Chair: Dr Anond Snidvongs
Rapporteur: Dr David Dodman
Huien Niu
Shenzhen Urban Planning and Research Centre, China
o Shenzhen: neighbouring area to Hong Kong
o very young city – youngest mega-city in the world (less than 30 years old), but more than 10
million people
o in general, city has not paid much attention to climate change, but three plans have been
almost completed that have some relevance to this issue
1. Flood Protection Plan
Not the responsibility of Planning Bureau, but of Water Management Bureau
Technologically detailed
2. Master Plan
New version recently completed – but not yet issued by central government
o Comprehensive plan for the city that requires combining and coordinating a lot of
specific plans
o Incorporates some disaster reduction – central government has asked cities to prepare
for disasters, includes planning spaces for relocation etc.
3. Shoreline Plan
Not related to climate change, but how to properly utilise this area.
Kishore Gajbhiye
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, India
[detailed information on powerpoint]
o initially made up of seven islands
o approximately 18 million residents (2009), approximately 60% of population lives in
informal settlements
o storm water drainage network: more than 150 years old
o rapid urbanization exacerbates certain problems
Disaster management focus: flooding during the monsoon
Mumbai’s rainfall is focussed in two months (July and August)
Mumbai has an adaptation strategy that exists within a regulatory framework at a variety of
scales (national, state, city)
Panel 3: Adapting to Climate Change in Asia’s Coastal Megacities
There is excellent and effective coordination among all the agencies that have different
Major floods in 2005
o more than 800 people and 10,000 cattle perished
o failures in 2005: communication system collapsed, the disaster management system was
not designed for the worst scenario, low level of awareness among people, and mobilization
was not well organised
Factors leading to vulnerability in Mumbai:
o high population density in Mumbai (particularly in day-time)
o intensity of monsoon (very high rainfall in July and August – receives more rainfall in one
month than London receives in one year)
o particular risks when high tide coincides with monsoon
o sea-level rise: 0.78mm / years since 1878
o urban heat-island effect, which may interact with urban-induced convection to produce
down-wind rainfall
Responses to vulnerability
o various short- and long-term measures undertaken to reduce vulnerability: infrastructural
development of drains and pumping stations
o recommended change in storm-water drainage capacity (from 25 mm/hr to 50mm/hr)
o approximate cost of implementing infrastructural changes is $1,650 million
o particular controls on development in coastal regulatory zone
o regulatory mechanisms at national government level, state level (Maharashtra State), local
level (Mumbai Municipal Corporation)
o strategies for adaptation: regulatory mechanisms, structural programmes, awareness of
citizens, co-ordination between different agencies, continuous upgrading of disaster
management plans
Md Nurul Islam
Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh
o area of 360km2
o population of almost 12 million
o surrounded by rivers on all sides: experienced serious floods in 1988, 1998, 2004
Adaptive measures in Dhaka:
o Dhaka city has a Master Plan and a recently updated detailed area plan
o Different ministries are responsible: Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of Environment,
Ministry of Public Works and Housing, Ministry of Relief and Disaster Management
o Good coordination between Ministries: 13-member national disaster management council
chaired by Prime Minister; for Dhaka there is a disaster management committee chaired by
the Mayor
Panel 3: Adapting to Climate Change in Asia’s Coastal Megacities
Adaptation in Dhaka:
o New national building code adapted in 2007 to instruct proper use of land in Dhaka city
o Metropolitan Master Plan 1995-2005 has been recently updated and includes some
adaptive measures
o Detailed Area Plan has been recently updated
o Wetland Preservation
o Local Government Ordinances
o Construction of Embankment around Dhaka – most work has been completed (but part of
southern and eastern side is still going on), when it is complete it will very good results at
protecting the city from floods
o Pumping stations to pump out water, improvements have been made to the drainage
system, height of roads is being raised
Major financial constraints exist, but this is being managed in association with national and
international supporters. A major conference on climate change was held in Dhaka in February
2009 – the government has announced that it will consider the recommendations.
Fei-Yu Kuo
Department of Urban and Housing Development, Taiwan
o socio-economic centre of Taiwan
o 2,550km2 in area
o population of about 6.75 million in 2005 (around one-third of Taiwan’s population)
o affected by earthquakes, typhoons and rainstorms in the summer; mudflows and landslides
in the slope area
o flooding a critical issue
Currently do not have a comprehensive climate change adaptation plan for the city, but have
recently come up with climate change adaptation framework for the nation. But several
relevant activities and programmes exist:
o national disaster prevention programme
o Programme of Flood Management in Frequently Inundated Area: multi-year programme to
improve agricultural drainage systems and construct an urban drainage system
o ‘Green Building Promotion Program’ addresses mitigation issues – mandatory for all new
central government buildings since 2002, for all new local government buildings since
o National Territory Recovery Program and Act (Draft): a response to severe mudflows and
floods in July 2004 that addresses land-use change, industrial adjustment, bans new roads
in mountainous areas (to prevent development in these areas), relocation of people living in
potentially hazardous areas (most difficult component); programme is facing difficulties –
was originally conceived without consultation with local government or citizens – but is now
being revised
Panel 3: Adapting to Climate Change in Asia’s Coastal Megacities
Responsibility for climate change in Taiwan:
o National Council for Sustainable Development, chaired by Prime Minister; has formed
‘Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol Response Working Group’ – initially focussed more on
mitigation but efforts are now underway for adaptation too
o ‘National Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategy in Taiwan’ (draft
completed in January 2009) –addresses both individual sectors and cross-sectoral
activities [objectives and strategies on slide]
Norman Ahmed
Karachi, Pakistan
o population of about 16 million people: 8% of national population, 24% of urban population
o generates 15% of GDP, 25% of federal revenue, 50% of bank deposits
o no adaptive strategy to climate change exists in Karachi – although climate change is
attracting information in intellectual and professional circles
o national disaster management authority exists, but with a small staff – only operates in
response to disaster
o city government is responsible for routine tasks of disaster management
Key issues for Karachi:
o planning that takes disaster issues into account
o disaster plan is ‘frozen’ and does not take emerging issues into account
o centre of attraction for real estate developers (particularly from Middle East): developing
area along coastline, some of which are ecologically sensitive (e.g. mangrove forests)
o vulnerable fishing communities: affected by torrential rains and other localised disasters
o where flood control mechanisms have been put in place they fall short of needs that will
arise from climate change
o changing monsoon patterns: makes planning for these difficult
o multiple agencies responsible for urban and coastal-zone management: a chaotic situation
when disasters take place, military often have to intervene on these occasions
o mindset of policy-makers needs to be changed: climate change seen as a ‘luxury’ and there
are more pressing issues to be addressed
Antonia Yulo Loyzaga
Manila Observatory, Philippines
o Climate change is a popular topic in the Philippines – includes Presidential Taskforce,
Presidential Advisory Council, President appointed as chief climate change (person?) in the
Metro Manila Development Authority: but 17 local government units
Metro Manila does not currently have a climate change adaptation plan.
Difficulties in managing infrastructure that crosses boundaries
Department of National Defence intervenes in major disasters
Panel 3: Adapting to Climate Change in Asia’s Coastal Megacities
o Application of risk framework:
risk = hazard x exposure x vulnerability
o National scale maps have been produced – according to political rather than ecosystem
boundaries; some of which can be scaled down to barangay (smallest administrative) level
o Recognition of poverty-hazard nexus; informal settlements have been mapped (estimates
suggest 70% of Manila’s economy is ‘informal’); slums agglomerate around particular
economic activities
o University of the Philippines and Metro Manila are organising to study subsidence
Panel 3: Adapting to Climate Change in Asia’s Coastal Megacities