial education. Bloomington,
IN: McKnight and McKnight.
DeVore, P. (1980). Technology: An introduction. Worcester, MA: Davis
Publications.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
59
Dugger, W. (1980). The standards project- report of survey data. Blacksburg,
VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Hales, J.A. & Snyder, J.F., (Ed), (1982). Jackson's Mill Industrial Arts curriculum
theory. Charlestown, WV: West Virginia Department of Education.
Iley, J.L. (1987). Pittsburgh, Kansas, in The Technology Teacher, February,
1987. Reston, VA: International Technology Education Association.
Olson, D. W., (1963). Industrial Arts and technology. Englewood Cliffs, NY:
Prentice Hall.
Smith, A. (1976 - first authored 1776). An inquiry into the nature and causes
ofthe wealth of nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Towers, E. R., Lux, D. G., Ray, W. E., (1966). A rationale and structure for
Industrial Arts subject matter. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State
University.
Tryon, V. (1988). The Oswego Technology Education credo. Unpublished
document.
Tyler, R. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum & instruction. Chicago:
University of Chicago (27th printing, 1967).
Vaughn, S., & Mayson, A. (1924). Content and methods of the Industrial Arts.
New York & London: The Century Company.
Wilber, G. O. (1948). Industrial Arts in general education. Scranton, PA: The
Haddon Craftsmen, Inc.
CTTE Yearbooks
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (2004). Ethics for citizenship in a
technological world. (Hill, R. B. , Ed.). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGrawHill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (2003). Selecting instructional
strategies for Technology Education. (Helgeson & Shwaller, Eds.).
Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (2002). Standards for technological
literacy: The role of Teacher Education. Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGrawHill.
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
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Council on Technology Teacher Education. (2001). Appropriate technology for
sustainable living. (Wicklein, R.C., Ed.). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGrawHill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (2000). Technology Education for
the 21st century. (Martin, E. E., Ed.). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (1999). Advancing professionalism
in Technology Education. (Gilberti & Rouch, Eds.). Peoria, IL:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (1998). Diversity in Technology
Education. (Rider, B. L., Ed.). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (1997). Elementary school
Technology Education. (Kirkwood & Foster, Eds.). Peoria, IL:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (1996).Technology and the quality of
life. (Custer & Wiens Eds.). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (1995). Foundations of Technology
Education. (Martin, G. E., Ed.). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
Council on Technology Teacher Education. (1994). Construction in Technology
Education. (Wescott & Henak, Eds.). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGrawHill.
Periodicals and Journals of Importance

“The New York State Technology Teacher”, journal of the New York
State Technology Education Association

“The Technology Teacher”, journal of the International Technology
Education Association

“Tech Directions”

“Journal of Epsilon Pi Tau’, honor fraternity in Technology Education

“Kappan”, journal of Phi Delta Kappa, an honorary educational
fraternity
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
61

Yearbooks, published by the Council on Technology Teacher
Education, a council of ITEA
Association






International Technology Education Association
New York State Technology Education Association
Technology Education associations from other states
American Vocational Association
Council of Technology Teacher Educators (ITEA)
Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
62
Standards Correlation Matrix - New York State’s 28 Learning Standards
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Civics, Citizenship, & Government
Economics
Geography
Social Studies
History of US and NY
Lang
Other
Than
English
Cultural Understanding
Lang for Social Interaction
Lang for Critical Analysis & Evaluation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Lang for Literary Response & Expression
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
English Language
Arts
Language and Info & Understanding
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Career Majors
Universal Foundation Skills
X
Integrated Learning
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Career Development
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Career
Development and
Occupational
Studies
Cultural Contributions of the Arts
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Responding to an Analyzing Works of Art
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Knowing & Using Arts Materials
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Creating, Perform, Participation
Interdisciplinary Problem Solving
X
X
X
X
X
Interconnectedness
X
X
X
X
Technology
Information Systems
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Science
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
The Arts
Mathematics
Mod 1 - Tech and Soc
Mod 2 – Prob Solving
Mod 3 – Resources
Mod 4 – Systems
Mod 5 – Effects
Mod 6 – Choosing Res
Mod 7 – Processing Res
Mod 8 – Controlling
Mod 9 – Emerging
Mod 10 – Engineering
Analysis, Inquiry, & Design
2006 Oswego Update
Project V2 “Bluebook”
Math, Science, & Technology
Resource Management
“Technology
Systems”
Personal Health & Fitness
For Course Title
A Safe & Healthy Environment
Health,
Physical Ed,
& Consumer
Science
© 2006 by William Waite
Communication Skills
Complete standards at http://eservices.nysed.gov/vls
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
63
Standards Correlation Matrix – CDOS – Career Development and Occupational Studies - Learning Standards
Mod 2 – Prob Solving
Mod 3 – Resources
Mod 4 – Systems
Mod 5 – Effects
Mod 6 – Choosing Res
Mod 7 – Processing Res
Mod 8 – Controlling
Mod 9 – Emerging
Mod 10 – Engineering
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
CDOS 3.a.8 - Systems
CDOS 3.a.7 – Managing
Resources
CDOS 3.a.6 – Managing
Information
CDOS 3.a.5 - Technology
CDOS 3.a.4 – Interpersonal Skills
CDOS 3.a 3 – Personal Qualities
CDOS 3.a.2 – Thinking Skills
2006 Oswego Update
Project V2 “Bluebook”
Mod 1 - Tech and Soc
CDOS 3.a.1 – Basic Skills
“Technology
Systems”
CDOS 2 – Integrated Learning
For Course Title
CDOS 1 – Career Development
© 2006 by William Waite
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
64
Standards Correlation Matrix – International Technology Education Association - Learning Standards
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
5.0 The Designed World
Mod 1 – Technology and Society
Mod 2 – Problem Solving Using Technology
Mod 3 – Resources for Technology
Mod 4 – Systems and Sub-systems of Technology
Mod 5 – Technology’s Effects on People and the Environment
Mod 6 – Choosing Resources
Mod 7 – Processing Resources
Mod 8 – Controlling Technology
Mod 9 – Emerging Technology
Mod 10 – Engineering Design Project
4.0 Abilities for a Technological
World
2006 Oswego Update Project V2 “Bluebook”
3.0 Design
“Technology Systems”
2.0 Technology and Society
For Course Title
© 2006 by William Waite
1.0 The Nature of Technology
Complete standards at http://www.iteaconnect.org
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
65
Appendix A – Assessment Sample Questions and Rubrics
T-1 – Technology and Society
1. What is the correct order for the historical periods?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Information Age, Agricultural Age, Industrial Age
Industrial Age, Agricultural Age, Information Age
Agricultural Age, Industrial Age, Information Age
Agricultural Age, Information Age, Industrial Age
2. In a factory system, people make goods by
A.
B.
C.
D.
hand
machine
animal power
natural selection
3. Which is not a resource for technology?
A.
B.
C.
D.
people
time
materials
none of the above
4. Which simple machine would best raise a heavy object vertically?
A.
B.
C.
D.
screw
pulley
wheel and axe
lever
5. Technology refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
knowledge of the natural world
the ability to do work
using knowledge to turn resources into goods and services
the ability to manipulate tools for a productive outcome
6. Which is an environmental impact caused by industrial exhaust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
clean water
acid rain
fresh air
greener grass
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
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66
7. Which is not a type of building?
A.
B.
C.
D.
environmental
commercial
residential
industrial
8. Engineering drawings are used to communicate information for
A.
B.
C.
D.
consumers
manufacturing
sales representatives
students
9. Communication is done to provide visual information. One format is graphic
and the other is
A.
B.
C.
D.
physical
imaginative
electronic
analog
10. Manufacturing would be considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
individual custom parts
quantity mass production
mass production and some custom parts
none of the above
11. A type of manufacturing would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
flexible manufacturing
on time manufacturing
non-flexible manufacturing
rigid manufacturing
12. Airplanes fly due to this force
A.
B.
C.
D.
lift
gravity
pressure
vacuum
13. Trains were used initially to transport
I. People
IV. Supplies
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
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67
II. Cars
III. Livestock
A.
B.
C.
D.
I and II
III and IV
I and IV
I, III, IV
14. Biotechnology is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
use of living organisms to make products and new forms of life
use of biology to build houses
study of science and technology
understanding of organisms and how they work
15. A primitive tool would be a
A.
B.
C.
D.
sharpened stone lashed to a stick
rope tied into a knot
steel hammer
blimp
16. This was important to early primates because it was an excellent source of
non- consumable energy
A.
B.
C
D.
wind turbine
fire
earth
leaves
17. A material that is produced in a laboratory would be considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
fake
imaginary
synthetic
natural
18. The atom is the _______ unit of an element
A.
B.
C.
D.
largest
negative
positive
smallest
19. Virtual reality uses _______ to create 3D environments
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
68
A.
B.
C.
D.
artificial intelligence
mirrors and lenses
the imagination
video game systems
20. Human dependency on complex machines creates
A.
B
C.
D.
an easier life style
techno-stress
lazy people
none of the above
T-2 – Problem Solving Using Technology
21. A client indicates to a construction company that they want a two car garage
with separate automatic doors and extra storage area. This describes
A.
B.
C.
D.
clarifying problem specifications and constraints
communicating your achievements
redesigning the solution
researching and investigation
22. A company has hired you to design a toy for toddlers, they limit the parts to
no smaller then 2 ½” to prevent chocking hazards. This is an example of a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
aesthetics
constraints
justifications
specifications
23. A marketing team has gathered to develop ideas for an advertisement. They
will chat, sketch, and jot down ideas on large pieces of paper that can be
considered later. They are
A.
B.
C.
D.
brainstorming
graphing
sequencing
testing
24. At the end of each study a medical funding company requires that all
individuals receiving funding must collect, organize, and present a(n)
A. application
B. budget
C. portfolio
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
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69
D. proposal
25. An automobile company contacts recent purchasers to question them about
service and product satisfaction. This form of evaluation is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
checklists
graphing
random testing
surveys
26. A drawing showing the front, top, and right side view of a doll house is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
isometric drawing
orthographic drawing
perspective drawing
pictorial drawing
27. Consumers will purchase products with enjoyable appearance. This design
factor is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
aesthetics
durability
ergonomics
performance
28. During a design challenge one can return to any step in the process as it is
a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.
closed-loop system
linear system
open procedure
operating system
29. During this stage all solutions are possible; the team records each idea to
later be considered
A.
B.
C.
D.
choose and justify the optimal solution
generate alternative designs
redesign the solution
research and investigate
30. A desk design company has asked competitors to construct full scale,
operational models of their solutions, called
A. appearance model
B. functional model
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C. prototype
D. scale model
31. In studying previous work done in a field you should collect information from
as many areas as possible (industry, library, web, etc.), which are referred to as
A.
B.
C.
D.
forming questions
investigations
justifications
sources
32. Need, design, produce, purchase, use and dispose are all stages in
A.
B.
C.
D.
a linear system
a non-linear system
an operating cycle of a product
a life cycle of a product
33. Suzy is at the stage where she will read her working drawing and set of
procedures to produce her desk organizer. This describes
A.
B.
C.
D.
choose and justifying the optimal solution
developing a prototype
generating alternative designs
testing and evaluating
34. The difference between purchasing a compact car and a luxury sports car to
commute (travel) to work
A.
B.
C.
D.
appearance model versus functional model
invention versus innovation
need versus want
prototype versus model
35. The first time Thomas Edison’s experiments created a successfully working
light bulb is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
documentation
ergonomics
innovation
invention
36. The non-linear process of solving a technological problem through research,
investigations, evaluation and revision.
A. design challenge
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B. design statement
C. informed design
D. scientific inquiry
37. Upon receiving several models for a new alarm clock, the management
decision team sits down to review all areas of the product and to select one The
team will consider
A.
B.
C.
D.
evaluation practices
methods to solve a problem
trade offs and optimization
various design challenges
38. When designing a new backpack, a company must take ergonomics into
consideration, this means the company is researching
A.
B.
C.
D.
how comfort it is to use
how long the product will last
if it works as it is intended
the affects of manufacturing the product
39. When redesigning notes, records of problems, and justifications should all be
recorded to serve as
A.
B.
C.
D.
checklists
documentation
proposal
specifications
40. You have been assigned the task of designing a robot that will perform by
moving in all directions and stopping before it runs into any objects that may be
in its path. This describes
A.
B.
C.
D.
constraints
documentations
justifications
specifications
T-3 – Resources for Technology
41. Which resources can be replenished?
A. renewable
B. nonrenewable
C. fossil fuel
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D. none of the above
42. Which are means of exchange?
A.
B.
C.
D.
barter
money
stocks and bonds
all of the above
43. Which is NOT a useful source of energy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
wind
the sun
fiberglass
a nuclear reactor
44. Which influences technology?
A.
B.
C.
D.
necessity
cultures
resource availability
all of the above
45. Major investments in technology include
A.
B.
C.
D.
land
facilities
equipment
all of the above
46. The use of fiber optic cables has effected this the most
A.
B.
C.
D.
global communications
manufacturing
third world countries
transportation
47. Resources for technology do not include
A.
B.
C.
D.
labor
tourists
consumers
management
48. Resources can be
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A.
B.
C.
D.
mined
grown
converted to basic industrial materials
all of the above
49. Resource availability can be limited due to
A.
B.
C.
D.
an inability to replenish/renew supply
difficulties with transportation
geographic region/climate
all of the above
50. Considering a hard-to-acquire resource for a given technology, one should
always consider
A.
B.
C.
D.
giving up on the project
alternative resources
trying to get someone else to deal with the problem
eliminating the resource even though it is a necessary component.
51. Which is not one of the seven resources of technology?
A.
B.
C.
D.
time
people
land
energy
52. A renewable form of energy is
A.
B.
C.
D.
wind
oil
coal
nuclear
53. Which type of resource would be considered green technology?
A.
B.
C.
D.
renewable
non-renewable
fossil fuel
nuclear
54. What needs consideration when selecting resources?
A. availability
B. environmental impact
C. short and long term costs
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D. all of the above
55. A renewable resource using the movement of water is
A.
B.
C.
D.
nuclear
hydroelectric
geothermal
solar
56. Which is NOT a capital resource of technology?
A.
B.
C.
D.
money
land
barter
labor
57. People involved in the development of technologies include
A.
B.
C.
D.
laborers
inventors/innovators
consumers
all of the above
58. Which is not a form of energy?
A. thermal
B. material
C. magnetic
D. electric
59. A source of energy that uses the heat of the earth is called
A. radiant earth
B. bio mass
C. fuel cell
D. geothermal
60. The oldest form of capital exchange was
A. money
B. e-commerce
C. barter
D. stocks and bonds
T-4 – Systems and Sub-systems
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61. Which device does NOT have many different sub-systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
computer
automobile
a calculator
a bookshelf
62. What is a good definition for a system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
parts that work together but do nothing
things that help our daily lives
parts of a computer that will work together to get the work finished
group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole
63. What components are necessary when designing a system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
input
output
resources
all the above
64. What is a closed loop system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
needs no input device to run
a system that that uses feedback to affect the process
has no output
a system that uses no feedback to affect the process
65. What is an open loop system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
needs no input device to run
a system that that uses feedback to affect the process
has no output
a system that uses no feedback to affect the process
66. How do I know when a system is present?
A.
B.
C.
D.
systems have many different sub-systems that work together
some one has to tell you
there is no clear definition
you must be college-trained
67. What is NOT an input device for a computer?
A. mouse
B. printer
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C. CD drive burner
D. keyboard
68. What is NOT an output device for a computer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
monitor
printer
CD drive burner
mouse
69. If your teacher gave you directions and walked out of a room it would be
considered a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
open loop system
closed loop system
pre-loop system
synergistic system
70. If your teacher gave you directions, stayed in the room, and gave you
feedback, it would be an
A.
B.
C.
D.
open loop system
closed loop system
pre-loop system
synergistic system
71. Humans design systems to
A.
B.
C.
D.
satisfy wants and needs
understand how the world works
improve the quality of life
prove a point
72. Two types of systems are
A.
B.
C.
D.
dynamic and extensive systems
large loop and small loop systems
closed and open loop systems
adjustable and non-adjustable systems
73. When two systems are combined to form a new system, the original systems
become _____________ of the new system.
A. post systems
B. pre systems
C. sub systems
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D. main systems
74. People combine systems to
A.
B.
C.
D.
save money
save the environment
makes systems simpler
to produce more powerful systems
75. A sports car kept crashing at high speeds. Remaining cars were called back
to the factory and a rear air spoiler was put on. Which parts of a closed loop
system were used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
monitor, feedback, adjustment
command, resource input, output
monitor, output, feedback
input, output, feedback
76. Open loop systems are unable to adjust for
A. money shortages
B. changing conditions
C. power failures
D. one command input
77. In an assembly line, the actual product would be considered part of a system
A.
B.
C.
D.
output
input
resources
monitor
78. People, information, materials, tools, energy, time, and capital are
A.
B.
C.
D.
outputs
feedback
resources
monitors
79. A company wants to build a product that will cook breakfast, lunch, and
dinner. This would be considered what part of a system?
A. resources
B. monitor
C. input
D. output
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80. If the same company were to sell the product, this would be considered what
part of the system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
output
input
monitor
resources
T-5 Technology’s Effects on People and the Environment
81. Which is NOT a possible outcome of technology?
A.
B.
C.
D.
expected
desired
related
undesired
82. What human needs does technology attempt to satisfy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
food
shelter
clothing
all of the above
83. Which problem types can technology solve?
A.
B.
C.
D.
scientific
natural
manufacturing
organic
84. Which “technological age” relied heavily on land?
A.
B.
C.
D.
agricultural
industrial
information
communication
85. What is one of the effects that technology has had on people’s every day
routines?
A.
B.
C.
D.
more free time
less productivity
bad eye sight
decrease in mobility
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86. Technology has caused what is called a “global imbalance”, which is
A. countries joining forces
B. the amount of nuclear weapons possessed by one country
C. the gap between technologically advanced countries and those without
D. the distribution of the world’s population
87. What is a suggested way to solve the problem of pollution?
A.
B.
C.
D.
alternative energies
mass production
vegetarianism
public transportation
88. Which is most closely related to math?
A.
B.
C.
D.
compact discs vs. cassettes
metric system vs. English measurement
glass vs. plastic
computers vs. typewriters
89. What affect has technology had on human longevity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
increased
decreased
stayed the same
varies
90. What technological era are we currently in?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Industrial Age
Computer Age
Information Age
Stone Age
91. What must technology do to the natural environment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
overcome
change
adapt
evolve
92. What effect(s) has technology had on the manner in which we use our
resources?
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A.
B.
C.
D.
condensed
increased the amount of resources
increased efficiency
decrease resources all together
93. Which is NOT a negative effect of technology on the natural environment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
global warming
deforestation
conservation
acid rain
94. What has technology done to social awareness and people’s knowledge of
global events?
A.
B.
C.
D.
increase
decrease
stayed the same
variable
95. Which is NOT considered an alternative energy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
hydro-electric
solar
nuclear
wind
96. What type of technological outcomes does pollution have?
A.
B.
C.
D.
desired/ expected
undesired/expected
desired/ unexpected
none of the above
97. What is one area that technology does not affect?
A. oceans
B. outer space
C. South Pole
D. none of the above
98. Which types of technology have a positive impact on our society?
A. communication
B. nuclear
C. medical
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D. all of the above
99. When designing a product, the designers must be concerned with the
product’s
A.
B.
C.
D.
aesthetics
ergonomics
shortcomings
all of the above
100. One of the outcomes of technology that every person in the world should be
concerned with is
A.
B.
C.
D.
alternative energies
global economy
telecommunications
pollution
Answer Key 1-100
1. C
2. B
3. D
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. A
8. B
9. C
10. B
11. A
12. C
13. D
14. A
15. A
16. B
17. C
18. D
19. A
20. B
21.
22.
23.
24.
A
B
A
C
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25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
D
B
A
C
B
C
D
D
B
C
D
C
C
A
B
D
41. A
42. D
43. C
44. D
45. C
46. A
47. B
48. D
49. D
50. B
51. C
52. D
53. A
54. D
55. B
56. D
57. D
58. B
59. D
60. C
61. D
62. A
63. D
64. B
65. D
66. A
67. B
68. D
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69. A
70. B
71. A
72. C
73. C
74. D
75. A
76. B
77. A
78. C
79. D
80. A
81. C
82. D
83. C
84. A
85. A
86. C
87. A
88. B
89. A
90. C
91. C
92. C
93. C
94. A
95. C
96. C
97. D
98. D
99. D
100. D
T-6 - Choosing Resources
101. Which is not one of the seven resources?
A.
B.
C.
D.
capital
space
energy
information
102. Which describes how much profit can be made off of a project?
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A.
B.
C.
D.
materials
people
place
capital
103. The process of building a product economically is
A.
B.
C.
D.
resource efficiency
time management
cost effective
production
104. The process of using your materials efficiently is
A.
B.
C.
D.
resource efficiency
time management
cost effective
reverse engineering
105. The process of using your time wisely is
A.
B.
C.
D.
resource efficiency
time management
cost effective
reverse engineering
106. Minimum waste in a construction project is
A.
B.
C.
D.
resource efficiency
time management
cost effectiveness
reverse engineering
107. When choosing a resource you should know its
A.
B.
C.
D.
availability
cost
appropriateness
all of the above
108. When purchasing a product at the hardware store you should choose the
product that
A. you can get the most out of for your money
B. you can carry
C. is not heavy
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D. is the brightest color
109. When testing a resource by squeezing it, you are testing for
A.
B.
C.
D.
compression
conduction
Insulation
shear strength
110. When testing a resource by stretching it out, you are testing for
A.
B.
C.
D.
compression
tension
torsion
shear strength
111. When testing a resource by twisting it, you are testing for
A.
B.
C.
D.
compression
conduction
torsion
shear strength
112. When testing a resource by cutting it, you are testing for
A.
B.
C.
D.
insulation
tension
torsion
shear strength
113. If a resource conveys an electrical charge it
A.
B.
C.
D.
insulates it
has shear strength
has high torsion strength
conducts it
114. If a resource does not convey an electrical charge it
A.
B.
C.
D.
insulates it
has shear strength
has high tension strength
conducts it
115. After a resource is used a number of times there will be
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A.
B.
C.
D.
a risk of depletion
more of it
no environmental impact
free use
116. If a resource has high tension strength, it can’t be
A.
B.
C.
D.
run over by a vehicle
cut in half on the band saw
pulled apart by two people
twisted in a gear box
117. When choosing a resource you should explore its
A.
B.
C.
D.
human constraints
natural constraints
processes available
all of the above
118. If a resource conducts electricity you should use it
A.
B.
C.
D.
around water
in a lighting storm
with proper insulators
with cloth gloves
119. If all the hours allotted to work on a project are used up too soon
A.
B.
C.
D.
cost effectiveness
resource efficiency
time management
you being the best worker
120. If you are allotted a certain amount of money for project completion, and
there is money left over when completed; this is
A.
B.
C.
D.
resource efficiency
that the project wasn’t completed correctly
time management
cost effectiveness
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Module T-7 Processing Resources
121. All of these are examples of combining materials except
A.
B.
C.
D.
gluing
nailing
ripping
welding
122. A table saw is a machine used to
A.
B.
C.
D.
separate materials
combine materials
weigh materials
hold pieces of wood together
123. An example of forming a material would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
nailing two boards together
forging metal into car wheels
a birdhouse
laying out pencil lines with a square
124. A machine that we use to join metal would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
scroll saw
spot welder
jointer
hacksaw
125. A box and pan break is used to
A.
B.
C.
D.
form metal by bending
make perfectly round bends in metal
make 45 degree cuts in wood
cut notches in metal
126. Any tool/machine in the laboratory should never be used unless you have
A.
B.
C.
D.
a partner
gone to college
asked the instructors permission
checked if it is broken
127. The type of energy that is stored in an object
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A.
B.
C.
D.
kinetic
massive
potential
oblique
128. The type of energy created by stretching a rubber band and letting it go in the air
A.
B.
C.
D.
kinetic
passive
potential
oblique
129. The energy used to cut a board to length with a crosscut handsaw
A.
B.
C.
D.
solar
nuclear
burning calories/muscle power
radiation
130. A _______________ converts the suns energy into electrical energy
A.
B.
C.
D.
battery
windmill
bike
photovoltaic cell
131. Batteries create electricity as the result of a ______________ reaction
A.
B.
C.
D.
mineral
chemical
solar
water
132. Drilling into the earth and harnessing the heat energy generated by the core
A.
B.
C.
D.
geothermal
nuclear
kinetic
the ocean
133. Heating water to make steam that turns electrical turbines using uranium rods
A.
B.
C.
D.
solar
hydroelectric
collecting
nuclear
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134. Filling up your car with gasoline and then driving a long distance is an example of energy
conversion known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
nuclear fusion
chemical to mechanical
Albany to Los Angeles
solar power
135. Using a waterwheel to run a generator to produce electricity is an example of energy
conversion known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
mechanical to electrical
water to wind
mechanical to thermal
electric to light
136. A radio is a good example of energy conversion known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
electrical to sound
mechanical to thermal
light to sound
sound to wind
137. A typical word processing software would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
Excel
Word
PowerPoint
Paint
138. The greatest electronic source of information
A.
B.
C.
D.
library
your teacher
Internet
dictionary
139. The term digital multimedia refers to such technology as
A.
B.
C.
D.
band saw, table saw, drill press
cell phone, video camera, digital camera
calculator, adding machine, copy machine
spot welder, MIG welder, grinder
140. Fiber optics enable the long distance transmission of data in
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A.
B.
C.
D.
sound signals
electrical current
light waves
copper wire
T-8 - Controlling Technology
141. Which is an open loop system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
a system that is open
can’t adjust to changing condition
adjust to change in condition
a system that loops over and over again
142. Which is a closed loop system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
a system that is open
can’t adjust to changing condition
adjusts to change in condition.
a system that loops over and over again.
143. Which is not a part of the open loop system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
input
output
process
feedback
144. Which is an example of an open loop?
A.
B.
C.
D.
computer program
toilet water tank
DVD player
television
145. Feedback is information obtained by monitoring the ___________ and
allowing for adjustments
A.
B.
C.
D.
output
input
process
income
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146. George wants to install a sensor to turn on the porch light when it’s dark.
What kind of sensor should he use?
A.
B.
C.
D.
thermal
motion
optical
electrical
147. All are sensors except
A.
B.
C.
D.
human
optical
thermal
magnetic
147. An optical sensor senses
A.
B.
C.
D.
temperature
motion
density
light
148. A thermal sensor senses
A.
B.
C.
D.
temperature
motion
density
light
149. Your neighbor’s garage light comes on at 6:30 PM every night and off at
6:00 AM. What kind of control is most likely used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
computer control
human control
timer control
magnetic control
150. A comparator
A.
B.
C.
D.
compares the output to the command input
compares the monitor to the output
uses compressors to crush objects
is a technology resource
151. To keep your home at a comfortable temperature, we use
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A.
B.
C.
D.
temperature sensors
computer
engines
open-loop
152. Which controller uses air?
A.
B.
C.
D.
electrical
pneumatic
hydraulic
close-loop
153. Which controller uses oil?
A.
B.
C.
D.
electrical
pneumatic
hydraulic
mechanical
154. A type of system that controls itself
A.
B.
C.
D.
automatic
self-control
out of control
manual
155. A system that is controlled by human is
A.
B.
C.
D.
automatic
self-control
out of control
manual
156. Used to check output with a sensor
A.
B.
C.
D.
process
monitor
input
manual
157. Biofeedback is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
bad feed back
biological thinking
use of human senses for control
ability to adapt
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158. A set of instructions to control a system is a
A.
B.
C.
D.
processor
sensor
computer
program
159. What is the ultimate goal of technology?
A.
B.
C.
D.
convert all systems to open-loop
convert all systems to close-loop
automate everything
optimization
160. Which most uses systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
colonial America
feudal times
third world
space program
T-9 - Emerging Technologies
161. Which would not be considered an emerging technology?
E.
F.
G.
H.
hybrid vehicles
GPS
copying machines
fiber optics
162. GPS stands for
A.
B.
C.
D.
global piloting system
global positioning scheme
global positioning system
gathering positioning system
163. Which of the following is an example an alternative energy source
A.
B.
C.
D.
gasoline
coal
wood
nuclear energy
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164. In future, job markets skills need will not include
A.
B.
C.
D.
adaptability
leadership
social skills
selfishness
165. Bioengineering deals with
A.
B.
C.
D.
plastics
materials
buildings
designing alternative energy cars
166. What kind of impact will emerging technologies have on society?
A.
B.
C.
D.
positive
negative
both
neither
167. Hybrid vehicles will reduce the need for this energy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
renewable
non-renewable
alternative
hydroelectric
168. Emerging technologies will affect us on this scale?
A.
B.
C.
D.
family
local
continental
global
169. Fiber optics has replaced this type of wire
A.
B.
C.
D.
coaxial
metal
plastic
Ethernet
170. Wireless technology has given us the capability to
A. roam without wires
B. more easily telephone
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C. work away from desks
D. all the above
171. This is not a form of an alternative energy
A.
B.
C.
D.
wind
solar
coal
geothermal
172. An emerging technology in early 1900s was
A.
B.
C.
D.
wind power
automobiles
computers
fiber optics
173. Computers will become
A.
B.
C.
D.
faster
smaller
easer to use
all of the above
174. With emerging technologies, industries will
A.
B.
C.
D.
expand
become obsolete
shrink
stay the same
175. A vegetable-oil car will run on this fuel?
A.
B.
C.
D.
renewable
bio-engineered
mass degradation
solar
176. Why are emerging technologies so important for the future?
A.
B.
C.
D.
will solve many world problems
can create more fossil fuels
will cut down on paper
will make more houses
177. One emerging technology that might be used for home energy needs is
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A.
B.
C.
D.
electric
nuclear
coal
wind
178. Before GPS, what was the means of locating your position on the Earth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
observing the sun
looking for markings on the ground
using a map
using your shadow
179. Solar power is
A.
B.
C.
D.
efficient
cost-effective
environmentally friendly
all of the above
180. Emerging technologies will
A.
B.
C.
D.
become outdated
remain the same
never change
continually be updated
T-10 - Engineering Design Project
181. During a brainstorming session, which should NOT be done?
A.
B.
C.
D.
generate initial ideas related to the problem
criticize and reject ideas related to the problem
write down all ideas related to the problem
sketch ideas related to the problem
182. Constructive criticism is
A.
B.
C.
D.
a time to mock peers
a process of generating solutions
determining advantages and limitations of a solution
a process that comes before initial brainstorming
183. Which quote is an example of proper constructive criticism?
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A.
B.
C.
D.
“Your idea is dumb, people will laugh at you”
“That will never work because I don’t like it”
“That is a great idea, we should use it”
“Your idea might be better if it were smaller”
184. Who is responsible if a group fails to turn their project in on time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
teacher
group leader
entire group
group member who did not participate enough
185. Cost effectiveness is determined by
A.
B.
C.
D.
money spent
amount of resources you gain
efficiency
all of the above
186. Which is NOT a quality Internet resource for researching a technological problem?
A.
B.
C.
D.
NASA.gov
Howstuffworks.com
Historychannel.com
BobsTechAnswers.com
187. Time management refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
the effective use of humans to accomplish given tasks
techniques for effective scheduling
the effective use of physical substances for production
techniques for effective researching
188. Personnel management refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
the effective use of humans to accomplish given tasks
techniques for effective scheduling
the effective use of physical substances for production
techniques for effective researching
189. Material management refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
the effective use of humans to accomplish given tasks
techniques for effective scheduling
the effective use of physical substances for production
techniques for effective researching
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190. What is the correct order for the design process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Identify, Constraints, Research, Solutions, Evaluate
Identify, Solutions, Constraints, Research, Evaluate
Research, Identify, Constraints, Evaluate, Solutions
Research, Identify, Evaluate, Constraints, Solutions
191. A group problem solving technique that involves many ideas from all
members is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
brainstorming
problem Identification
chatting
research
192. A drawing that is designed on the computer is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
Computer Aided Manufacturing
Computer Numerical Control
Computer Aided Drafting
Computer Mouse
193. The testing method used to destroy a product is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
destructive
impact
non-destructive
tensile
194. Design constraints are
A.
B.
C.
D.
ideas
limitations
sketches
colors
195. A prototype is a
A.
B.
C.
D.
non-working scaled down model
working scaled down model
non-working full-scale model
working full-scaled model
196. A model is used for
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
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A.
B.
C.
D.
evaluating
testing
studying
all of the above
197. A graph can be used to
A.
B.
C.
D.
compare performance results
show frequency of events
illustrate testing results
all of the above
198. Industrial standards maintain
A.
B.
C.
D.
how parts are made
uniformity in parts
consistency in manufacturing parts
all of the above
199. The process of creating a solid or other representation for the purpose of
conducting a test is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
optimization
problem solving
modeling
process control
200. A free hand drawing of an idea, or a solution to a problem without concern
for detail is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
CAD
sketching
modeling
mock-up
Answer Key 101-200
101. B
102. D
103. C
104. A
105. B
106. A
107. D
108. A
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100
109. A
110. B
111. C
112. D
113. D
114. A
115. D
116. C
117. D
118. C
119. A
120. D
121. C
122. A
123. B
124. B
125. A
126. C
127. C
128. A
129. C
130. D
131. B
132. A
133. D
134. B
135. A
136. A
137. B
138. C
139. B
140. C
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
B
C
D
D
A
C
D
D
A
A
A
B
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153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
C
A
D
B
C
D
D
D
161. C
162. C
163. D
164. D
165. B
166. C
167. B
168. B
169. D
170. C
171. B
172. D
173. A
174. B
175. B
176. A
177. D
178. C
179. D
180. D
181. B
182. C
183. D
184. C
185. C
186. D
187. B
188. A
189. C
190. A
191. A
192. C
193. A
194. B
195. D
196. D
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197. D
198. D
199. C
200. B
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Name: ________________________
Department of Technology
Assessment Rubric
Problem Solving
Criterion
Fill in your idea of
“Points Earned”
Possible
Points
1.0
Define and research the
problem
1.
2.
3.
4.
Description
Each question is worth 5 points
Meet the needs of the problem?
Internet research for possible solutions?
Select the best solution?
Create plans for construction?
2.0
Construction of the
solution
1.
2.
3.
4.
Build the solution neatly?
Follow the plans for construction?
Use innovative ideas for construction?
Construct with structural strength?
20
3.0
Followed project rules
and constraints
1.
2.
3.
4.
Project fit into weight constraint?
Project meets length constraint?
Used only correct materials?
Followed project rules?
20
4.0
Test and retest solution
5.0
Project participation
1. Test your construction?
2. Tweak your project for optimal
performance?
3. Retest project?
4. Changes helped performance?
1. Worked well in technology lab?
2. Followed safety procedures while
working?
3. Willing to change project for best results?
4. Allowed for partner and teacher input?
Comments:
20
20
20
100
total
(Source: Jeffery Capella, Onondaga Nation School, 2005)
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
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Points
Earned
104
Name: ________________________
Department of Technology
Manufacturing
Product
Assessment Rubric
Criterion
Fill in your idea of
“Points Earned”
Mr. Jeffrey Capella
Description
Each question worth 5 points
1. Did you create patterns and drawings to work from?
2. Where dimensions present on the design?
3. Did you follow your design while building the project?
4. How well did you match your design?
Possible
Points
1.0
Design
2.0
Construction
1. Is the project put together well?
2. Are all nails or screws installed properly?
3. Is glue messy and noticeable?
4. Does wood fit together with straight and accurate cuts?
20
3.0
Finishing
1. Sand - three level of abrasive paper until smooth?
2. Finish or paint applied neat an evenly?
3. Neat while working?
4. Was completion done with care?
20
4.0
Creativity
1. Did you put thought into your creativity?
2. Does it stand out from others?
3. Do your ideas fit with the overall project?
4. Do your creative ideas look good?
20
5.0
Work
Attitude
1. Wore your safety glasses?
2. Used tools properly and worked well in the shop?
3. Participated in cleanup?
4. Worked through mistakes and used respectful
language?
20
Comments:
20
100
Total
(Source: Jeffery Capella, Onondaga Nation School, 2005)
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
SUNY Oswego – Department of Technology
TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
Points
Earned
105
Name: ________________________
Department of Technology
Assessment Rubric
“Clean Up and End
of Class”
Criterion
Fill in your idea of
“Points Earned”
Description
Possible
Points
1.0
Preparation
- Kept working until clean up was called
- Stopped working on project when clean up was
called
- Put project away in proper place
- Remembered clean up assignment every class
25
2.0
Clean Up
- Completed clean up job assigned
- Properly checked off for clean up job every
class
- Helped with other clean up jobs when asked
- Did not distract others from completing their job
25
3.0
End of Class
- Went back to designated area after clean up
- Completed any assignments for the day
- Did not leave room until directed by teacher
- Left the room in a proper manner
25
4.0
Attitude
- Respectful toward teacher
- Respectful toward other students
- Aware of other students and situations in class
- Respectful toward use of the lab
25
Comments:
100
Total
(Source: Edward Bryden, 2005)
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
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TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
Points
Earned
106
Appendix B - General Web Resources
Academy of Applied Science (AAS)
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Chemical Society (ACS)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASEE EngineeringK12 Center
Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE)
Council on Technology Teacher Education (CTTE)
Dr. Waite's SUNY Oswego Academic Web Site
Einstein Project
Electronic Industries Foundation
Epsilon Pi Tau Honorary Fraternity in Technology
Florida Technology Education Association
For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (FIRST)
Four County Technology Association (Rochester Area)
Future Scientists and Engineers of America (FSEA)
History of Education - Selected Moments of 20th Century
History of Science Society
Inner Auto
Innovation Curriculum Online Network
Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
International Society for Technology in Education
International Technology Education Association
JETS
Journal of Technology Education
Journal of Technology Education
KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR)
Microsoft Educator Resources
Mohawk Valley Technology Education Association
Montgomery Public Schools
NASA - Education Program
Nassau Technology Educators Association
National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering: TECHNICALLY SPEAKING
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
National Research Council
National Science Foundation
National Society of Professional Engineers
New York State Technology Education Association
Niagara County & Western New York TEA
Ohio State University
Oswego Technology Education Association
Project Lead The Way
Sills USA
Society for Philosophy and Technology
Society for the History of Technology
Suffolk Technology Education Association
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SUNY Oswego Dept of Technology
Teacher Certification Office NYS
TECH CORPS
Tech Learning
Techne Journal
Technology for All Americans Project (standards)
Technology Student Association
Technology Student Association (TSA)
The Learning Institute of Technology Education (LITE)
TIES Magazine
U.S. Department of Education
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Appendix C - Students with Disabilities
The Board of Regents, through part 100 Regulations of the Commissioner,
the Action Plan, and The Compact for Learning, has made a strong commitment
to integrating the education of students with disabilities into the total school
program. According to Section 100.2(s) of the Regulations of the “Commissioner
of Education, “Each student with a handicapping condition as such term is
defined in Section 200.1(ii) of this Chapter, shall have access to the full range of
programs and services set forth in this Part to the extent that such programs and
services are appropriate to such student’s special educational needs”. Districts
must have policies and procedures in place to make sure that students with
disabilities have equal opportunities to access diploma credits, courses, and
requirements.
The majority of students with disabilities have the intellectual potential to
master the curricula content requirements of a high school diploma. Most
students who require special education attend regular education classes in
conjunction with specialized instruction and/or related services. The students
must attain the same academic standards as their non-disabled peers to meet
graduation requirements, and, therefore, must receive instruction in the same
content area, at all grade levels. This will ensure that they have the same
informational base necessary to pass statewide testing programs and meet
diploma requirements.
Teachers certified in the subject area should become aware of the needs
of students with disabilities who are participating in their classes. Instructional
techniques and materials must be modified to the extent appropriate to provide
students with disabilities the opportunity to meet diploma requirements.
Information or assistance is available through special education teachers,
administrators, the Committee on Special Education (CSE) or student’s
Individualized Education Program (IEP).
Strategies for Modifying Instructional Techniques and Materials.
1. Students with disabilities may use alternative testing techniques. The
needed testing modification must be identified in the student’s
Individualized Education Program (IEP). Both special and regular
education teachers need to work in close cooperation so that the
testing modifications can be used consistently throughout the student’s
program.
2. Identify, define, and pre-teach key vocabulary. Many terms in this
syllabus are specific, and some students with disabilities will need
continuous reinforcement to learn them. It would be helpful to provide
a list of these key words in the special education teacher in order to
provide additional reinforcement in the special education setting.
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3. Assign a partner for the duration of a unit to a student as an additional
resource to facilitate clarification of daily assignments, timelines for
assignments, and access to daily notes.
4. When assigning long-term projects or reports, provide a timeline with
benchmarks as indicators for completion of major sections. Students
who have difficulty with organizational skills and time sequence ma
need to see completion of sections to maintain the organization of a
lengthy project or report.
Infusing Awareness of Persons with Disabilities Through Curriculum.
In keeping with the concept of integration, the following sub goal of the
Action Plan was established.
In all subject areas, revisions in the syllabi will include materials and
activities related to generic sub goals, such as problem solving, reasoning skills,
speaking, capacity to search for information, the use of libraries, and increasing
student awareness of and information about the disabled.
The purpose of this sub goal is to ensure that appropriate activities and
materials are available to increase student awareness of disabilities.
The curriculum, by design, includes information, activities, and materials
regarding persons with disabilities. Teachers are encouraged to include other
examples as may be appropriate to their classroom or the situation at hand.
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Appendix D - Student Leadership Skills
Development of leadership skills is an integral part of occupational
education in New York State. The New York State Education Department states
that “each education agency should provide to every student the opportunity to
participate in student leadership development activities. All occupational
education students should be provided the opportunity to participate in the
educational activities of the student organization(s) which most directly relate(s)
to their chosen educational program”.
Leadership skills should be incorporated in the New York state
occupational education curricula to assist students to become better citizens with
positive qualities and attitudes. Each individual should develop skills in
communications, decision making/problem solving, human relations,
management, and motivational techniques.
Leadership skill may be incorporated into the curricula as competencies
(performance indicators) to be developed by every student or included within the
suggested instructional strategies. Teachers providing instruction through
occupational educational curricula should familiarize themselves with the
competencies. Assistance may be requested from the State adviser of the
occupational student organization related to the program area.
Students who elect to become active members in student leadership
organizations chartered by NYSED have the advantage of the practical forum to
practice leadership skills in an action-oriented format. They have the potential for
recognition at the local, state, and national level.
More information in Technology Education can be found at the
Technology Education Student Association web site at:
http://www.tsawww.org
“Technology Systems” Middle School Course Outline – 6/1/06
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TED 533 – Curriculum Development for Technology Ed. – Dr. William Waite, Professor
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