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Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D): Chemistry: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds – Unit Plan
Day
1
Topic
Safety


Activities

Classroom safety procedures –
during labs, in case of fire lock
down, chemical spill etc.
WHMIS



2
Science Laboratory Equipment and
Scientific Inquiry (Introduction to
“Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation”)



Introduce the importance of safety with an article (e.g. “Safety Harness in
Scaffold Collapse Not Secured” from CBC news – see link under resources)
Safety scavenger hunt: Students locate safety equipment and procedures to
follow in the classroom and school, and learn their function and uses
WHMIS Think-Pair-Share: Set up empty and clean chemical containers with
WHMIS symbols around the classroom (e.g. an empty HCl bottle with a
corrosive WHMIS symbol). Students look at the symbols on each container
and write down ideas about its hazards and precautions. Students discuss
their ideas in pairs, and then share with the rest of the class. Review WHMIS
symbols using handouts, worksheets, videos, online resources, etc.
Students create a safety communication (e.g. poster, blog, video, song/poem,
etc.) to deliver their own safety message derived from the safety concepts
learned
Science Laboratory Think-Pair-Share & Stations Activity: Laboratory
equipment is set up in stations around the classroom with info cards
explaining its function in a laboratory setting. Students complete a thinkpair-share and then verify their ideas by visiting each station.
Introduce “Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation” (use same white solids as
Day 13-16 Inquiry Investigation) for students to apply safe laboratory
equipment use, introduce scientific inquiry and physical and chemical
properties:
o Students brainstorm questions they have about three mystery
solids and ideas on how to investigate the answer to their questions
(see Day 13 Appendix 13.2 for brainstorm template). Keep this
template posted for use on Day 13.
Consider using Step 1 of Steps to Inquiry Posters, Observe and Question, to
generate questions about observations instead of the Mystery Solid
Brainstorm Template (see Smarter Science Website or Subject Council Wiki
for more details)
Expectations/ Resources
Overalls: A1
Specifics: A1.4
CGEs: 1b, 2c,3c, 4c, 4f, 5a, 5b, 5g
Internet Article:
www.cbc.ca/canada/toronto/
story/2010/01/08/scaffold-accident.html
Appendices: 2.1 – 2.5, 13.2
Overalls: A1
Specifics: A1.1, A1.2, A1.11
CGEs: 2b, 3c, 4f, 5a, 5b
Internet:
GAINS website
www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/difinstgains.htm
1
3
Physical and Chemical Properties


4
Physical and Chemical Properties



5
Particle Theory: Elements and
Compounds



6
Periodic Table

Demitri Mendeleev

Elements, group, period,
chemical families, metal, nonmetal, metalloid

States of elements for families
in the periodic table


Students complete a think-pair-share to identify an unknown substance and
make connections to properties, uses and hazards
Physical and Chemical Properties Jigsaw:
1. Students select one of four stations based on the results of a Multiple
Intelligences Survey. Physical and chemical properties are distributed
among the stations and various activities are performed to learn about
the properties at each station.
2. Students are arranged into new groups of four using numbered heads.
Students share their observations and analyses of the activities
performed and consolidate learning using graphic organizers and
worksheets.
Appendices: 3.1 – 3.7
Students conduct an investigation on physical and chemical properties of
common substances
Consider using lab analyses as a learning check and assess the learning goals
Consider adapting some the Grade 9 Science, Applied, DI Teaching Learning
Example (see GAINS website)
Overalls: A1, C2
Specifics:
A1.1, A1.5, A1.8, A1.6, A1.10, C2.2, C3.4
CGEs: 2b, 3c, 4c, 4f, 5a, 5b
Review the Particle Theory of Matter (e.g., using a Jigsaw activity)
Students use a mind map and molecular model kits to organize, compare, and
contrast the following terms: mixtures, solution, mechanical mixture, pure
substance, element, compound, atom, and molecule
Students use flash cards to learn some common elements and compounds
Introduce the periodic table and Demitri Mendeleev’s impact on the
development of the periodic table
Students visit on-line resources to learn the organization of the periodic table and
to analyze the information from the internet site for bias and reliability
Overalls: A1, C1, C2, C3
Specifics: A1.11, C1.1, C2.1, C3.4
CGEs: 2b, 3c, 5a
Internet: GAINS website:
Grade 9 Science, Applied, DI Teaching Learning
Example – Chemical Properties Investigation
http://www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/
dilearningexamples.htm
Overalls: A1, C2, C3
Specifics: A1.12, C2.1, C2.5, C3.3, C3.8
CGEs: 3c, 4f, 5a
Overalls: A1, A2, C1, C3
Specifics: A1.3, A1.7, A1.9, A1.11, A2.2, C3.6
CGEs: 2b, 2c, 3c, 4f, 5b, 5g
Internet: Various Periodic Table Websites
www.ptable.com, www.webelements.com,
www.periodictable.com
www.peroidicvideo.com
2
7
8
Atom and Atomic Theories

Parts of the atom

Influential scientists who
developed models of the atom

Bohr-Rutherford Models of the Atom



9
Patterns/Trends in the Periodic Table




10
11
Naming Compounds






Students use manipulatives (e.g., cut outs) to learn the parts of the atom
(nucleus, proton, neutron, electron, energy level/orbital/shell, valence electron)
Jigsaw activity to learn influential scientists involved in the development of the
model of the atom (e.g., Dalton, Thompson, Bohr)
Overalls: A2, C3
Specifics: A2.2, C3.1, C3.2
CGEs: 2b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 4f, 5a, 5g
Students build Bohr-Rutherford models of the atoms for the first twenty
elements of the periodic table using cut outs
Keep assembled Bohr-Rutherford models for Day 9
Appendices: 8.1 – 8.9
Using a choice board, students choose a periodic table trend to investigate
Students use the Bohr-Rutherford models from Day 8 to investigate the trends
and share their ideas with the class
Using a choice board, students select a way to demonstrate learning based on
interest or learning preference
Keep Bohr-Rutherford models for Day 10
Teacher demonstration: electrolysis of water using the Hoffmann Apparatus
o use the “burning splint test” and the “glowing splint test” to test for
hydrogen and oxygen gas respectively, and demonstrate proper lab
techniques when conducting gas tests
o students complete an OWL chart (What did I Observe? What am I
Wondering? What did I Learn? (see Keeley resource)
o use the OWL chart as an assessment tool (e.g. Do students know the
chemical formula for water? Can students predict the two gases based
on water’s chemical formula and the difference between the gas tests?
Are students wondering about other gas tests?)
Consider reviewing physical and chemical properties during the demonstration.
Use the demonstration as a Minds On activity for naming compounds
Students use molecular model kits to:
o construct simple compounds (e.g. O2, CO2, H2O, NH3, CH4)
o count the number of atoms present in an element, molecule and/or
compound
o write chemical formulas
Facilitate a lesson on nomenclature of simple ionic and molecular compounds.
Use Bohr-Rutherford diagrams to help reinforce concepts
Students practice using worksheets
Overalls: C3
Specifics: C3.2, C3.5, C3.6
CGEs: 2c, 3c, 5a, 5g
Internet:
GAINS website
www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/difinstgains.htm
Overalls: A1, C2, C3
Specifics: A1.12, C2.4, C2.5, C3.3, C3.8
CGEs: 2b, 4c, 4f, 5a, 5b
Book:
Keeley, Page. (2008). Science Formative
Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking
Assessment, Instruction, and Learning.
Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
3
12
Testing For Gases Investigation

Students conduct experiments to predict and identify different gases based on
chemical properties
13
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation

In small groups, students design an investigation to identify three mystery solids
by applying the knowledge and skills learned throughout the unit
Review Mystery Solids Brainstorm or Step 1 from Steps to Inquiry Poster (Observe
and Question) developed on Day 2
Students:
o use a Learning Contract (Appendix 13.3) to complete the investigation
o use a checklist to guide their progress (Appendix 13.9)
o complete inquiry worksheets (Appendices 13.4 – 13.8) to identify and
choose variables, generate a testable question, purpose, and
hypothesis (adapted from Smarter Science Steps to Inquiry Posters)
o submit completed work for teacher feedback


14
15
16
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation cont.



In the same groups as in Day 13, students
o plan a procedure and choose appropriate materials and equipment to
test their prediction
o prepare observation table(s) to record data
o conduct their investigation and submit completed work for assessment
and feedback (using a checklist and a rubric – Appendices 13.9, 13.12)
o complete Analysis Questions for evaluation (Appendix 13.10)

Note: for one of the analysis questions, students determine
the use of the three mystery solids and assess the social,
environmental and economic impacts of using one of the
mystery solids. Students present this information in a format
of their choice.
o complete a R.E.R.U.N. chart to reflect on their inquiry experiences
(Appendix 13.11)
o complete Self and Peer Assessments for group work (Appendices 13.14
– 13.15)
Use a rubric to assess initiating and planning skills of each group (Appendix 13.12)
Use a rubric to evaluate the Analysis Questions for overall expectations A1, C1
and C2 (Appendix 13.13)
Overalls: A1, C2, C3
Specifics: A1.5, A1.6, A1.11, C2.4, C3.3
CGEs: 2b, 2c, 4c, 4f, 5a
Appendices: 13.1 – 13.15
Overalls: A1, C1, C2, C3
Specifics: A1.2, A1.3, A1.4, A1.5, A1.6, A1.7,
A1.8, A1.10, A1.11, A1.12, A1.13, C1.1, C1.2,
C2.3, C3.4
CGEs: 2c, 3c, 4f, 5a, 5b, 5g
Internet:
SmarterScience Website
www.smarterscience.ca/library
GAINS website
www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/difinstgains.htm
Book:
Keeley, Page. (2008). Science Formative
Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking
Assessment, Instruction, and Learning.
Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
4
17
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
cont. /Unit Review


If needed, students continue with the Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Students begin to review/prepare for a unit test using a format of their
choice (e.g. review worksheet, study notes)
Chemistry Unit Test




Using student input and with sufficient review, select a date for the unit test
Give students at least a week’s notice of the unit test
Use the unit test to evaluate overall expectation C3
Students complete a unit test on this date
Overalls: C3
5
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D):
Chemistry: Atoms, Elements and Compounds
Lesson 2: Science Laboratory Equipment
Duration: one 75 minute period
Key Instructional Strategies
1 Think-Pair-Share (Cooperative Learning)*
2 Present the Problem (Questions and Cues)*
3 Brainstorming
4 Sharing Ideas
5 Exit Card (Setting Objectives and Providing
Feedback) *
Differentiated Instruction Details
Knowledge of Students
Differentiation based on student:
 Readiness  Interests
 Preferences
Differentiated Instruction Response
 Learning materials (content)
 Ways of learning (process)
 Ways of demonstrating learning (product)
 Learning environment
*Marzano’s Categories of Instructional Strategies **Differentiated Instruction Structure
Curriculum Connections
Overall Expectation(s):
 A1 demonstrate scientific investigation skills(related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas
of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analyzing and interpreting, and
communicating)
Specific Expectation(s):
 A1.1 formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues,
make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research
 A1.2 select appropriate instruments (e.g., sampling instruments, laboratory glassware, magnifying
lenses, an electroscope) and materials (e.g., ebonite rods, star charts, a ball and spring apparatus,
pH paper) for particular inquiries.
 A1.11 communicates ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in
electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables,
laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models).
Catholic Graduate Expectation(s):
 CGE2b Reads, understands and uses written materials effectively.
 CGE3c Thinks reflectively and creatively to evaluate situations and solve problems.
 CGE4f Applies effective communication, decision-making, problem-solving, time, and resource
management skills.
 CGE5a Works effectively as an interdependent team member.
 CGE5b Thinks critically about the meaning and purpose of work.
Learning Goal(s):
Big Idea(s):
 Demonstrate an understanding of the safe use Elements and compounds have specific physical
and chemical properties that determine their
of science laboratory equipment
practical uses.
 Brainstorm answers to inquiry question
 Communicate ideas in chosen format
6
Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment/Success Criteria
Knowledge and Understanding
 Demonstrates an understanding of the safe use of science
laboratory equipment
Thinking and Investigation
 Uses planning skills and strategies effectively to brainstorm
answers to inquiry question
Communication
 Expresses and organizes ideas clearly using chosen format
Assessment Tools:
 Anecdotal Comments
 Observations
 Oral Feedback
 Traffic Light Cups
 Exit Card
Prior Learning
Prior to this lesson, students will have:
 An awareness of scientific investigation skills
 An understanding of safety practices and procedures in a laboratory setting
Materials and Resources
Materials:
One piece of each laboratory equipment (as per Appendices 2.1- 2.4)
Appendix 2.1: Science Laboratory Equipment Handout – one per student
Appendix 2.2: Science Laboratory Equipment Answers – teacher resource
Appendix 2.3: Science Laboratory Equipment Labels – Cut Outs
Appendix 2.4: Science Laboratory Equipment Functions – Cut Outs
Appendix 2.5: Exit Card – one per student
Appendix 13.2: Mystery Solids Brainstorming Template
Internet Resources:
Student Success Differentiated Instruction. GAINS. July 2010.
<http://www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/difinstgains.htm>
Subject Council Wiki. (2010). Examples of Formative Assessments in Science (Traffic Light Cups).
<http://dpcdsb-ssc.wikispaces.com/Assessment+and+Evaluation>
Resources:
Blake, Leesa, et al. (2009). ON Science 9. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Institute for Catholic Education. (2003). Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Keeley, Page. (2008). Science Formative Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment,
Instruction, and Learning. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. (Traffic Light Cups)
Ministry of Education. (2010). The Differentiated Instruction Scrapbook.
(VAK and MI Inventories – pp. 12-15)
Ministry of Education. (2008). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, Science.
7
Grade 9 Science, Academic/SNC1D/Science Laboratory Equipment/Lesson #2
Minds On (20 min)
 Establishing a positive learning environment
 Connecting to prior learning and/or experiences
 Setting the context for learning
Connections
L: Literacy
ML: Mathematical Literacy
AfL: Assessment for Learning
AaL: Assessment as Learning
AoL: Assessment of Learning
DI: Differentiated Instruction
EE: Environmental Education
Prior to this lesson,
 students will have completed a Multiple Intelligences (MI)and VAK
(visual, auditory, kinesthetic) inventory, reflected on their learning
preferences and created a chart or profile that illustrates their
preference (see Materials and Resources)
 set up the equipment around the room and place the cut outs (see
Appendices 2.3 & 2.4) with the name and function upside-down next to
each piece of equipment using the teacher answer key (Appendix 2.2) as
a guide
 set up the “three mystery solids” from Lesson 13
Individual & Pairs Think-Pair-Share (Science Laboratory Equipment)
 Individually, students think of the names and functions of the science
laboratory equipment set up around the classroom. They record their
ideas on the handout “Science Laboratory Equipment” (Appendix 2.1).
 In pairs, students share and make any necessary additions/changes to
their handout.
 On completion, students circulate the room, flip over the equipment
card to compare their answers and make any necessary changes on their
handout.
 Circulate and provide feedback to students when required.
 Consider using Traffic Light Cups as a formative assessment technique
(see Kelley resource or wiki for explanation).
 Share and discuss the learning goals.
AfL: Observations/Oral
Feedback
AfL: Traffic Light Cups
AfL: Sharing and
discussing learning goals
8
Action (35 min)
 Introducing new learning or extending/reinforcing prior learning
 Providing opportunities for practice and application of learning (guided  independent)
Teacher  Present the Problem
 Pose the problem, “How can we safely use this equipment to determine
the difference between these three mystery solids?”
 Use the same mystery solids from Lesson 13.
Individuals, Pairs, or Small Groups  Brainstorming
 Students work alone (intrapersonal) or in pairs/small groups
(interpersonal) to brainstorm answers to the question by:
o using pictures and/or a graphic organizer (visual),
o discussing and talking through the problem (auditory), or
o using the equipment around the room (kinesthetic)
(see Appendix 13.2 for a sample brainstorming template)
Circulate and provide feedback to students as required.
DI: Learning Preferences
AfL: Observations/Oral
Feedback
Consolidation and Connection (20 min)
 Helping students demonstrate what they have learned
 Providing opportunities for consolidation and reflection
Whole Class  Sharing Brainstorming Ideas
 Facilitate a discussion for students to share their ideas with the whole
class. Consider cueing students to make connections to:
 “properties” of the three mystery solids, and
 how a scientist thinks (e.g. scientific investigation skills, inquiry)
 Record ideas, electronically or on chart paper, for future reference.
 Consider using the discussion as a pre-assessment to help guide
instruction for physical and chemical properties and scientific
investigation skills.
 Make observations or notes, and provide feedback as appropriate.
 Explain to students that they will refine this list throughout the unit and
test their ideas on Day 13.
Individual  Exit Card
 Students complete an exit card (Appendix 2.5)
 Use the exit card to assess the learning goals
AfL: Observations/
Anecdotal Comments
AfL: Exit Card
9
Appendix 2.1
Science Laboratory Equipment
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Science Laboratory Equipment Handout
Identify and state the function each of the following pieces of laboratory equipment in the
space provided below:
Diagram
Name
Function
10
Diagram
Name
Function
11
Diagram
Name
Function
12
Diagram
Name
Function
(Source for images: Unknown)
13
Appendix 2.2
Science Laboratory Equipment
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Science Laboratory Equipment Answer Key
Identify and state the function each of the following pieces of laboratory equipment in the space
provided below:
Diagram
Name
Function
Test Tube
Holds small amounts of liquids, solids and
powders for observation and/or heating
Test Tube Brush
Cleans test tubes
Test Tube Rack
Holds and stores test tubes upright
Medicine Dropper/Eye
Dropper
Transfers small amounts of liquids
Utility Clamp
Attached to a retort stand to hold test tubes
upright for heating
Beaker
Holds and pours larger quantities of liquids
and solids
14
Diagram
Name
Function
Rubber Stoppers
Used in conjunction with test tubes and
Erlenmeyer flasks to prevent chemicals from
spilling out
Funnel
Channels liquids and small powdered
substances into containers to prevent
spilling
Erlenmeyer Flask
This flask is best used for swirling liquids
(since it prevents spilling) as well as
collecting filtrate during a filtration
Support Stand
Supports different apparatus (e.g. – beaker,
flasks) while heating using a Bunsen Burner
and wire gauze
Graduated Cylinder
Measures volume of liquids
Wire Gauze
Holds and supports apparatus during
experimentation. Used in conjunction with
a ring clamp or utility clamp
Crucible Tongs
Transports crucible and cover to prevent
burns when hot
Beaker Tongs
Holds the beaker and transfers it when hot
15
Diagram
Name
Function
Test Tube Holder
Holds and transfers test tubes for
observation and gentle heating
Glass Rod
Stirs solutions/chemicals
Forceps
Grasps and moves small solid materials
Scoopula
Transfers small powder substances and
small solids
Spot Plate
Holds small amounts of chemicals for mixing
and observation
Flint
Creates a spark to light a Bunsen Burner
Watch Glass
Used as a cover for beakers or for
evaporating liquid solutions
Bunsen Burner
Creates a continuous flame to heat
substances
16
Diagram
Name
Function
Ring Clamp
Holds glassware (e.g. beakers, flasks) with a
wire gauze and a retort stand for heating.
Also holds funnels.
Clay Triangle
Holds the crucible above a flame for heating
Crucible and Cover
Used to heat solutions ors solids at a high
temperature
Evaporating dish
Used to heat and evaporate solutions
a) Pestle
a) Used to crush solids into a powder
b) Mortar
b) A bowl used to crush solids into a powder
(Source for images: Unknown)
17
Appendix 2.3
Science Laboratory Equipment
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Science Laboratory Equipment Labels – Cut Outs
Glass Rod
Test Tube Brush
Scoopula
Eyedropper/
Medicine Dropper
Utility Clamp
Beaker
Rubber Stoppers
Funnel
Erlenmeyer Flask
Support Stand
Graduated
Cylinder
Wire Gauze
18
Test Tube Rack
Test Tube Tongs
Glass Rod
Forceps
Beaker Tong
Spot Plate
Flint
Watch Glass
Bunsen Burner
Ring Clamp
Evaporating Dish
Mortar and Pestle
Clay Triangle
Crucible and Cover
19
Appendix 2.4
Science Laboratory Equipment
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Science Laboratory Equipment Functions – Cut Outs
Holds small amounts
of liquids, solids and
powders for
observation and/or
heating
Cleans test tubes
Attached to a
support stand to
hold test tubes
upright for heating
Holds and pours
larger quantities of
liquids and solids
Transfers small
powder substances
and small solids
Transfers small
quantities of liquids
Used with test tubes Channels liquids and
and Erlenmeyer
small powdered
flasks to prevent
substances into
chemicals from
containers to prevent
spilling out
spilling
20
This flask is best
used for swirling
liquids (since it
prevents spilling) as
well as collecting
filtrate during a
filtration
Holds and supports
apparatus during
experimentation.
Used in conjunction
with a ring clamp or
utility clamp
Measures the
volume of liquids
Supports different
apparatus
(e.g. beaker)
while heating using a
Bunsen Burner and
wire gauze
Transports crucible
and cover to prevent
burns when hot
Holds and stores
test tubes upright
Holds and transfers
test tubes for
observation and
gentle heating
Stirs
solutions/chemicals
Grasps and moves
small solid materials
Holds the beaker
and transfers it
when hot
Holds small amounts
Creates a spark to
of chemicals for
light a Bunsen Burner
mixing and
observation
21
Used as a cover for
beakers or for
evaporating liquid
solutions
Creates a
continuous flame to
heat substances
Holds glassware
(e.g. beakers,
flasks) with a wire
gauze and a retort
stand for heating.
Holds the crucible
above a flame for
heating
Also holds funnels.
Used to heat and
evaporate solutions
A bowl used to
crush solids into a
powder
Used to heat solids
or solutions at a
high temperature
Used to crush solids
into a powder
22
Appendix 2.5
Science Laboratory Equipment
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Exit Card
Name:
Date:
Today I learned the
following about
science
equipment…
Name:
Date:
Today I learned the
following about
science
equipment…
23
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Chemistry: Atoms, Elements and Compounds
Lesson 3/Physical and Chemical Properties
Duration: one or two 75 minute periods
Key Instructional Strategies
Differentiated Instruction Details
1 Unknown Substances: Think-Pair-Share/Whole
Knowledge of Students
Class Discussion (Cooperative Learning)*
Differentiation based on student:
 Readiness  Interests
 Preferences
2 Properties Learning Stations**
3 Jigsaw (Cooperative Learning)*
4 Whole Class Discussion – Vocabulary (Questions Differentiated Instruction Response
 Learning materials (content)
and Cues)*
Ways of learning (process)
5 Graphic Organizer (Identifying Similarities and
 Ways of demonstrating learning (product)
Differences, Non-linguistic Representation) *
 Learning environment
6 Practice (Homework and Practice)*
7 Exit Card (Setting Objectives and Providing
Feedback)*
*Marzano’s Categories of Instructional Strategies **Differentiated Instruction Structure
Curriculum Connections
Overall Expectation(s):
 A1 demonstrate scientific investigation skills(related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas
of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analyzing and interpreting, and
communicating)
 C1 assess social, environmental, and economic impacts of the use of common elements and
compounds, with reference to their physical and chemical properties.
 C2 investigate, through inquiry, the physical and chemical properties of common elements and
compounds
 C3 demonstrate an understanding of the properties of common elements and compounds, and of
the organization of elements in the periodic table.
Specific Expectation(s):
 A1.11 communicates ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in
electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables,
laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)
 C1.1 assess the usefulness of and/or the hazards associated with common elements or compounds
in terms of their physical and chemical properties[AI, C]
 C2.1 use appropriate terminology related to atoms, elements, and compounds, including, but not
limited to: boiling point, mixtures, particle theory, pure substances, and viscosity [C]
 C3.4 describe the characteristic physical and chemical properties of common elements and
compounds (e.g., aluminum is a good conductor of heat; copper reacts to moist air by developing a
greenish surface of copper carbonate; sodium carbonate is a white, odourless powder that dissolves
in water; water has unique physical properties that allow it to support life)
Catholic Graduate Expectation(s):
 CGE2b - Reads, understands and uses written materials effectively.
 CGE3c - Thinks reflectively and creatively to evaluate situations and solve problems.
 CGE5a - Works effectively as an interdependent team member.
24
Learning Goal(s):
 Demonstrate an understanding of physical and
chemical properties
 Make connections between the uses and hazards
of common substances to their properties
 Communicate ideas using a graphic organizer and
appropriate terminology
Big Idea(s):
 Elements and compounds have specific
physical and chemical properties that
determine their practical uses.
Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment/Success Criteria
Knowledge and Understanding
 Explains the difference between a physical and chemical
property.
 Describes characteristic physical and chemical properties of
common elements and compounds.
Application
 Makes connections between the uses and hazards of common
substances to their properties.
Communication
 Expresses and organizes ideas and information clearly
 using a graphic organizer
 using appropriate terminology
Assessment Tools:
 Observations
 Anecdotal Comments
 Feedback
 Exit Card
Prior Learning
Prior to this lesson, students will have:
 An understanding of safety practices and procedures in a laboratory setting.
 An awareness of properties.
 Used a graphic organizer to express and organize ideas and information.
Materials and Resources
Materials:
Apparatus for Learning Stations (per activity kit):
Station 1 (Appendix 3.1)






two beakers (100 mL)
water
isopropyl alcohol
beeswax block
density chart
parafilm
Station 2 (Appendix 3.2)
 3 Erlenmeyer flasks (150 mL)
 3 rubber stoppers
 50 mL of water
 1 marble
 strip of aluminum foil
 strip of copper
25








strip of plastic
strip of paper
chunk of charcoal
5 Petri dishes
strip of wax paper
glass plate
strip of construction paper
Spectroscope
Station 3 (Appendix 3.3)













3 mol HCl in a dropper bottle (or use an eyedropper)
small piece of Mg ribbon (1 cm)
spot plate
goggles
soap and water (sink access)
candle
candle snuffer (to extinguish the flame)
matches
goggles
soap and water (sink access)
vinegar
distilled water
2 Erlenmeyer flasks (150 mL)
Station 4 (Appendix 3.4)


word and definition cards for “Word Scramble”
2 envelopes per group (one for words and one for definition cards)
Appendix 3.1:
Appendix 3.2:
Appendix 3.3:
Appendix 3.4:
Appendix 3.5:
Appendix 3.6:
Appendix 3.7:
Station 1: Logical-Mathematical/Number Smart (Teacher’s Guide and Set Up)
Station 2: Visual-Spatial/Picture Smart (Teacher’s Guide and Set Up)
Station 3: Bodily-Kinesthetic/Body Smart (Teacher’s Guide and Set Up)
Station 4: Verbal-Linguistic/Word Smart (Teacher’s Guide and Set Up)
Physical and Chemical Properties Practice– Student Worksheet
Physical and Chemical Properties Practice– Student (Answer Key)
Exit Card
Internet Resources:
Student Success Differentiated Instruction. GAINS. July 2010.
<http://www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/difinstgains.htm>
26
Resources:
Blake, Leesa, et al. (2009). ON Science 9. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. (pp. 568-569)
Hume, Karen. (2008). Start Where They Are. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada.
(BLM 10.5 Exit Card Samples)
Sandner, Lionel, et al. (2009). Investigating Science: Pearson Canada Inc. (pp. 151, 548)
Institute for Catholic Education. (2003). Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Ministry of Education. (2009). Differentiated Instruction Teaching/Learning Examples.
(Grade 9 Science, Applied, Chemistry)
Ministry of Education. (2010). The Differentiated Instruction Scrapbook.
(VAK and MI Inventories – pp. 12-15)
Ministry of Education. (2008). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, Science.
27
Grade 9 Science, Academic/SNC1D/Physical and Chemical Properties/Lesson #3
Minds On (10 min)
 Establishing a positive learning environment
 Connecting to prior learning and/or experiences
 Setting the context for learning
Prior to instruction:
 Set up enough unknown substances (e.g. water, milk of magnesia,
corn starch, molasses) in sealed containers (e.g. sealed Erlenmeyer
flask with a stopper) for students to work in pairs.
 Set up four learning stations based on multiple intelligences (logicalmathematical/number smart, bodily-kinesthetic/body smart, visualspatial/picture smart, verbal-linguistic/word smart) derived from the
Multiple Intelligence Survey on Day 1.
 The number of activity kits (i.e., materials and equipment required
for pairs or small groups of students per station) will vary depending
on the number of students in each category and availability of
materials and equipment. Use the Multiple Intelligence Survey to
assemble the necessary amount.
 See Appendices 3.1-3.4 for a description of each learning station.
Connections
L: Literacy
ML: Mathematical Literacy
AfL: Assessment for Learning
AaL: Assessment as Learning
AoL: Assessment of Learning
DI: Differentiated Instruction
EE: Environmental Education
DI: Learning
Preferences
Safety Considerations:
 Station 1:
o Isopropyl alcohol is a volatile and flammable liquid. Keep away
from open flames and ignition sources. The parafilm is used to
seal the beaker and contain the alcohol vapours. Set up Station
1 at an opposite end of the room from Station 3.
 Station 3:
o Hydrochloric acid is corrosive. Proper protective gear (latex or
nitrile gloves, goggles) should be worn at all times.
o Magnesium is flammable and emits ultraviolet radiation when
heated. Keep away from open flames and ignition sources.
o Hydrogen gas is produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with
magnesium. Hydrogen gas is explosive. Keep away from open
flames and ignition sources.
 Consider posting safety signs at these stations.
Individual & Pairs  Think-Pair-Share: Unknown Substances
 Provide each pair of students with one unknown substance.
 Individually, students observe the contents of one unknown
substance, guess its identity and then share their guess and
explanations with a partner.
28
Whole Class Discussion  Unknown Substances
 Facilitate a discussion on the think-pair-share.
 Use probing questions to help students explain their reasoning.
 Lead the discussion to
o introduce properties and how we use properties to describe,
compare and make inferences about common substances,
o use properties to assess the usefulness and/or hazards
associated with common substances (e.g., Do you know if any of
these substances can cause environmental damage? How do we
know?)
 Use the discussion to pre-assess prior knowledge of properties and
hazards associated with common substances.
 Share and discuss the learning goals.
AfL: Pre-assess prior
knowledge
AfL: Sharing and
discussing learning goals
Action (60 min)
 Introducing new learning or extending/reinforcing prior learning
 Providing opportunities for practice and application of learning (guided  independent)
Small Groups  Properties Learning Stations
 Students choose one of the four stations based on their Multiple
Intelligence Survey from Day 1. They should choose based on which
of the four available intelligences was highest on their survey.
 In pairs (or small groups), students complete the activities at their
chosen station.
 Consider using lab notebooks for students to record observations,
information and ideas.
 Consider providing copies of tables and questions for students
requiring chunking and/or scaffolding in expressing and organizing
information and ideas.
 Circulate and provide feedback to students as required.
 Consider making observations or notes to assess learning skills and
work habits (e.g. collaboration, organization, etc.)
Small Groups  Jigsaw
 Use numbered heads to create groups of students with at least one
student from each of the learning stations.
 Students assemble into their groups of four to share and discuss
concepts learned.
 Circulate and provide feedback to students as required.
Whole Class Group Discussion (Vocabulary)
 Facilitate a discussion to introduce and provide examples for the
terms qualitative, quantitative, physical properties and chemical
properties. Consider questioning and cueing to help students make
connections between the terms and the observations from the
jigsaw activity.
 Consider posting new vocabulary on a work wall
DI: Learning Stations
AfL: Observations/
Anecdotal Comments/
Oral Feedback
AfL: Observations/Oral
Feedback
L: Scientific Terminology
L: Word Wall
29
Individual  Graphic Organizer (classification, similarities and differences)
 Students create a graphic organizer of their choice (concept map,
flow chart, Venn diagram, etc.) to
o categorize the properties as either qualitative or
quantitative, physical or chemical
o identify similarities and difference
 If students have not been introduced to a graphic organizer, consider
modeling one type of graphic organizer for all students to complete.
 Consider collecting the graphic organizers to assess the learning
goals and to provide written or verbal feedback.
Individual or Pairs  Practice
 Individually (intrapersonal) or in pairs (interpersonal), students
practice concepts learned by completing a handout (Appendix 3.5).
AfL: Graphic Organizer/
Modeling/Feedback
DI: Learning Preference
Consolidation and Connection (5 min)
 Helping students demonstrate what they have learned
 Providing opportunities for consolidation and reflection
Individual  Exit Card
 Students complete an exit card (Appendix 3.7) to reflect on their
learning and achievement of the learning goals.
 Consider using the exit card to assess the learning goals and to guide
further instruction.
AfL/AaL: Exit Card
30
Appendix 3.1
Physical and Chemical Properties
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Station 1: Logical-Mathematical/Number Smart (Teacher’s Guide and Set Up)
Properties at this station: Density, Boiling Point, Freezing Point and Melting Point
Property
Materials/Equipment
Description
Observations/Answers
Density
two beakers (100 mL)
water
isopropyl alcohol
beeswax block
density chart


Boiling
Point,
Melting
Point and
Freezing
Point,
Density
Table of Values (see
p.33)



Place 50 mL of water in one beaker and 50 mL
of alcohol in the other beaker.
Place a beeswax block in each beaker. Each
block should be the same size.
Seal each beaker with parafilm.
Make available a table of values with various
boiling, melting, freezing points and density.


The density of isopropyl alcohol (0.786 g/ml) is
greater than wax (0.958 - 0.97 g/mL) causing it to
float in the alcohol.
The density of wax ((0.958-0.97 g/mL) is greater than
the water (1.0 g/mL) causing it to sink in the water.
Students look for familiar substances on the list and
predict which column contains information about
each property.
Description of set up:
 Post Station Label (see p.32) to identify this station.
 Set up the properties as per the description in the above table. See safety considerations in lesson plan.
 Students follow directions for both properties and complete questions. (pp. 33-34)
31
Station Label
Logical–
Mathematical/
Number Smart
32
Boiling Point, Melting Point, Freezing Point and Density Table
1. Analyze the information in the table below and predict which column contains information about melting point (OC), freezing point (OC),
boiling point (OC) and density (g/mL or g/cm3); be sure to justify your choices.
2. Come up with your own definitions for melting point (OC), freezing point (OC), boiling point (OC) and density (g/mL or g/cm3) based on the
information from the table.
Name
?
?
?
?
Appearance (at 20oC)
Additional Information
Aluminum
659.7
659.7
2519
2.7
silver-white solid metal
Used in electrical equipment, air craft and cooking
utensils.
Isopropyl
- 89
- 89
82.5
0.768 clear colourless liquid
Used as an antiseptic to clean cuts.
Alcohol
Bromine
- 7.2
- 7.2
58.8
3.12
red-brown liquid
Used to make painkilling medication.
Calcium
845
845
1418
1.55
soft white solid metal
Essential for many chemical processes in our body.
E.g., it makes our bones strong.
Good conductor of heat.
Copper
1084
1084
2562
8.95
shiny reddish solid metal
Gold
1063
1063
2856
19.3
shiny yellow solid metal
Mercury
-38.5
-38.5
356.6
13.6
shiny silvery liquid
Potassium
63.5
63.5
759
0.86
silvery-white soft metal
Soft metal commonly used in jewelry due to its
tarnish resistance.
The only metal that is a liquid a room temperature.
It can mix with other substances to become
poisonous.
Found in all living organisms and used in fertilizers.
Titanium
1666
1666
3287
4.5
white shiny solid metal
Used commonly in the aerospace industry.
Water
0
0
100
1
clear colourless liquid
Good medium to dissolve solutes.
33
Density
Observe the contents of the two beakers and record as many observations as possible. Please refrain from removing the parafilm
and touching the contents of the beaker. Ensure that you are following proper safety laboratory techniques!
Questions:
1. Give as many reasons as possible to explain your observations.
2. Come up with your own definition of density based on your observations.
(Source of Images: http://www.imprintitems.com/drinkware/beakerandflaskmugs )
34
Appendix 3.2
Physical and Chemical Properties
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Station 2: Visual-Spatial/Picture Smart (Teacher’s Guide and Set Up)
Properties at this station: State, Lustre, Clarity, and Colour
Property
Materials/Equipment
Description
Observations/Answers
State





3 Erlenmeyer flasks
(150 mL)
3 rubber stoppers
50 mL of water
1 marble



Water represents the liquid state.
Air represents the gas state.
The marble represents the solid state.






strip of aluminum foil
strip of copper
strip of plastic
strip of paper
chunk of charcoal
5 Petri dishes

One Erlenmeyer flask contains air. Place a rubber stopper on
top of this flask.
One Erlenmeyer flask contains water. Fill the flask with 50 mL of
water and place a rubber stopper on top.
One Erlenmeyer flask contains a marble. Place the marble
inside the flask and place a rubber stopper on top.
Cut (or have available) rectangular strips of aluminum foil,
copper, plastic and paper.
Place each substance into a Petri dish.
Place labels beside each Petri dish to identify substances.


High Lustre: aluminum foil, copper
Low Lustre: plastic, paper, charcoal



strip of wax paper
glass plate
strip of construction
paper


Cut (or have available) rectangular strips of wax paper and
construction paper and place each into a Petri dish.
Place labels beside each substance.



Transparent: glass plate
Translucent: wax paper
Opaque: construction paper

Spectroscope

Make available some spectroscopes..
Students see different colours of the spectrum of
white light.
Lustre
Clarity
Colour




Description of set up:
 Post Station Label (see p.36) to identify this station.
 Set up the four properties as per the description in the above table.
 Students follow directions for each property and complete questions (pp. 37-40)
35
Station Label
Visual-Spatial/
Picture Smart
36
State
Observe the contents of the three Erlenmeyer flasks. Copy and fill in the table below to record your observations.
Flask
Number
Do the contents
have a definite
shape?
OR
Do they take the
shape of the
container?
Do the contents have a
definite volume?
Base your answer on your
comments the first column.
Do you think the particles that
make up this substance are:
a) Tightly packed?
b) Further apart?
c) Very spread out?
Explain why!
1
2
3
1. Based on your answers in the table above, write your own definition of State.
37
What State is this
material in (solid,
liquid, or gas)?
Lustre
Observe the materials listed in the table. Copy and fill in the table below to record your observations.
Material
Shiny or Dull?
High or Low Lustre?
Charcoal
Aluminum Foil
Paper
Copper
Plastic
1. Based on your answers in the table above, write down your own definition for Lustre.
38
Clarity
Pick up each material and look through them at any object in the classroom.
Copy and fill in the table below to record your observations.
Material
Is it completely
clear?
(yes or no)
Is it partially clear?
(yes or no)
Which term best describes this material?
 Transparent
 Translucent
 Opaque
Glass plate
Construction Paper
Wax Paper
1. Based on your answers in the table above, write down your own definitions for Transparent, Translucent, and Opaque.
39
Colour
Pick up the spectroscope provided, look into it, and point it towards the light.
Write down and answer the following questions.
1. What did you see? Describe your observations.
2. What do you think is the function of a spectroscope?
3. Give your own definition for Colour based on your observations.
40
Appendix 3.3
Physical and Chemical Properties
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Station 3: Bodily-Kinesthetic/Body Smart (Teacher’s Guide and Set Up)
Properties at this station: Reactivity with Acid, Reactivity with Oxygen, and Odour
Property
Materials/Equipment/Chemicals Description
Observations/Answers
Reactivity
with Acid

Prepare pre-cut strips of magnesium
ribbon.
Assemble all materials and chemicals at
the station.

Assemble all materials at the station.





Reactivity

with Oxygen 
Odour






3 mol HCl in a dropper bottle
(or use an eyedropper)
small piece of Mg ribbon (1
cm)
spot plate
goggles
soap and water (sink access)
candle
candle snuffer (to extinguish
the flame)
matches
goggles
soap and water (sink access)
vinegar
distilled water
2 Erlenmeyer flasks (150 mL)





Wick on the candle turns black (formation of a
new substance).
Smoke produced (formation of a gas) due to the
consumption of oxygen producing carbon
dioxide and water).
This is a chemical property.



Vinegar has a pungent, sharp, or sour odour.
Distilled water is odourless.
This is a physical property.



Place approximately 50 mL of vinegar in
one Erlenmeyer flask and 50 mL of
water in the other.
Place a rubber stopper on top of each
flask.
Magnesium ribbon will react with the HCl and
“bubble”. The presence of bubbles indicates the
production of a gas (carbon dioxide).
This is a chemical property.
Description of set up:
 Post Station Label (see p.42) to identify this station.
 Set up the three properties as per the description in the above table. See safety considerations in the lesson plan.
 Students follow directions for each property and complete questions (pp. 43-45)
41
Station Label
Bodily-Kinesthetic/
Body Smart
42
Reactivity with Acid
Safety!
 Place your goggles on and keep them on for the duration of this activity.
 Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is very corrosive. Use protective equipment properly.
 Magnesium is flammable. Keep away from an open flame and other sources of heat and
ignition.
 Be sure to follow all safety precautions and laboratory techniques.
Equipment and Materials:
 1 dropper bottle of HCl (hydrochloric acid) (3 mol)
 1 piece of Mg (magnesium) ribbon
 1 spot plate
 1 cleaning brush
 1 container of soap
Procedure:
1) Place the magnesium strip in one well of the spot plate.
2) Place five drops of hydrochloric acid (3 mol) into the same well.
3) Record your observations.
4) Dispose of chemicals as directed by your teacher.
5) Wash all equipment with soap and water using the brush provided. Dry all equipment and
return it to the appropriate location.
6) Wash your hands with soap and water.
Questions:
1. Describe your observations. Why do you think this occurred?
2. What does the word “reaction” mean to you?
3. Describe, in your own words, the property demonstrated by this activity.
(Source of Clip Art: Microsoft Word)
43
Combustibility
Safety!
 Place your goggles on and keep them on for the duration of this activity.
 Keep matches away from combustible and flammable materials.
 Be sure to follow all safety precautions and laboratory techniques learned thus
far.
Equipment and Materials:
 1 tea light candle
 1 match
 candle snuffer
 1 container of soap
Procedure:
1) Carefully light the match provided.
2) Bring the match close to the wick of the candle and light it.
3) Record your observations (wait at least 1 min before you record your observations).
4) Extinguish the flame with the device provided.
5) Wash your hands with soap and water and return all equipment back to its appropriate
location.
Questions:
1. Describe your observations. Why do you think this occurred?
2. Come up with your own definition for Combustibility.
(Source of Clip Art: Microsoft Word)
44
Odour
Remove the stopper of each flask and smell the contents of the two Erlenmeyer Flasks provided using the wafting
technique. Place the rubber stopper back on top of the flask when completed.
Material
Describe the smell.
Use as many terms as you can!
What do you think this material is?
Substance #1
Substance #2
1. Based on your answers above, come up with your own definition for Odour.
2. Try to describe the odour for the following substances:
a. manure
b. flower
c. perfume
d. black toast (toast that has been in the toaster too long!)
45
Appendix 3.4
Physical and Chemical Properties
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Station 4: Verbal-Linguistic/Word Smart Teacher’s Guide and Set Up
Properties at this station: Malleability, Ductility, Viscosity, Hardness, Brittleness, Texture, Form, Conductivity and Solubility
Property
Materials
Description
Answers
Malleability
Word and Definition Cards
for “Word Scramble”.
Set up envelopes containing all terms, definitions and
examples.
See p.50 for answers.
Ductility
Viscocity
Brittleness
Texture
Form
Description of set up:
 Post Station Label (see p.47) to identify this station.
 Cut out terms, definitions, and examples from pp. 48-49, and place in one large envelope.
 Each pair or small group of students is provided with one envelope containing the cut-outs.
 Students follow directions and complete questions (pp. 48-49).
46
Station Label
Verbal–Linguistic/
Word Smart
47
Word Scramble!
The envelope contains terms, definitions and examples of various properties. Assemble the correct term with its definition and
example. Write down this information into your notes when complete. Have fun!
Term Cut-Outs
Viscosity
Ductility
Solubility
Form
Malleability
Hardness
Texture
Conductivity
Brittleness
Definition Cut-Outs
The resistance of
liquid to flowing.
Applies to liquids
only.
The ability of an
object to break
apart or shatter
easily.
The ability of a
substance to be
hammered into a
thin sheet. Applies
to metals and other
solids.
The way a substance
feels.
The ability to be
stretched into a
wire. Applies to
metals and other
solids.
The resistance of a
substance to being
scratched.
The ability of a
substance to
transmit heat,
sound, or electricity.
A solute (e.g. solid)
mixing with a
solvent (e.g. liquid)
to make a solution.
48
The shape of an
object.
Examples Cut-Outs
Corn syrup is thick
and pours slowly
out of the
container. Water is
thin and trickles
easily out of a
faucet.
Sugar mixes well
with water. Wax
does not mix with
water.
An aluminum block
is formed into
aluminum foil.
Chalk forms dust.
Copper wire is used
in many electrical
appliances because
they can be shaped
into long thin wires.
Diamonds are the
hardest substances
in nature. Silly
putty is very soft.
If you drop chalk, it Glass is smooth.
Metals are used in
will break. If you
Sandpaper is rough. electrical
drop plastic wrap, it
appliances.
will not break.
Salt is crystalline
(cube-like).
49
Word Scramble Answers
Term
Definition
Example
Viscosity
The resistance of liquid to flowing. Applies to liquids only.
Corn syrup is thick and pours slowly out
of the container. Water is thin and
trickles easily out of a faucet
Form
The shape of an object.
Salt is crystalline (cube-like.)
Texture
The way a substance feels.
Glass is smooth. Sandpaper is rough.
Hardness
The resistance of a substance to being scratched.
Diamonds are the hardest substances in
nature. Silly putty is very soft.
Ductility
The ability to be stretched into a wire. Applies to metals and other
solids.
Copper wire is used in many electrical
appliances because they can be shaped
into long thin wires.
Malleability
The ability of a substance to be hammered into a thin sheet. Applies
to metals and other solids.
An aluminum block is formed into
aluminum foil. Chalk forms dust.
Conductivity The ability of a substance to transmit heat, sound, or electricity.
Metals are used in electrical appliances.
Brittleness
The ability of an object to break apart or shatter easily.
If you drop chalk, it will break. If you
drop plastic wrap, it will not break.
Solubility
A solute (e.g. solid) mixing with a solvent (e.g. liquid) to make a
solution.
Sugar mixes well with water. Wax does
not mix with water.
50
Appendix 3.5
Physical and Chemical Properties
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Physical and Chemical Properties Practice – Student Worksheet
Part A: Match the physical properties with a correct description.
1.
____ odour
a. the resistance of a liquid to flowing
2.
____ state
b. the ‘feel’ of a substance to the fingers
3.
____ viscosity
c. the condition of being a solid, liquid, gas
4.
____ hardness
d. how ‘shiny’ or ‘dull’ an object is
5.
____ malleability
e. the ability to be stretched into a wire
6.
____ ductility
f. how well a substance dissolves in water
7.
____ conductivity
g. the ability of a substance to conduct electricity
8.
____ lustre
h. the ‘smell’ given off by an object
9.
____ texture
i. the ability of an object to be hammered into thin sheets
10.
____ clarity
j. the resistance to being scratched
11.
____ solubility
k. the ability of light to pass through an object
Part B: Identify the physical property described in each of the following cases:
1.
copper is used to wire our homes
2.
a variety of motor oils is available
3.
sandpaper is rough to the touch
4.
glass and water allow light to pass through
5.
copper II sulfate dissolves in water
6.
aluminum can be used to wrap sandwiches
7.
oil floats on the surface of water
8.
diamonds are used in drill bits
9.
Earth is the only planet where water is in 3 forms
10.
gold is used in jewelry because of these properties
_____
__
_____
______
51
Part C: 1. Use a check mark to indicate whether the description listed refers to a chemical
property, qualitative physical property, or quantitative physical property.
Description
Chemical
Property
Physical Property
Quantitative
Qualitative
wood burns
the boiling point of water is 100oC
sodium reacts violently with water
nitrogen is a colourless gas
the action of a drain cleaner on a clog
diamonds are one of the hardest substances
water has a density of 1.0 g/mL
an iodine solution kills bacteria
oxygen supports combustion
2. Justify your choices in question 1.
52
Appendix 3.6
Physical and Chemical Properties
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Physical and Chemical Properties Practice – Student Worksheet (Answer Key)
Part A: Match the physical properties with a correct description.
1. H - odour
a. the resistance of a liquid to flowing
2. C - state
b. the ‘feel’ of a substance to the fingers
3. A - viscosity
c. the condition of being a solid, liquid, gas
4. J - hardness
d. how ‘shiny’ or ‘dull’ an object is
5. I - malleability
e. the ability to be stretched into a wire
6. E - ductility
f. how well a substance dissolves in water
7. G - conductivity
g. the ability of a substance to conduct electricity
8. D - lustre
h. the ‘smell’ given off by an object
9. B - texture
i. the ability of an object to be hammered into thin sheets
10. K - clarity
j. the resistance to being scratched
11. F - solubility
k. the ability of light to pass through an object
Part B: Identify the physical property described in each of the following cases:
1.
copper is used to wire our homes - DUCTILITY
2.
a variety of motor oils is available - VISCOCITY
3.
sandpaper is rough to the touch – TEXTURE
4.
glass and water allow light to pass through – TRANSPARENCY
5.
copper II sulfate dissolves in water - SOLUBILITY
6.
aluminum can be used to wrap sandwiches - MALLEABILITY
7.
oil floats on the surface of water - DENSITY
8.
diamonds are used in drill bits - HARDNESS
9.
Earth is the only planet where water is in 3 forms - STATE
10.
gold is used in jewelry because of these properties - MALLEABILITY
53
Part C: Use a check mark to indicate whether the description listed refers to a chemical
property, qualitative physical property, or quantitative physical property.
Description
wood burns
Chemical
Property
Quantitative



nitrogen is a colourless gas
the action of a drain cleaner on a clog
Qualitative

the boiling point of water is 100oC
sodium reacts violently with water
Physical Property


diamonds are one of the hardest substances

water has a density of 1.0 g/mL
an iodine solution kills bacteria

oxygen supports combustion

54
Appendix 3.7
Physical and Chemical Properties
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Exit Card
Three things I learned today are:
1.
2.
3.
Two questions I still have are:
1.
2.
One connection I can make from today’s lesson is:
1.
55
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Chemistry: Atoms, Elements and Compounds
Lesson 8 & 9/Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams and Trends in the Periodic Table
Duration: two 75 minute periods
Key Instructional Strategies
Differentiated Instruction Details
1 Bohr-Rutherford Model Review (Cooperative
Knowledge of Students
Learning)*
Differentiation based on student:
 Readiness  Interests
 Preferences
2 Group Discussion (Questions and Cues)*
3 Building Bohr-Rutherford Models (Cooperative
Differentiated Instruction Response
Learning)*
 Learning materials (content)
4 Choice Board**: Analyzing Trends Using Bohr Ways of learning (process)
Rutherford Models (Cooperative Learning)*
 Ways of demonstrating learning (product)
5 Whole Class Discussion (Questions and Cues)*
 Learning environment
6 Choice Board: What did I learn today?**
*Marzano’s Categories of Instructional Strategies **Differentiated Instruction Structure
Curriculum Connections
Overall Expectation(s):
 C3 demonstrate an understanding of the properties of common elements and compounds, and of
the organization of elements in the periodic table
Specific Expectation(s):
 C3.2 describe the characteristics of neutrons, protons, and electrons, including charge, location, and
relative mass
 C3.5 describe patterns in the arrangements of electrons in the first 20 elements of the periodic
table, using the Bohr-Rutherford model
 C3.6 explain the relationship between the atomic structure of an element and the position of that
element in the periodic table
Catholic Graduate Expectation(s):
 CGE2c Presents information and ideas clearly and honestly and with sensitivity to others.
 CGE3c Thinks reflectively and creatively to evaluate situations and solve problems.
 CGE5a Works effectively as an interdependent team member.
 CGE5g Achieves excellence, originality, and integrity in one's own work and supports these qualities
in the work of others.
Learning Goal(s):
Big Idea(s):
 Describe patterns and relationships of the first  Elements and compounds have specific
20 elements in the periodic table using the
physical and chemical properties that
Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom.
determine their practical uses.
 Communicate ideas in chosen format.
Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment/Success Criteria
Knowledge/Understanding
 Demonstrate an understanding of patterns and relationships
of the first 20 elements in the periodic table using the BohrRutherford model of the atom.
Communication
 Expresses and organizes ideas and information in chosen
format.
Assessment Tools:
 Oral Feedback
 Anecdotal Notes
 Reflection
 Checklist
56
Prior Learning
Prior to this lesson, students will have:
 An understanding of the organization of periodic table.
 Knowledge of the names and symbols for the first twenty elements of the periodic table.
 An understanding of the atom, subatomic particles and the Bohr-Rutherford model.
Materials and Resources
Materials:
For Appendix 8.3:
 Roll of Tape
 Washable Marker(s)
 Bohr-Rutherford Atom Templates
 Ziploc Bags
Appendix 8.1:
Appendix 8.2:
Appendix 8.3:
Appendix 8.4:
Appendix 8.5:
Appendix 8.6:
Appendix 8.7:
Appendix 8.8:
Appendix 8.9:
Review of the Bohr-Rutherford Model of the Atom – Student Worksheet
Review of the Bohr-Rutherford Model of the Atom – Teacher Answer Key
Instructions for Building Bohr-Rutherford Models
Choice Board for analysis of activity
Energy Level Analysis Group
Valence Electron Analysis Group
Mass Number and Atomic Number Analysis Group
Contents of the Ziploc Bag – Cut-Outs
Choice Board – What did I learn today?
Internet Resources:
Student Success Differentiated Instruction. GAINS. July 2010.
<http://www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/difinstgains.htm>
Resources:
Institute for Catholic Education. (2003). Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Ministry of Education. (2008). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, Science.
57
Grade 9 Science, Academic/SNC1D/Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams and the Periodic Table/Lessons
8&9
Minds On (75 min)
 Establishing a positive learning environment
 Connecting to prior learning and/or experiences
 Setting the context for learning
Connections
L: Literacy
ML: Mathematical Literacy
AfL: Assessment for Learning
AaL: Assessment as Learning
AoL: Assessment of Learning
DI: Differentiated Instruction
EE: Environmental Education
Day 8
Individuals, Pairs, or Small Groups  Bohr-Rutherford Atomic Model
Review (Worksheet)
 Individually (intrapersonal) or in pairs/small groups (interpersonal),
students complete a worksheet (Appendix 8.1) to review the BohrRutherford model of the atom
DI: Learning
Preferences
Whole Class Bohr-Rutherford Atomic Model Review ( Group Discussion)
 Facilitate a discussion on the concepts of the Review Worksheet
(Appendix 8.1) using Appendix 8.2 as a guide.
 Share and discuss the learning goals.
AfL: Review/Oral
Feedback/Sharing and
discussing learning goals
Pairs  Building Bohr-Rutherford Models
 Distribute a Ziploc bag to each pair of students containing laminated
cutouts (atom templates and element name labels from Appendix
8.8), tape, and washable markers. If a laminator is inaccessible,
students can write directly on a copy of the templates (one copy for
each pair). Consider using different coloured markers to represent
electrons in different energy levels.
 Students assemble the Bohr-Rutherford diagrams for the atoms of
the first twenty elements of the periodic table (Appendix 8.3).
 Keep assembled atoms for use in the Action component (Day 9).
 Circulate and provide feedback to students as required.
AfL: Observations/Oral
Feedback
Action (30 min)
 Introducing new learning or extending/reinforcing prior learning
 Providing opportunities for practice and application of learning (guided  independent)
Day 9
PairsChoice Board: Analyzing Trends Using Bohr-Rutherford Models
 In the same pairs, students organize their Bohr-Rutherford models
from the Minds On component (Appendix 8.3) into a “mini-periodic
table” based on atomic number.
 Students choose a periodic table trend to analyze, based on interest,
using a Choice Board (Appendix 8.4). Choices include:
o Energy levels (Appendix 8.5)
o Valence electrons (Appendix 8.6)
o Mass numbers (Appendix 8.7)
 Circulate and provide cues/feedback to help students answer
questions and discover trends among groups and periods of the
periodic table, as required.
 Consider making observations or notes to assess learning skills and
work habits (e.g. collaboration, organization, etc.)
DI: Choice Board/
Interest
AfL: Oral Descriptive
Feedback
AfL: Anecdotal Notes
58
Consolidation and Connection (45 min)
 Helping students demonstrate what they have learned
 Providing opportunities for consolidation and reflection
Day 9
Whole Class Group Discussion
 Facilitate a discussion on the trends of the periodic table and refer
back to the learning goals.
 Consider selecting some students to display and discuss their work to
AaL: Reflection
the class. Purposefully select students who may have arrived at
similar conclusions in different ways and/or different conclusions.
Students share their learning experiences with the class (e.g., I did it
this way because…, By comparing these atoms, we determined
that…, etc.)
IndividualChoice Board: What did I learn today?
 Students select a choice board option to demonstrate learning based
on interest or learning preference (Appendix 8.9) and use the
success criteria checklist to self assess their product.
 Consider using the success criteria checklist on the choice board
(Appendix 8.9) to assess the learning goals and to guide further
instruction.
DI: Choice Board/
Interest or Learning
Preference
AaL/AfL: Choice Board
Checklist
59
Appendix 8.1
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Review of the Bohr-Rutherford Model of the Atom – Student Worksheet
SYMBOLS
1. Draw in the symbols used to represent parts of the atom.
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Nucleus
Energy Level
(will contain electrons)
ENERGY LEVELS
2. How many electrons can be held by the first energy level?
Draw in the maximum number of electrons that can fill the first energy level below.
1st Energy Level
# p+
_-# n-
n=1
(Source of Clip Art: Microsoft Word)
60
3. How many electrons can be held by the second energy level?
Draw in the maximum number of electrons that can fill the second energy level below.
# p+
# n-
2nd Energy Level
n=2
How many electrons can be held by every energy level past the second one?
CHARGES AND LOCATION OF SUBATOMIC PARTCLES
4. What charge do protons have?
Where are protons located?
5. What charge do neutrons have?
Where are neutrons located?
6. What charge do electrons have?
Where are electrons located?
7. Label the protons, neutrons, and electrons in the diagram below.
# p+
# n-
8. What are valence electrons?
THE PERIODIC TABLE
9. What is a group in the periodic table?
How many groups does the periodic table have?
10. What is a period in the periodic table?
How many periods does the periodic table have?
61
Appendix 8.2
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Review of the Bohr-Rutherford Model of the Atom – Teacher Answer Key
SYMBOLS
1. Draw in the symbols used to represent parts of the atom.
Electron
Proton
p+
Neutron
n-
Nucleus
# p+
# n-
Orbital/Shell/Energy Level
(will contain electrons)
ENERGY LEVELS/ORBITALS/SHELLS
2. How many electrons can be held by the first energy level? 2 electrons
Draw in the maximum number of electrons that can fill the first energy level below.
1st Energy Level
#
#
p+
n-
n=1
(Source of Clip Art: Microsoft Word)
62
3. How many electrons can be held by the second energy level? 8 electrons
Draw in the maximum number of electrons that can fill the second energy level below.
# p+
# n-
2nd Energy Level
n=2
How many electrons can be held by every energy level past the second one? 8 electrons
CHARGES AND LOCATION OF SUBATOMIC PARTCLES
4. What charge do protons have? Positive. Where are protons located? In the nucleus of an
atom.
5. What charge do neutrons have? No charge/Neutral. Where are neutrons located? In the
nucleus of an atom.
6. What charge do electrons have? Negative. Where are electrons located? In energy levels.
Electron
Protons
Neutrons
# p+
# n-
7. What are valence electrons? Electrons located in the outermost energy level of an atom.
THE PERIODIC TABLE
8. What is a group in the periodic table? The “columns”.
How many groups does the periodic table have? Eight/Eighteen.
9. What is a period in the periodic table? The “rows”.
How many periods does the periodic table have? Seven.
63
Appendix 8.3
Bohr-Rutherford Models and The Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Instructions for Building Bohr-Rutherford Models
Setting Up
1. You will be working in groups of two to create a mini periodic table on your desks!
2. Gather materials located in the Ziploc bags at the front of the room. Each group will
need one Ziploc bag. Each Ziploc bag should contain 20 pieces of white paper with
templates for Bohr-Rutherford diagrams of the atom, a periodic table, twenty element
names, a washable marker, and a roll of tape.
3. Remove all contents from the Ziploc bag and place them on your desk.
Activity
Atomic Number and Element Names:
4. Gather all element name labels. Using the marker, write the atomic number and mass
number for each element on this label using the periodic table given.
5. Organize these element names by increasing atomic number. Be sure to use the
periodic table given to keep the elements in their correct periods and groups. Example:
keep Hydrogen in group 1 and period 1. Keep Lithium in group 1 period 2 etc.
Protons, Electrons and Neutrons
6. Using the periodic table, write the appropriate number of protons, neutrons and
electrons that would be located in each atom that you organized on the element name
label.
Energy Levels
7. Based on the number of electrons discovered in # 6, choose the correct Bohr-Rutherford
template (with the correct number of energy levels) for each atom. Remember, you
must fill each energy level with electrons before adding another energy level.
Assembling the Atom
8.
For each atom, you must complete the following:
a. With the marker, write the correct number of protons and neutrons in the
appropriate places on the Bohr-Rutherford templates.
b. Draw in the correct number of electrons in the appropriate locations for each
atom.
64
Appendix 8.4
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Choice Board – Analysis of the Periodic Table
Choose one of the boxes below to further analyze a trend of the periodic table. Work alone or with someone who has
chosen the same trend as you.
Energy Levels
Valence Electrons
You will be analyzing the energy levels of
elements in the periods of the periodic table.
You will be analyzing the valence electrons in
the elements of groups in the periodic table.
Atomic Number and Mass Number
You will be analyzing the atomic numbers and
mass numbers of selected elements of the
periodic table.
65
Appendix 8.5
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Energy Level Analysis Group
Read the following questions to discover an important trend in the periodic table!
1. How many energy levels are observed in the atoms of elements in period 1?
2. How many energy levels are observed in the atoms of elements in period 2?
3. How many energy levels are observed in the atoms of elements in period 3?
4. How many energy levels are observed in the atoms of elements in period 4?
CONCLUSION:
What relationship did you discover about the number of energy levels and the PERIODS in the periodic
table?
(Source of Images: Google Images (www.google.ca) and Microsoft Clip Art)
66
Appendix 8.6
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Valence Electrons Analysis Group
Read the following questions to discover an important trend in the periodic table!
1. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 1?
2. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 2?
3. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 13?
4. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 14?
5. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 15?
6. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 16?
7. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 17?
8. How many valence electrons are observed in the atoms of elements in group 18?
CONCLUSION:
What relationship did you discover about the number of valence electrons and GROUPS in the
periodic table?
(Source of Images: Google Images (www.google.ca) and Microsoft Clip)
Art
67
Appendix 8.7
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Mass Number and Atomic Number Analysis Group
Read the following questions to discover an important trend in the periodic table! You must
use the periodic table given, not your mini periodic table, to answer these questions.
1. Look at the mass numbers and atomic numbers of the atoms of elements #1-20. What
general trend do these atoms follow?
2. Look at the mass numbers and atomic numbers of the atoms of elements with atomic
number 27 - Cobalt (Co) and atomic number 28 - Nickel (Ni) on the period table given. How is
the trend seen here different from elements 1-20?
CONCLUSION:
What conclusion do you make about how elements are organized in the periodic table with respect to atomic
number and mass number?
(Source of Images: Google Images (www.google.ca) and Microsoft Clip Art)
68
Appendix 8.8
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Teachers Resource – Templates for Contents for the Ziploc Bags
Period 2 Templates (8 required for each bag)
p+
n-
Nucleus
p+
n-
Nucleus
69
Period 3 Templates (8 required for each bag)
p+
n-
Nucleus
p+
n-
Nucleus
70
Period 1 Templates (2 required for each bag)
p+
n-
Nucleus
p+
n-
Nucleus
71
Period 4 Template (2 required for each bag)
p+
n-
Nucleus
72
ELEMENT NAME LABELS (1 of each per bag)
HYDROGEN
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
HELIUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
LITHIUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
BERYLLIUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
BORON
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
CARBON
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
NITROGEN
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
73
OXYGEN
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
FLUORINE
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
NEON
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
SODIUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
MAGNESIUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
ALULMINUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
SILICON
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
74
PHOSPHOROUS
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
SULFUR
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
CHLORINE
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
ARGON
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
POTASSIUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
CALCLIUM
Atomic Number:
Mass Number:
# Protons:
# Neutrons:
# Electrons:
75
Appendix 8.9
Bohr-Rutherford Models and the Periodic Table
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Choice Board – What did I learn today?
Choose one of the options below to demonstrate what you learned today about the trends of the periodic table.
DRAW
WRITE
Create a cartoon with callouts.
Create a news report or blog.
SAY/SING
WILD CARD
Create a poem or song.
Choose a creative format of your choice. Share
your idea with your teacher before you begin.
Success Criteria/Checklist:
I am able to accurately describe the following periodic table patterns using Bohr-Rutherford diagrams
(Knowledge and Understanding):
□ energy levels
□ valence electrons
□ mass number & atomic number
□ I can express my ideas clearly in the format of my choice (Communication).
□ I can organize my ideas in the proper format of my choice (Communication).
76
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D):
Chemistry: Atoms, Elements and Compounds
Lesson 13-16/Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Duration: four 75 minute periods
Key Instructional Strategies
Differentiated Instruction Details
1 Mystery Solids Brainstorm Review and Learning
Contract**
Knowledge of Students
2 Initiate and Plan – Question, Purpose, Variables
Differentiation based on student:
and Hypothesis (Cooperative Learning; Generating  Readiness  Interests
 Preferences
and Testing Hypotheses)*
3 Initiate and Plan – Procedure, Materials and
Differentiated Instruction Response
Observations (Cooperative Learning; Generating
 Learning materials (content)
and Testing Hypotheses)*
 Ways of learning (process)
4 Perform and Record (Cooperative Learning;
 Ways of demonstrating learning (product)
Generating and Testing Hypotheses)*
 Learning environment
5 Analysis of Results
6 Reflection – R.E.R.U.N, Self and Peer Assessment
(Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback )*
*Marzano’s Categories of Instructional Strategies **Differentiated Instruction Structure
Curriculum Connections
Overall Expectation(s):
 A1 demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas
of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analyzing and interpreting and
communicating).
 C1 assess social, environmental, and economic impacts of the use of common elements and
compounds, with reference to their physical and chemical properties.
 C2 investigate, through inquiry, the physical and chemical properties of common elements and
compounds.
 C3 demonstrate an understanding of the properties of common elements and compounds, and of
the organization of elements in the periodic table.
Specific Expectation(s):
 A1.2 select appropriate instruments (e.g., sampling instruments, laboratory glassware, magnifying
lenses, an electroscope) and materials (e.g., ebonite rods, star charts, a ball and spring apparatus,
pH paper) for particular inquiries
 A1.3 identify and locate a variety of print and electronic sources that enable them to address
research topics fully and appropriately
 A1.4 apply knowledge and understanding of safe laboratory practices and procedures when
planning investigations by correctly interpreting Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
Systems (WHMIS) symbols; by using appropriate techniques for handling and storing laboratory
equipment and materials and disposing of laboratory materials; and by using appropriate personal
protection
 A1.5 conduct inquiries, controlling some variables, adapting or extending procedures as required,
and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect
observations and data
 A1.6 gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using
appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams
 A1.7 select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from a variety of
appropriate sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources, using suitable formats and
an accepted form of academic documentation
77

A1.8 analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence
supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error, bias, or
uncertainty
 A1.10 draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions
 A1.11 communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in
electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables,
laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)
 A1.12 use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate
units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)
 C1.1 assess the usefulness of and/or the hazards associated with common elements or compounds
in terms of their physical and chemical properties[AI, C]
 C1.2 assess social, environmental, and economic impacts of the use of common elements or
compounds [AI, C]
 C2.3 plan and conduct an inquiry into the properties of common substances found in the laboratory
or used in everyday life (e.g., starch, table salt, wax, toothpaste), and distinguish the substances by
their physical and chemical properties (e.g., physical properties: hardness, conductivity colour,
melting point, solubility, density; chemical properties: combustibility, reaction with water) [IP, PR,
AI]
 C3.4 describe the characteristic physical and chemical properties of common elements and
compounds (e.g., aluminum is a good conductor of heat; copper reacts to moist air by developing a
greenish surface of copper carbonate; sodium carbonate is a white, odourless powder that dissolves
in water; water has unique physical properties that allow it to support life)
Catholic Graduate Expectation(s):
 CGE2c Presents information and ideas clearly and honestly and with sensitivity to others.
 CGE3c Thinks reflectively and creatively to evaluate situations and solve problems.
 CGE4f Applies effective communication, decision-making, problem-solving, time and resource
management skills.
 CGE5a Works effectively as an interdependent team member.
 CGE5b Thinks critically about the meaning and purpose of work.
 CGE5g Achieves excellence, originality, and integrity in one's own work and supports these qualities
in the work of others.
Learning Goal(s):
Big Idea(s):
 Plan and conduct an inquiry to identify the
 Elements and compounds have specific
three mystery solids based on their properties.
physical and chemical properties that
determine their practical uses.
 State the uses of the three mystery solids.
 Research and assess the social, environmental,  The use of elements and compounds has both
positive and negative effects on society and
and economic impact of using one of the
the environment.
mystery solids.
 Communicate research in format of choice.
78
Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment/Success Criteria
Thinking and Investigating
 Uses initiating and planning skills effectively to formulate
questions, develop hypotheses and plans, and select variables,
strategies and resources to perform an inquiry investigation.
 Uses processing skills to perform and record observations,
manipulate materials, use equipment safely, and analyze and
interpret observations to perform an inquiry investigation.
Application
 Applies knowledge of physical and chemical properties
accurately to investigate and identify the mystery solids.
 Accurately states the use of the three mystery solids.
 Effectively researches and assesses the social, environmental,
and economic impact of using one of the mystery solids.
Communication
 Expresses and organizes ideas and information clearly
 using proper conventions
 using appropriate terminology
 in proper format of choice
Assessment Tools:
 Observations
 Anecdotal Notes
 Oral/Written Feedback
 Traffic Cup Lights
 Checklist
 Rubric
 R.E.R.U.N Reflection
 Self and Peer Assessment
Checklists
Prior Learning
Prior to this lesson, students will have:
 An understanding of safety practices and procedures in a laboratory setting
 Experience using the skills required in conducting a laboratory experiment
 An understanding of physical and chemical properties
 An awareness of the Steps to Inquiry Posters
Materials and Resources
Materials:
For Inquiry Investigation:
 Sticky notes
 Flour
 Sugar
 Salt
 Conductivity testers
 Scoopulas
 Beakers
 Graduated Cylinders
 Glass Rods
 Eyedroppers/Medicine Droppers
 Petri Dishes or Evaporating Dishes
 Spot Plates
 Water
 Any other materials students request for their investigation
Appendix 13.1:
Appendix 13.2:
Appendix 13.3:
Appendix 13.4:
Mystery Solids Brainstorming (Teacher Instructions)
Mystery Solids Brainstorming Template
Learning Contract
Initiating and Planning: Choosing Variables – Student Handout
79
Appendix 13.5: Initiating and Planning: Choosing Variables – Sample Answers
Appendix 13.6: Initiating and Planning: Formulating a Testable Question and Purpose – Student
Handout
Appendix 13.7: Initiating and Planning: Formulating a Testable Question and Purpose – Sample
Answers
Appendix 13.8: Initiating and Planning: Making a Prediction – Student Handout
Appendix 13.9: Group Checklist
Appendix 13.10: Analysis Questions
Appendix 13.11: R.E.R.U.N. Reflection
Appendix 13.12: Rubric – Inquiry Investigation: Initiate, Plan and Communicate
Appendix 13.13: Rubric –Analysis Questions
Appendix 13.14: Self Assessment Checklist: Working in a Group
Appendix 13.15: Peer Assessment Checklist: Working in a Group
Internet Resources:
Student Success Differentiated Instruction. GAINS. July 2010.
<http://www.edugains.ca/newsite/di/difinstgains.htm>
“Steps to Inquiry Posters”. Smarter Science. (2005-2010). Youth Science Canada. July 2010.
< http://www.smarterscience.ca/library/>
Resources:
Attwood, Randy J, et al. (2009). ON Science 9 Teacher’s Resource. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill
Ryerson. (BLM A-19)
Institute for Catholic Education. (2003). Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Keeley, Page. (2008). Science Formative Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment,
Instruction, and Learning. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. (R.E.R.U.N. Reflection)
Ministry of Education. (2008). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, Science.
80
Grade 9 Science, Academic/SNC1D/Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation/Lesson 13-16
Minds On (Four 75 min Periods)
 Establishing a positive learning environment
 Connecting to prior learning and/or experiences
 Setting the context for learning
Connections
L: Literacy
ML: Mathematical Literacy
AfL: Assessment for Learning
AaL: Assessment as Learning
AoL: Assessment of Learning
DI: Differentiated Instruction
EE: Environmental Education
Prior to the lesson:
 Adapted forms of the Steps to Inquiry Posters steps 3-5 (see Appendices
13.2 – 13.8) are used to guide students throughout this investigation.
Templates for the Steps to Inquiry Posters can be found on the Smarter
Science Website, www.smarterscience.ca/library.
 Consider downloading “How to Use Steps to Inquiry Posters” file from
the Science Subject Council Wiki (http://dpcdsbssc.wikispaces.com/Science+Writing+Teams).
DAY 13
Whole Class  Mystery Solids Brainstorm Review & Learning Contract
 Facilitate a discussion to review the Mystery Solids Brainstorm from Day
2 (see Appendix 13.1 for teacher instructions and Appendix 13.2 for
brainstorming template).
 Distribute Learning Contract (Appendix 13.3) to outline learning goals,
format of work, criteria for assessment and evaluation, and details of the
investigation.
 Discuss any relevant safety issues.
Small Groups  Initiate and Plan (Question, Purpose, Variables,
Hypothesis)
 Consider creating small, heterogenous groups based on availability of
resources and student learning preferences from a Multiple Intelligence
survey (i.e., a group with mixed intelligences such as visual-spatial,
logical-mathematical, and verbal-linguistic).
 In small groups, students
o identify and choose variables, generate a testable question,
purpose and hypothesis (Appendices 13.4 – 13.8) based on the
Mystery Solids Brainstorm
o use a checklist (Appendix 13.9) to guide their progress
throughout the inquiry investigation
o fill in components of the checklist as they are completed
o submit one checklist and completed work, per group, at the end
of each day
 Circulate and provide cues/feedback to students as required.
 Consider using a Traffic Light Cups formative assessment technique.
 Review each submission and provide descriptive oral/written feedback.
AfL: Sharing and
Discussing Learning
Goals and Success
Criteria
AfL/AaL: Checklist
AfL: Observations/
Anecdotal Comments/
Oral and/or Written
Descriptive Feedback/
Traffic Cup Lights
81
DAY 14
Small Groups  Initiate and Plan (Procedure, Materials, Observations)
 In the same groups as Day 13, students plan a procedure, choose
materials and instruments to use, and create observation table(s) to
record data.
 Consider providing (or co-constructing) criteria for writing procedures.
Some suggestions include:
o located under the heading/section “Procedure”
o numbered steps
o includes all necessary steps to avoid confusion (e.g. gather all
materials from…)
o use present tense when planning (before the experiment)
o use past tense when writing a report (after the experiment)
 Consider providing (or co-constructing) criteria for creating an
observation table. Some suggestions include:
o located under the heading/section “Observations”
o includes a title and table number
o includes columns and rows
o includes units of measurement when required
o only include observations (qualitative and quantitative), no
assumptions, analyses or conclusions
 Circulate and provide cues/feedback to students as required.
 Each group submits their checklist with a list of materials and
instruments, a procedure and observation table(s).
 Review each submission and provide descriptive oral/written feedback.
AfL: Co-constructing
success criteria
AfL: Co-constructing
success criteria
AfL: Observations/Oral
Descriptive Feedback
AfL/AaL: Checklist
AfL: Oral and/or
Written Descriptive
Feedback
Action (50 min)
 Introducing new learning or extending/reinforcing prior learning
 Providing opportunities for practice and application of learning (guided  independent)
Prior to lesson:
 Gather all necessary materials and instruments required by groups to
perform investigation based on submission of materials list, procedure,
and observations table(s).
 Review relevant safety precautions, laboratory skills and techniques, and
chemical disposal locations and methods.
DAY 15
Small Groups  Perform and Record
 Students conduct planned investigations and record data.
 Circulate and provide cues/feedback to students as required.
 Groups submit their checklist with completed observation table(s).
Provide descriptive feedback (e.g. the table is set up properly with the
use of columns and rows. An area of improvement would be...)
 Use a rubric (Appendix 13.12) to assess the learning goals related to the
AfL: Observations/Oral
Descriptive Feedback
82
checklist.
AfL: Rubric
Consolidation and Connection (100 min)
 Helping students demonstrate what they have learned
 Providing opportunities for consolidation and reflection
DAYS 15&16
Individual  Analysis of Results from Investigation
 Distribute and discuss the Analysis Questions (Appendix 13.10) and the
corresponding Rubric (Appendix 13.13). Consider whether students will
be required to complete the research for Question 5b at home or if class
time will be provided.
 Individually, students analyze data from the investigation and complete
the Analysis Questions (Appendix 13.10) for evaluation.
 Circulate and provide cues/feedback to students as required.
 Evaluate the analysis questions using a rubric.
Individual  R.E.R.U.N Reflection, Self Assessment & Peer Assessment
 Individually, students complete
 a R.E.R.U.N reflection (Appendix 13.11) to reflect on the Inquiry
Investigation
 a self and peer assessment checklist (Appendices 13.14 and
13.15)
 Consider assessing some of the learning skills/work habits using the
checklists.
 Converse with students regarding their assessments and provide an
opportunity for students to write and share personal learning goals for
scientific investigation skills.
AfL: Observations/Oral
Descriptive Feedback
AoL: Rubric/Analysis
Questions
AaL/AfL: R.E.R.U.N.
Reflection, Self
Assessment, Peer
Assessment
AaL: Writing and
sharing personal
learning goals
Please note that the Days and Times suggested in this lesson are
approximate. Groups will be working at different paces depending on the
complexity of their investigation, requirement to perform an experiment
multiple times, etc.
83
Appendix 13.1
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Mystery Solids Brainstorming (Teacher Instructions)
1. Show students three mystery solids (e.g., salt, sugar, and flour) but do not
state their identity and revisit the brainstorming ideas.
2. Students brainstorm “I wonder” questions, write them on a sticky note,
and post them on the board to share with the class.
3. Discuss the questions on the board and identify any questions related to
physical and chemical properties. Consider prompting students to
brainstorm more questions, if necessary.
4. Cue students to develop the underlying question “What is the identity of
each white powder?”
5. Cue students to develop ways of investigating the answer to this question
by using
 physical and chemical properties
 the safe and proper use of instruments and materials
84
Appendix 13.2
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Mystery Solids Brainstorming Template
I Wonder…Questions
Underlying Question?
How could you investigate
answers to this question?
85
Appendix 13.3
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Learning Contract
Learning Goal(s):
o Plan and conduct an inquiry to identify the three mystery solids based on their
properties.
o State the uses of the three mystery solids.
o Research and assess the social, environmental, and economic impact of using one of the
mystery solids.
o Communicate research in format of choice.
Non-Negotiable Tasks:
Teacher
Initials
GROUP TASKS:
 Submit completed work on a daily basis for feedback. Fill in the checklist provided
(Appendix 13.9) and submit with all completed work. The following is a list of group
work that needs to be submitted:
o Initiating and Planning: Formulating a Testable Question and Purpose
o Initiating and Planning: Formulating a Prediction
 Working cooperatively in your group as an interdependent team member.
INDIVIDUAL TASKS:
 Individually complete the Analysis Questions (Appendix 13.10) for evaluation
(a rubric, Appendix 13.13, is provided)
 Complete a R.E.R.U.N Reflection (Appendix 13.11).
 Complete a self and peer assessment checklist (Appendices 13.14-13.15).
Negotiable Tasks:
 Format used to submit daily work for teacher feedback.
 Choosing the independent, dependent and control variables for your investigation.
 Choosing the materials and instruments you would like to use to investigate your
question.
86
Appendix 13.4
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Initiating and Planning: Choosing Variables – Student Handout
There are three kinds of variables to consider in investigations:
1. Ones that you CHANGE – Independent Variable (type of solid)
2. Ones that you MEASURE – Dependant Variable(s)
3. Ones that you CONTROL – Controlled Variable(s)
One variable that will be CHANGED is:
The Type of Solid
Variables that I will MEASURE based on the change are (fill in as many as you can)...
Hint: Think Properties!
Place a sticky note here
DEPENDENT
VARIABLE
Place a sticky note here
DEPENDENT
VARIABLE
Place a sticky note here
DEPENDENT
VARIABLE
Place a sticky note here
DEPENDENT
VARIABLE
Variables that I will CONTROL are (fill in as many as you can)…
Place a sticky note here
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
Place a sticky note here
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
Place a sticky note here
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
Place a sticky note here
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
Adapted from Smarter Science Steps to Inquiry Posters (Step 3) (www.smarterscience.ca/library)
87
Appendix 13.5
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Initiating and Planning: Choosing Variables – Sample Answers
Initiate and Plan
There are three kinds of variables to consider in investigations:
1. Ones that you CHANGE – Independent Variable (type of solid)
2. Ones that you MEASURE – Dependant Variable(s)
3. Ones that you CONTROL – Controlled Variable(s)
One variable that will be CHANGED is:
The Type of Solid
Variables that I will MEASURE based on the change are (fill in as many as you can)…
Hint: Think Properties!
Place a sticky note here
Solubility
Place a sticky note here
Texture
Place a sticky note here
Conductivity
Place a sticky note here
Combustibility
Variables that I will CONTROL are (fill in as many as you can)…
Place the sticky note here
Amount of
Water/Solid
Place the sticky note here
Duration of Heating
Place the sticky note here
Duration of Mixing
Place the sticky note here
Temperature of
Water
88
Appendix 13.6
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Initiating and Planning: Formulating a Testable Question and Purpose –
Student Handout
If I change this one variable…….
What will happen to these variables?
(choose three dependent variables)
Write dependent variable chosen here
Write dependent variable chosen here
Write dependent variable chosen here
1. Write down the QUESTION that you will be investigating.
2. Use the flow chart above and your question to develop a PURPOSE (in the
form of a statement).
Adapted from Smarter Science Steps to Inquiry Posters (Step 4) (www.smarterscience.ca/library)
89
Appendix 13.7
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Initiating and Planning: Formulating a Testable Question and Purpose –
Sample Answers
If I change this one variable…….
Type of Solid
What will happen to these variables?
(choose any three dependent variables)
Solubility
Conductivity
Combustibility
1. Write down the QUESTION that you will be investigating.
What is the identity of each white powder?
2. Use the flow chart above and your question to develop a PURPOSE (in the
form of a statement).
To investigate the identity of each white powder by testing solubility, conductivity
and combustibility.
90
Appendix 13.8
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Initiating and Planning: Making a Prediction – Student Handout
Based on my Purpose, I predict that:
WHAT?
If I change
(independent variable)
then I predict this will happen to what I measure or observe:
(dependant variables)
WHY?
I think this will happen because:
Adapted from Smarter Science Steps to Inquiry Posters (Step 5) (www.smarterscience.ca/library)
91
Appendix 13.9
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Group Checklist
Complete the checklist on a daily basis and submit it to your teacher with the corresponding
completed work.
Names:
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
Complete? Part of Investigation
(place
checkmark)
Handout - Initiating and
□
Planning: Formulating a
Testable Question and
Purpose
□
Handout - Initiating and
Planning: Making a
Prediction
□
Our prediction is related to
the Question and Purpose
□
List of materials and
instruments
□
Procedure
□ numbered
□ present tense
□
Observation table(s) in
proper format
□
Conduct and complete the
investigation
□
Record all observations in
table(s)
Comments/Notes
Teacher
Initials
92
Appendix 13.10
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Analysis Questions
Answer the questions below using the data from your observation table(s) or
information from research.
1. List the dependent variables you chose to investigate. What type of
properties are they (physical qualitative, physical quantitative or chemical)?
Explain your reasoning.
2. Based on your observations, write a conclusion by stating the identity of
each powder. Justify your choices and explain whether or not your
prediction was correct.
3. What other dependent variables could you have investigated to discover
the identity of each powder? What would you expect to see? How would
those observations help you discover the identity of each powder?
4. How would you improve your experiment if you could perform it again?
Explain.
5. a. Based on your observations, state a practical use and/or hazard for each
powder.
b. Choose one powder from the investigation and research its social,
environmental and economic impacts. Communicate your research in the
form of a verbal presentation, poster, newspaper article, power point
presentation, blog or another format of your choice (with teacher
approval).
93
Appendix 13.11
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
R.E.R.U.N Reflection
Recall – Summarize what your learned in this investigation.
Explain – Explain the Purpose of this investigation.
Results – Describe the meaning of the results from this investigation.
Uncertainties – List/describe any uncertainties after completing this investigation.
New – List/describe any new things that you learned
(Source: Science Formative Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Learning)
94
Appendix 13.12
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Rubric – Inquiry Investigation: Initiate, Plan and Communicate
Categories
Thinking and Investigation
□ uses initiating and
planning skills to
formulate a purpose
and hypotheses,
identify variables, select
appropriate
instruments and
materials, and plan a
procedure
Communication
□ creates observation
table(s) in proper
format (e.g. includes a
title, table number,
proper experimental
data)
□ expresses data/
observations precisely
using proper
terminology and units
of measurements
50-59% (Level 1)
60-69% (Level 2)
70-79% (Level 3)
800-100% (Level 4)
□ with limited
effectiveness
□ with some
effectiveness
□ with
considerable
effectiveness
□ with a high
degree of
effectiveness
□ with limited
effectiveness
□ with some
effectiveness
□ with
considerable
effectiveness
□ with a high
degree of
effectiveness
□ with limited
effectiveness
□ with some
effectiveness
□ with
considerable
effectiveness
□ with a high
degree of
effectiveness
95
Appendix 13.13
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Rubric – Analysis Questions
Categories/Criteria
Thinking and Investigation
(Questions 2 & 4)
□ evaluates data to identify
solids
□ formulates and justifies
conclusions
□ identifies areas of
improvement
Application
□ applies knowledge about
physical and chemical
properties and data
collected from the
investigation to answer
analysis questions 1 & 3
□ states a practical use for
each solid (Question 5a)
□ makes connections by
assessing the impact of a
chosen solid on the
environment, society, and
the economy (Question 5b)
Communication
□ uses proper format of choice
to clearly express ideas from
research for Question 5b
50-59% (Level 1)
□
60-69% (Level 2)
with limited
effectiveness
with limited
effectiveness
with limited
effectiveness
□
□
with limited
effectiveness
□
70-79% (Level 3)
with some
effectiveness
with some
effectiveness
with some
effectiveness
□
□
with some
effectiveness
with limited
effectiveness
□
□
with limited
effectiveness
□
with limited
effectiveness
□
□
80-100% (Level 4)
with considerable
effectiveness
with considerable
effectiveness
with considerable
effectiveness
□
□
with considerable
effectiveness
□
with a high degree
of effectiveness
with some
effectiveness
□
with considerable
effectiveness
□
with a high degree
of effectiveness
□
with some
effectiveness
□
with considerable
effectiveness
□
with a high degree
of effectiveness
□
with some
effectiveness
□
with considerable
effectiveness
□
with a high degree
of effectiveness
□
□
□
□
96
□
□
with a high degree
of effectiveness
with a high degree
of effectiveness
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Appendix 13.14
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Self Assessment Checklist: Working in a Group
Criteria
Read the statements to the left and place a checkmark in the
box that most applies to you!
I do not agree
I agree
I strongly agree
I always contributed my ideas to my group.
I took my turn to listen when my group members were sharing their
ideas.
I was always prepared and completed work on time.
I was an active member in group discussions.
I helped members in my group if they were having difficulty.
I put in my equal share of work.
Questions:
1. What did you do particularly well in this group investigation?
2. What would you like to improve on for the next investigation?
(Adapted from: ON Science 9 Teachers Resource, Backline Master A-19)
97
Appendix 13.15
Mystery Solids Inquiry Investigation
Grade 9 Science, Academic (SNC1D)
Peer Assessment Checklist: Working in a Group
Criteria
Read the statements to the left and place a checkmark in the box
that most applies to you!
I do not agree
I agree
I strongly agree
My group worked very efficiently together.
My group members shared the work evenly.
My group members were always prepared to work.
My group members were mature and always followed safety
precautions during experimentation.
Questions:
1. Describe how your group organized itself to ensure completion of this project. Did your method work well?
Explain.
2. List three things your group could have done to be more effective or work better together.
(Adapted from: ON Science 9 Teachers Resource, Backline Master A-19)
98
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