What You Will Learn in Chapter 7.1:
Identify ______ states of water on Earth.
Describe of the Earth’s water is _____________ and how it ____________.
Explain what a _________________ is.
Explain how _________ bodies of water influence _____________ and
1. Why is the beluga whale suffering in the St. Lawrence River? (p. 279)
2. What are the 2 kinds of water that exist? (p. 280 )
3. Define salinity? (p.280)
4. Complete D4 Starting Point. (p. 280)
5. What makes up 97% of the water on our planet? (p. 281)
6. Where can we find most of our fresh water? (p. 281)
7. What are the 3 states of water? (p. 281)
8. What is liquid water? (p. 281 )
9. What is a reservoir? (p. 281)
10. What makes up 76% of our fresh water supply? (p. 281)
11. Underground water can also be called ______________. What is the groundwater
zone? What is a water table? What is an aquifer? How do we tap into aquifers to obtain our fresh water? (p. 282)
12. Why does fresh water freeze at 0°C while ocean water freezes at -1.8°C? (p. 283)
13. What is a glacier? (p. 283)
14. What is an ice sheet? Give an example of 2 of these ice sheets. What other “term” is used to describe these ice sheets? (p. 284)
15. Define gaseous water. Give some examples of this type of water. (p. 284)
16. Sketch the water cycle. (p. 285)
17. Define a watershed. What are the 5 North American watersheds? (p. 286)
D8 Inquiry Activity! (p. 288)
Make a Model Aquifer
You have learned that water collects underground naturally in aquifers. In this activity, you will make a model of an aquifer.
How can water become stored underground naturally?
Examine the materials available to use. Write a hypothesis for your investigation.
Materials & Equipment
■ 1 shallow, rectangular, transparent plastic container
■ coarse sand
■ about 10–12 small rocks
■ plastic drinking straw
■ measuring cup or graduated cylinder
■ tap water
Part 1 — Making the Aquifer
1. Working in a small group, fill the container about one-quarter full of gravel.
2. Pour sand over the gravel layer until the container is three-quarters full. Smooth it down. Then, at one end of the container, add more sand to build up a hill.
3. At the shallow end of the sand, dig a small hole to the bottom of the container. Pile the rocks in this hole. Stand the straw in the middle of the rocks.
4. Wash your hands after handling the gravel and sand.
Part 2 — Filling the Aquifer
5. Over the next seven days, you will add small amounts of water to the container. Your teacher will give you a table on which to record your actions and observations.
6. On day 1, slowly begin pouring a measured amount of water onto the hilly end of your model. Continue adding water until all the
sand on the top layer is uniformly moist.
Record how much water you used to do that.
7. Continue adding water until the gravel layer becomes saturated. Record how much water you used and what you observe in the straw.
8. Observe your aquifer daily for the next six days. Add water each day to keep the sand wet, recording the amount on your table.
Analyzing and Interpreting
9. (a) What does the plastic container represent?
(b) What does the layer of gravel represent?
(c) What do the pile of rocks and the straw represent?
(d) Draw a side view of your model. Label your diagram using the following words: water table, ground water, aquifer, well.
10. Why is it important in this activity to observe your aquifer over several days?
11. (a) Why did you need to add water to your aquifer each day?
(b) In a paragraph, describe how what happened in your model is like what happens in the real world.