Chapter 13 - Class Notes - Germantown School District

The adoption of the 18th Amendment spawned a new direction of
America’s non-acceptance of alcohol. Several religious
movements would emerge and test the moral fabric of the country.
In January 1920, prohibition went
into effect.
Who tended to be supporters of
prohibition at this time and why did
they support it?
Rural & Urban America
For the first time one half of the U.S. population lived within cities
or towns of populations of 2,500 or more.
The growth and changes within the cities showed to the rural
people that traditional values were being threatened. One of the
key disagreements with urban and rural Americans involved
Prohibition was the manufacture, transportation, import, export,
and sale of alcoholic beverages were restricted or illegal.
Supporters of Prohibition
 Largely from the South and West
 In large populations of native-born Protestants
 Members of the Anti-Saloon League and Women’s Christian
Temperance Union
Reasons for Supporting Prohibition
 Liquor a prime cause of corruption
 Too much drinking led to crime, wife and child abuse, accidents
on the job and other social problems
 One of the reasons for the change toward breweries was due to
that so many were owned and operated by German Americans.
 In doing so, it defined the term "beer, wine, or other intoxicating
malt liquors to mean any beverage with greater than 0.5%
alcohol by volume.
Who tended to be opponents of
prohibition at this time?
Why did they oppose it?
Opponents to Prohibition
 Were many liberals, conservatives, and intellectuals; immigrant
groups; people who opposed the government’s meddling in their
 People were tired of making sacrifices and wanted to enjoy life
and didn’t consider drinking sinful or unhealthy,
 The people also resented the government’s meddling in their
 Drinkers go underground to nightclubs known as
Speakeasies, because once inside the club one should
speak quietly or easily to avoid detection from the law.
Speakeasies gained their name from the fact that a patron had to
"speak easy" and convince the doorman to let them in.
His job was to keep out those who looked like they were "dry"
agents. Agents had no forced-entry rights at all, and so could not
break into an establishment if the doorman refused them entry.
For every legitimate saloon that closed as a result of the new law,
half dozen underground palaces sprung up.
By the middle of the decade there were thought to be 100,000
speakeasies in New York City alone.
 People build their own stills. Alcohol was also still allowed for
medicinal and religious purposes
 People who sought liquor went to Bootleggers,
smuggler’s that used boots to hide any alcohol
During Prohibition much of the bootleg whiskey was brought in
from Canada and much of the bootleg rum was imported from
Mexico or Cuba via "rum roads" or "rum routes."
 Some people would steal alcohol intended for legal products,
such as perfumes and antifreeze.
 Organized Crime grew within the age of Prohibition.
Al Capone, Chicago’s organized boss leader, made $60 million
a year and would kill off any of his competitors
Why was prohibition repealed?
Prohibition is Repealed
 Government fails to fund enough money to enforce the law
 Problem of patrolling 18,700 miles of boarders and coastlines
 Tracking down illegal stills, monitoring highways of trucks
 By the mid-1920’s only 19% of the US supported Prohibition
The 18th amendment was eventually repealed with the 21st
Amendment in 1933. This is the only Amendment ever to be
Fundamentalism has come to refer to several different
understandings of religious thought and practice, through literal
interpretation of religious texts such as the Bible.
People began to question the technology growth within the
country. Were these new scientific advances contributing to our
prosperity or are they undermining our morals.
Aimee McPherson emphasized the blessings and personal
joy brought by faith. She built a temple in Los Angeles and
broadcast to millions across the nation.
The Scopes Trial
Many criticisms of the fundamentalist position are that the
theological claims made by fundamentalist groups cannot be
proven, are irrational or are demonstrably false and contrary to
scientific evidence.
On March 13, 1925, Tennessee forbade the teaching, in any statefunded educational establishment of "any theory that denies the
story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to
teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of
This is often interpreted as meaning that the law forbade the
teaching of any aspect of the theory of evolution.
Some of these criticisms were famously asserted by Clarence
Darrow in the Scopes Monkey Trial. He stated that he
would defend any school teacher that would challenge the law.
John T Scopes, a biology teacher from Dayton TN, accepted the
challenge and taught read from the class text claiming that life
sprung from a one-celled forms and culminated into man.
At issue was the Butler Act, which had been passed a few
months earlier by the Tennessee Assembly. The Butler Act
"... that it shall be unlawful for any teacher in any of the
Universities, Normal and all other public schools of the State
which are supported in whole or in part by the public school funds
of the State, to teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine
Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that
man has descended from a lower order of animals."
In July 1925, Clarence Darrow and
William Jennings Bryan faced each
other in the Scopes trial
Who were Darrow’s main supporters?
Why did they support him?
Darrow’s Supporters
His supporters were the people that supported the theory of
evolution and challenged the Fundamentalist beliefs.
 Secular (not connected with church or religion) thinkers,
 Moderate Protestants and the American Civil Liberties Union,
 People who didn’t interpret the Bible literally and people who
believed in Darwin’s theory of evolution
Why did they support his cause?
 Supported by scientific thinking people,
 People that believed in Darwin’s theory of evolution; did not
believe the Bible should be interpreted literally,
 People that were concerned about the growing political power
of fundamentalists
Who were Bryan’s main supporters?
Why did they support him?
Bryan’s Supporters
His supporters can from the Fundamentalists that believed in the
words and teachings that existed in the bible.
 Protestant fundamentalists that believed in creationism and the
literal interpretation of Genesis
 People that were skeptical of scientific knowledge and did not
want evolution taught to their children
Why did they support his cause?
 They believed in creationism, the literal interpretation of
 They were skeptical of scientific knowledge and did not want
evolution taught to their children
What was the outcome of the case?
Trial Outcome
At that time in history the theory of evolution was considered
controversial in public opinion, and a large fraction of its
detractors linked it with atheism.
However, John Scopes, a Tennessee high school science teacher,
was convicted and fined $100. The Tennessee Supreme court later
over turned the conviction in 1927 on a technicality.
Social Life of the 1920’s
During WWI the work place found women filling roles of missing
men. However, when the war ended business and union leaders
asked women to give up their jobs for returning veterans.
Many women did not want to give up the independence and
worked as secretaries, nursing and teachers.
Women began to assert their independence and reject the values of
the 19th Century claiming a desire to have the same freedoms that
men possessed.
Note two ways women’s fashions
The Flapper
A new ideal emerged within the fashion world in which women
could embrace the emancipation of themselves within the use of
This new fashion look was known as the Flapper,
 Brighter colors and shorter and looser-fitting dresses
 Stockings skin-toned instead of black and pumps instead of
high-laced shoes
 Hair boyishly short and dyed jet-black instead of long and
Note two ways women’s social
behavior changed
Note two words that describe the
attitude reflected by these changes
With this new look came a more assertive behavior. This behavior
was their bid to attain equal status with men.
 Women would flout the old tradition of what women were once
to be perceived as,
 Greater assertiveness in smoking and drinking in public,
dancing with abandon and casual dating.
The attitudes toward marriage were changing in which the
arrangement was to be viewed as an equal partnership. Yet they
both agreed that the rearing of the children should remain mostly
the responsibility of the women.
The Double Standard
The reality of the movement of change was only happening in
small ways. Newspapers, magazines and advertisements promoted
the look of the Flapper.
The rebellious movement was more of a look than a change in the
standards of society.
The new attitude of rebellious, youthful pleasure-loving, funloving, assertive, daring, independent and desires to be equal were
small in acceptance.
Traditionalists in churches and schools protested the new attitude
of public smoking, drinking and dancing.
Prior to WWI the men would court the women as they attempted to
win their hand in marriage. However, in the 1920’s casual dating
gave way to the old tradition.
Double Standard, a set of principals granting greater sexual
freedom to men than to women, required women to follow a
stricter standard of behavior than men would.
Note one way women’s work
opportunities improved
Note two ways women’s home and
family life improved
Women’s Roles at Home & in the Work Place
With new inventions there emerged new job opportunities for
women in the work place. Big business needed extensive
correspondence and record keeping. This created a huge demand
 “Women’s Professions” as well as work once reserved for men,
 A huge demand for clerical workers, store clerks, and assemblyline workers
By the 1930’s some 10 million women were earning wages outside
of the home.
Fearing possible loss at their jobs men believed that women
working outside the home were temporary and their real job was
still at home.
From 1900 to 1930 discrimination and inequality of women
existed in job offerings and in wages earned.
Note three negative effects that
accompanied women’s changing roles
in the 1920s.
The Changing Family
The typical family had begun to be reshaped by new economic and
social changes in society.
 A reduced birthrate,
 Wider availability of ready-made clothes, prepared foods and
household labor simplified by social innovations and inventions,
 Schools and various institutions handled more family tasks,
such as looking after children and elderly parents
 More free time choices and a view of marriage as an equal
 Marriage based on personal choice
 Pressure of juggling both work and family, especially among
working-class women,
 Adolescent rebelliousness with the conflict between traditional
attitudes and modern ways of thinking;
 The double standard between men & women from the limited
admissions to medical schools, few managerial jobs, inequality
in the workplace and lower wages than men earned.
With economic growth, encouraged to purchase consumer products
and to experiment with new leisure activities the time period was
termed as being the Roaring Twenties.
People began to follow new Fads. These are a fast enthusiastic
following by people that occurs within a short time. The 1920’s
fads were often influenced by the mass media. Across America
people were able to see the same movies and to hear the same
radio shows.
Explain the following differences in
education before the 1920s and
during the 1920s in
*Types of courses
Education and Mass Media
As the growth of students enrolled in school climbs so does the
need for a better educated work force to accommodate changes in
the factories.
 Before the 1920s, approximately 1 million high school students;
during the 1920s, 4 million students
 The American education system before the 1920s, high schools
catered to college-bound students;
 During the 1920s, they catered to broad range of students,
including those interested in vocational training and home
The new challenge within the schools was now changing also to
the influx of new immigrants.
 Before the 1920’s most of the new immigrants were able to
speak English.
 During the 1920’s many of the new many immigrant students
who spoke no English.
The cost of education drew a new need on how one was going to
meet the growing changes within education.
 Prior to the 1920’s the education system costs doubled from
1913 to 1920.
 During the 1920s, costs double again, totaling $2.7 billion a
year by 1926.
America’s popular culture developed
in the 1920s, give at least two
specific examples of each area of
popular culture
*Magazines *Sports *Theater
*Music & art *Radio
Expanding News Coverage
Prior to the 1920’s many of the nations newspapers had merged
with others and the type of news coverage now changed to more
expansive coverage of news events.
By the end of the 1920’s ten magazines summarized weekly news
in foreign or domestic events.
Time and Reader’s Digest both claimed to have over 2
million magazines in circulation.
Broadcasting of music, news, sporting events and advertisement
brought interest and money to the stations.
This allowed the radio stations to enhance their broadcast abilities
and to reach people from coast to coast.
 In 1926 NBC was created and in 1927 CBS began to
 By 1929 some 10 million people owned radios.
This allowed people to hear and know news events that were
happening anywhere in the U.S. News was reported as it happened.
America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams
Sport Stars
One of the greatest athletes of the 1920’s was Jim Thorpe, an
American Indian.
He won gold medals in the 1912 Olympics and later became a
professional baseball and football player and was the President of
the National Football League in 1920.
Babe Ruth and baseball recovered from the White Sox
scandal. Became the home run king and drew over an million fans
to Yankee stadium in a year.
African Americans were excluded from playing baseball & formed
their own Negro League. However, pitcher Satchel Paige was
inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.
Daring Aviators
Attempting to claim the $25,000 prize for the first person to make
a trans-Atlantic flight Charles Lindbergh left from
Long Island in 1927 and landed in Paris, France.
Lindbergh became the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic.
Amelia Earhart became the first women to fly solo across
the Atlantic.
In 1933 Wiley Post became the first male and in 1964 Geraldine
“Jerri” Mock became the first female to fly solo around the world.
These pilots recreated a new frontier of discovering ways to
venture around the world. Proving that technology and a drive to
challenge what were once untenable was now possible.
Nickelodeon is an early form of small, neighborhood
movie theaters in which admission was obtained for a nickel.
By 1907, one estimate (based on basic business economics) was
that an average of over two million people attended the
nickelodeons daily.
The popularity of these affordable, entertaining, and highly
profitable venues was such that their numbers mushroomed to
approximately 8,000 in the U.S. by 1908.
Nickelodeons in competitive markets had a piano or organ,
playing whatever music the pianist or organist knew that seemed
appropriate to a scene.
For a nickel, one could be transported into a fantasy world on the
screen, and children could not wait until the next episode of the
serials on Saturday afternoons to see what was going to happen
next to their heroes.
Talkies is a sound film motion picture with synchronized
sound (that is, sound synchronized with image), as opposed to a
silent movie.
In the late 1920’s the Jazz Singer and Steam Boat
Willie became movie hits.
By the early 1920’s some 40 million Americans went to the
movie’s each week. By the end of the decade it had doubled.
Films influenced clothes, hairstyles and ways of walking and
talking according to what the movie stars were doing. Some of the
early stars were Charlie Chaplin and Rudolph Valentino.
Theater, music, and art
The arts in America began to break away from the traditional
European style of performing.
George Gershwin is able to compose music style
that was truly American. The Jazz Age describes the period
of popular music style during the 1920’s and 1930’s.
Largely coinciding with the Roaring Twenties; with the rise of the
Great Depression, the values of this age saw much decline.
Among the prominent concerns and trends of the period are the
public embrace of technological developments cars, air travel and
the telephone—as well as new trends in social behavior, the arts,
and culture.
A great theme of the age was individualism and a greater emphasis
on the pursuit of pleasure and enjoyment in the wake of the misery,
destruction and perceived hypocrisy and waste of WWI and prewar values.
Georgia O’Keeffe produced intensely colored pictures that highlighted the wonder and beauty of New York City.
The term Lost Generation was coined to refer to a group
of American literary notables that criticized the war and who lived
in Paris and other parts of Europe from the time period which saw
the end of WWI to the beginning of the Great Depression.
Significant members included Ernest Hemingway, F.
Scott Fitzgerald, T.S. Eliot, and Gertrude
Stein herself attributed the expression to a French mechanic
lamenting what the war had done to the country's youth.
More generally, the term, Lost Generation, is used for the
generation of young people coming of age in the U.S. during and
shortly after WWI.
After WWI many of the American writers moved from the U.S. to
Europe and became known as an expatriate.
The term refers to someone that temporarily or permanently
resides in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing
or legal residence.
The difference between an expatriate is only temporarily in the
host country and plans on returning to their home country.
An immigrant is that person who commits themselves to becoming
a part of their country of residence. So they never adopt the culture
in the host country.
Zora Neale Hurston embodies the new soul and
feeling among the African Americans. Her writings expose the
adventure of a new life that will offer more than what exits now.
She wrote stories, poems and books of folklore that portrayed the
lives of poor unschooled Southern African Americans and how
they rose above the years of slavery.
She does not feel sorry for who and what she is in this country, but
searching for the beauty that exists if you know where to look.
Name the organization with which
each leader was associated.
Then note their beliefs and goals as
well as the tactics they believed
necessary to achieve them
The Move Northward
By the end of the 1920’s nearly half of the African Americans now
live in cities. However, the new influx of African Americans in the
northern cities is not always welcomed.
In 1919 some 25 cities erupt with racial riots and tensions grow
among the races.
Since its founding in 1909 the NAACP has encouraged peaceful
protests against racial violence; campaigned for anti lynching laws;
sought equal rights for African Americans
W.E.B. Du Bois and James Weldon Johnson
fought for legislation that would protect the rights of African
Marcus Garvey attempted to a more radical message of
build a separate society based upon building a separate black
In 1914 he founds the Universal Negro
Improvement Association (UNIA) and by the mid1920’s he has some one million followers.
Garvey believed that African Americans should return to Africa
and build an independent nation in the country.
He opposed racial integration; promoted African-American-owned
businesses created a powerful legacy of new African pride and
economic independence.
African-American Writers
Harlem Renaissance
The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of art, literature and
music in the U.S. led primarily by the African American
community based in Harlem, N.Y. City.
Most of the participants in this African American literary
movement were descendants from a generation whose parents or
grandparents had witnessed the injustices of slavery and the gains
and losses that would come with Reconstruction after the
American Civil War.
Many of these people were part of the Great Migration out of the
South and other racially stratified communities who sought relief
from the worst of prejudices against them for a better standard of
living in the North and Midwest regions of the United States.
Characterizing the Harlem Renaissance was an overt racial pride.
Through intellect, the production of literature, art, and music could
challenge the pervading racism and stereotypes from the larger
white community of that era.
It was also to promote progressive politics and racial integration
and social integration.
Claude McKay, a novelist and poet expressed public pride
in the African American experience and wrote militant verses
urging African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination.
He stated that African American people would celebrate their
heritage and the experience the African Americans faced within a
white man’s world.
Langston Hughes was the best-known poet of the period
and described the difficult lives of working class African
Some of the poems were made into musical songs in jazz or blues.
A major dramatic actor and singer known for his commanding
stage presence Paul Robeson would extend to Broadway,
in musical and Shakespearean plays.
For blacks, their art was a way to prove their humanity and
demand for equality. For a number of whites, preconceived
prejudices were challenged and overcome.
The Harlem Renaissance would help lay the foundation from
which the Civil Rights Movement would take shape from decades
later. Moreover, many black artists coming into their own
creativity after this literary movement would take inspiration from
By the 1890’s the blues had become a distinct musical style that
often imitated a singing voice. Blues performers sang lyrics that
dealt with daily struggles, racism and lost love.
Louis Armstrong was a jazz trumpet player known for
his astounding sense of rhythm and ability to improvise.
He went on to become one of the most important and influential
musicians in the history of jazz.
Jazz swept across the nation from New York City to Kansas City
Missouri due to its sound and dance style.
Duke Ellington was a jazz pianist and composer and was
renowned as one of America’s greatest composers of his time.
Bessie Smith, female singer and, horn player, made the
blues a hit.
Perhaps the most outstanding female vocalist of her time; in 1927,
became the highest-paid black artist in the world.