# Chemical Engineering

```UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTS
ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI :: CHENNAI 600 025
REGULATIONS – 2008
CURRICULUM FROM III &amp; IV SEMESTERS FOR
B.TECH. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEMESTER III
CODE NO
THEORY
MA 9211
CY 9211
CY 9213
CH 9203
CH 9204
CH 9205
CH 9206
PRACTICAL
CY 9212
CH 9208
COURSE TITLE
L
T
P
C
Mathematics III
Organic Chemistry
Instrumental Methods of Analysis
Mechanics of Solids
Basic Mechanical Engg
Process Calculations
Fluid Mechanics
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
Organic Chemistry Lab
Electrical Engineering Lab
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
2
26
L
T
P
C
Numerical Methods
Physical Chemistry
Material Science and Technology
Chemical Engg. Thermodynamics I
Mechanical Operations
Heat Transfer
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
3
3
3
3
Technical Analysis Lab
Mechanical Engineering Lab
Fluid Mechanics Lab
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
2
2
2
25
TOTAL
SEMESTER IV
CODE NO
THEORY
MA 9262
CY9261
PH 9166
CH 9253
CH 9254
CH 9255
PRACTICAL
CY9262
CH 9257
CH 9258
COURSE TITLE
TOTAL
1
III SEMESTER
MA9211 MATHEMATICS III
L
3
T
1
Aim:
To facilitate the understanding of the principles and to cultivate the art of formulating
physical problems in the language of mathematics.
Objectives:

To introduce Fourier series analysis which is central to many applications in
engineering apart from its use in solving boundary value problems

To acquaint the student with Fourier transform techniques used in wide variety of
situations in which the functions used are not periodic

To introduce the effective mathematical tools for the solutions of partial differential
equations that model physical processes

To develop Z- transform techniques which will perform the same task for discrete time
systems as Laplace Transform, a valuable aid in analysis of continuous time systems
1. FOURIER SERIES
9+3
Dirichlet’s conditions – General Fourier series – Odd and even functions – Half-range Sine
and Cosine series – Complex form of Fourier series – Parseval’s identity – Harmonic
Analysis.
2. FOURIER TRANSFORM
9+3
Fourier integral theorem – Fourier transform pair-Sine and Cosine transforms – Properties –
Transform of elementary functions – Convolution theorem – Parseval’s identity.
3. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
9+3
Formation – Solutions of first order equations – Standard types and Equations reducible to
standard types – Singular solutions – Lagrange’s Linear equation – Integral surface passing
through a given curve – Solution of linear equations of higher order with constant coefficients.
4. APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
9+3
Method of separation of Variables – Solutions of one dimensional wave equation and onedimensional heat equation – Steady state solution of two-dimensional heat equation – Fourier
series solutions in Cartesian coordinates.
5. Z – TRANSFORM AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
9+3
Z-transform – Elementary properties – Inverse Z-transform – Convolution theorem – Initial
and Final value theorems – Formation of difference equation – Solution of difference equation
using Z-transform.
2
P
0
C
4
L: 45, T: 15, Total : 60
TEXT BOOKS
Grewal, B.S. “Higher Engineering Mathematics”, Khanna Publications (2007)
REFERENCES
1) Glyn James, “Advanced Modern Engineering Mathematics, Pearson Education (2007)
2)
Ramana, B.V. “Higher Engineering Mathematics” Tata McGraw Hill (2007).
3)
Bali, N.P. and Manish Goyal, “A Text Book of Engineering 7th Edition (2007) Lakshmi
Publications (P) Limited, New Delhi.
CY9211 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
(Common to Chemical, Textile, Leather, Petroleum Refining &amp; Petrochemicals and Apparel
Technology)
L T P C
3 0 0 3
AIM
To learn fundamental and applied aspects of organic chemistry towards different applications.
OBJECTIVES
To acquire knowledge about chemical bonding, hybridization, bond fission, different types of
chemical reactions and their mechanism, isomerism in organic molecules, synthesis of
organic compounds and various applications of organic products.
1. Structural concept of organic molecules
(5)
Nature of bonding (covalent, hydrogen) – atomic orbitals – hybridization – electronegativity –
conjugation – mesomerism and resonance – hyper-conjugation – inductive effect.
2. REACTION AND THEIR MECHANISM
(10)
Homolytic bond fission – free radicals – heterolytic bond fission – electrophiles, carbonium
ion, nucleophiles – acids and bases – Bronsted - Lowry concept, Lewis concept, strength of
acids and bases. Substitution reactions – SN1, SN2, SNi, Addition reactions – carbon – carbon
(double bond), Addition of dienes – carbon – oxygen (double bond), carbon – carbon (triple
bond) – poly addition reactions, Elimination reactions – E1, E2, Condensation – simple and
polycondensation , Redox reactions.
3. ISOMERISM
(6)
Structural isomerism – stereoisomerism – optical isomerism – racemic mixture – resolution,
racemisation – asymmetric synthesis, Walder Inversion.
Geometrical isomerism – cis, trans isomerism, syn, anti isomerism – determination of
configuration of geometrical isomers – tautomerism.
4. HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION
3
(10)
Alkanes – alkenes – alkynes – alicylic compounds – Bayers-strain theory - Hydrocarbons
related to petrol, diesel, kerosene, lube oil and waxes. Benzene and its homologues –
aromatic substitution, Friedal - Crafts reactions, Kolbe’s synthesis – Riemer – Tiemann
reaction, Benzoin condensation, Perkin reaction, Beckmann rearrangement, Claison
condensation, Hoffmann rearrangements.
5. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
(7)
Synthesis of different types of compounds – alcohol – aldehyde – carboxylic acid – ester –
ether – nitrocompounds – amines – amides (industrial methods only). Synthetic reagents –
acetoacetic ester – malonic ester and Grignard reagent.
6. APPLIED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
(7)
Polysaccharides – starch and cellulose – Proteins – amino acids and peptides – Dyes and
dyeing – colour and constitution – classification of dyes based on chemical constitution and
applications.
Total Number of Periods = 45
TEXT BOOKS:
1. B.S. Bahl and Arun Bahl, “Essentials of Organic Chemistry”, S.Chand and Company,
New Delhi (2005).
2. K.S. Tiwari, N.K. Vishnoi and S.N. Malhotra “A Text Book of Organic Chemistry”,
Third Edition, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (2006).
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. R.T. Morrison and R.N. Boyd “Organic Chemistry” VI Edition, Prentice Hall of
India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (2000).
2. I L Finar “Organic Chemistry”, Volume – I, IX Edition, Pearson Education
(Singapore) Pte. Ltd., New Delhi (2004).
3. I L Finar “Organic Chemistry”, Volume – II, VII Edition, Pearson Education
(Singapore) Pte. Ltd., New Delhi (2004).
CY 9213 INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS
(Common to Chemical, Textile, Leather, Ceramic and
Petroleum Refining &amp; Petrochemicals)
L T P C
3 0 0 3
AIM
To know the principle and importance of various analytical instruments used for the
characterization of various materials
OBJECTIVES
To have thorough understanding of theory, instrumentation and applications of analytical
equipments used in industries for testing quality of raw materials, intermediates and finished
products
4
To know the importance of analytical instrumentation during the purification, compounding
and formulating the finished product
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO SPECTROSCOPICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS
12
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: Various ranges, Dual properties, Various energy levels,
Interaction of photons with matter, absorbance &amp; transmittance and their relationship,
Permitted energy levels for the electrons of an atom and simple molecules, Classification of
instrumental methods based on physical properties
QUANTITATIVE SPECTROSCOPY: Beer -Lambert's law, Limitations, Deviations
(Real,
Chemical, Instrumental), Estimation of inorganic ions such as Fe, Ni and estimation of Nitrite
using Beer -Lambert's Law
UNIT II UV AND VISIBLE SPECTROCOPY
12
Various electronic transitions in organic and inorganic compounds effected by UV, and Visible
radiations, Various energy level diagrams of saturated, unsaturated and carbonyl compounds,
excitation by UV and Visible radiations, Choice of solvents, cut off wavelengths for solvents,
Lamda max and epsilon max rules, Woodward -Fieser rules for the calculation of absorption
maxima ( Lamda max) for dienes and carbonyl compounds, Effects of auxochromes and
efffects of conjugation on the absorption maxima, Different shifts of absorption peaks( Batho
chromic, hypsochromic, hypochromic), Multicomponent analysis ( no overlap, single way
overlap and two way overlap), Instrumentation for UV and VISIBLE spectrophotometers
(source, optical parts and detectors), Photometric titration ( Experimental set -up and various
types of titrations and their corresponding curves), Applications of UV and VISIBLE
spectroscopies
UNIT III
IR , RAMAN AND ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY
10
Theory of IR spectroscopy, Various stretching and vibration modes for diatomic and triatomic
molecules (both linear and nonlinear), various ranges of IR (Near, Mid, Finger print and Far)
and their usefulness, Instrumentation (Only the sources and detectors used in different
regions), sample preparation techniques, Applications.Raman spectroscopy: Theory,
Differences between IR and Raman. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Principle,
Instrumentation (Types of burners, Types of fuels, Hollow cathode lamp, Chopper only) and
Applications, Various interferences observed in AAS (Chemical, radiation and excitation)
Flame photometry: Principle, Instrumentation, quantitative analysis (Standard addition
method and internal standard method) and applications
Differences between AAS and FES.
UNIT IV THERMAL METHODS:
5
Thermogravimetry: Theory and Instrumentation, factors affecting the shapes of thermograms
(Sample Characteristics and instrumental characteristics), thermograms of some important
compounds (CuSO4. 5H2O, CaC2O4. 2H2O, MgC2O4, Ag2CrO4, Hg2CrO4, AgNO3 etc),
applications. Differential thermal analysis: Principle, Instrumentation and applications,
differences between DSC and DTA. Applications of DSC (Inorganic and Polymer samples)
6. CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS:
6
Classification of chromatographic methods, Column, Thin layer, Paper, Gas, High
Performance Liquid Chromatographical methods (Principle, mode of separation and
Technique). Separation of organic compounds by column and Thin layer, mixure of Cu, Co
and Ni by Paper, separation of amino acids by paper, estimation of organic compounds by
GC and HPLC
Total = 45
REFERENCES
1. Willard, H.H., Merritt.l.l., Dean J.a., and Settle,F.A., Instrumental methods of analysis,
Sixth edition, CBS publishers,1986
5
2. Skoog D.A and West D.M, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, Saunders -college
Publishing, 1982.
3. Banwell, G.C., Fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, TMH,1992.
4. A.I. Vogel's Quantitative Inorganic analysis . V Edition
5. Day R.A Underwood A.L Qualitative Inorganic analysis ( A. I. Vogel).
V Edition, Prentice-Hall of India ( P) Ltd, NewDelhi
6. Sharma, B.K., Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Goel publishing House,1995
7. Kalsi .P.S. Spectroscopy of organic compounds, 6th Edition, New Age International
Publishers,2006
8. William Kemp, Organic Spectroscopy, 3rd Edition, Palgrave publishers, 2007
9. Sathya Narayana. D. N. Vibrational Spectroscopy, First Edition 2004 and Reprint 2005,
New Age International publishers.
CH 9203 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
3 0 0 3
AIM
To given them knowledge on structural, Mechanical properties of Beams, columns.
OBJECTIVES
The students will be able to design the support column, beams, pipelines, storage
tanks and reaction columns and tanks after undergoing this course. This is precursor
for the study on process equipment design and drawing.
UNIT I
STRESS, STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS
9
Rigid bodies and deformable solids – forces on solids and supports – equilibrium and stability
– strength and stiffness – tension, compression and shear stresses – Hooke’s law and simple
problems – compound bars – thermal stresses – elastic constants and poission’s ratio –
welded joints – design.
UNIT II
9
Beams – support conditions – types of Beams – transverse loading on beams – shear force
and bending moment in beams – analysis of cantilevers, simply – supported beams and over
hanging beams – relationships between loading, S.F. and B.M. In beams and their
applications – S.F.&amp; B.M. diagrams.
UNIT III
DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS
9
Double integration method – Macaulay’s method – Area – moment theorems for computation
of slopes and deflections in beams – conjugate beam method
UNIT IV
STRESSES IN BEAMS
9
Theory of simple bending – assumptions and derivation of bending equation (M/I = F/Y = E/R)
– analysis of stresses in beams – loads carrying capacity of beams – proportioning beam
sections – leaf springs – flitched beams – shear stress distribution in beams – determination
of shear stress in flanged beams.
UNIT V
TORSION
9
Torsion of circular shafts – derivation of torsion equation (T/J = C/R = G0/L) – stress and
deformation in circular and hollow shafts – stresses and deformation in circular and hollow
shafts – stepped shafts – shafts fixed at both ends – stresses in helical springs – deflection of
springs – spring constant
UNIT VI
COLUMNS
6
Axially loaded short columns – columns of unsymmetrical sections – Euler’s theory of long
columns – critical loads for prismatic columns with different end conditions – effect of
eccentricity.
TOTAL : 45
TEXT BOOKS
1.
2.
Junarkar, S.B., Mechanics of Structure Vol. 1, 21st Edition, Character Publishing
House, Anand, Indian, (1995)
William A.Nash, Theory and Problems of Strength of Materials, Schaum’s Outline
Series. McGraw Hill International Editions, Third Edition, 1994.
REFERENCE
1.
Elangovan, A., Thinma Visai Iyal (Mechanics of Solids in Tamil), Anna University,
CH 9204 BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
3 0 0 3
AIM
To impart knowledge on thermodynamics and thermal engineering power generating units
such as engines and theory of machines
OBJECTIVE
Students should learn thermodynamics and thermal engineering to understand the
principles behind the operation of thermal equipments like IC engines and turbines etc.,
Students should be able to appreciate the theory behind operation of machinery and be
able to design simple mechanisms
UNIT 1:
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
10
Basic concepts and hints; Zeroth law; First Law of Thermodynamics - Statement
and application; Steady flow energy equation-problems- Second law of Thermodynamics
– Kelvin - Plank statement and Clausius statement- problems; Limitations; Heat Engine,
Refrigerator and Heat Pump, Available energy, Equivalence entropy; Reversibility:
Entropy charts; Third law of Thermodynamics - Statement.
UNIT 2:
HEATING AND EXPANSION OF GASES
6
Expressions for work done, Internal energy and heat transfer for Constant Pressure,
Constant Volume, Isothermal, Adiabatic and Polytropic processes-Derivations and
problems; Free expansion and Throttling process.
UNIT 3:
AIR STANDARD CYCLES
6
Carnot cycle; Stirlings cycle; Joule cycle; Otto cycle; Diesel cycle; Dual combustion
Cycle- Derivations and problems.
UNIT 4: I.C. ENGINES, STEAM AND ITS PROPERTIES AND STEAM
TURBINES
12
Engine nomenclature and classification; SI Engine; CI Engine; Four Stroke cycle,
Two stroke cycle; Performance of I.C.Engine; Brake thermal efficiency; Indicated Thermal
Efficiency, Specific fuel consumption.
7
Steam - Properties of steam; Dryness fraction; latent heat; Total heat of wet steam; Dry
steam; Superheated steam. Use of steam tables; volume of wet steam, volume of
superheated steam; External work of evaporation; Internal energy; Entropy of vapour,
Expansion of vapour, Rankine cycle.
Steam turbines – Impulse and Reaction types - Principles of operation.
UNIT 5 : SIMPLE MECHANISM, FLY WHEEL, DRIVES AND BALANCING
11
Definition of Kinematic Links, Pairs and Kinematic Chains; Working principle of Slider
Crank mechanism and inversions; Double slider crank mechanism and inversions.
Flywheel-Turning moment Diagram; Fluctuation of Energy.
Belt and rope drives; Velocity ratio; slip; Creep; Ratio of tensions; Length of belt; Power
Transmitted; gear trains-types.
Balancing of rotating masses in same plane; Balancing of masses rotating in different
planes.
Total Number of Periods = 45
Text Books:
1. Nag, P.K., &quot; Engineering Thermodynamics &quot;, II Edition, Tata McGraw
Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 1995.
2. Rajput, R .K, “Thermal Engineering”, Laxmi publications (P) Ltd, 2001.
3. Khurmi R.S., and Gupta J.K, “Theory of Machines”, Eurasia Publishing
House (P) Ltd., 2004.
References Books
1. Smith, &quot; Chemical Thermodynamics &quot;, Reinhold Publishing Co., 1977.
2. Bhaskaran, K.A., and Venkatesh, A., &quot; Engineering Thermodynamics &quot;,
3. Tata McGraw Hill, 1973.
4. Pandya A. and Shah, &quot; Theory of Machines &quot;, Charatakar Publishers, 1975.
5. Khurmi R.S., and Gupta J.K, “Thermal Engineering”, S.Chand &amp; Company (P)
Ltd.,2001.
6. Kothandaraman and Dhomkundwar,”: A course in Thermal Engineering (SI Units)”,
Dhanpat Rai and Sons, Delhi (2001)
8
CH 9205 PROCESS CALCULATIONS
L
3
T
0
P
0
C
3
AIM
The aim of this course is to give fundamental knowledge on material and energy
OBJECTIVES
To teach concept of degree of freedom and its application to solution of mass and energy
balance equations for single and network of units and introduce to process simulators.
UNIT I
6
Units, dimensions and conversion; Process variables and properties; Degree of freedom;
UNIT II
11
Concept of material balance Material balance calculations not involving and involving single
and multiple reactions including combustion Material balance calculations involving phase
change
UNIT III
11
Heat capacity; Calculation of enthalpy changes without phase change; Energy balance
calculations without and with reactions including combustion.
UNIT IV
11
Simultaneous material and energy balance calculations for Humidification, vaporization,
condensation, mixing, crystallization.
UNIT V
6
Material balance and energy balance calculations for network of units without and with
recycle. Demonstration of ASPEN Process Simulator
L = 45; Total number of periods = 45
TEXT BOOKS
1. Himmelblau, D.M., &quot;Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering &quot;, EEE
Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., 2003
2. Bhatt, B.L., Vora, S.M., &quot;Stoichiometry &quot;, 4th Edition,Tata McGraw-Hill (2004)
3. Felder, R. M. and Rousseau, R. W., “Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes”,3rd Edn., John Wiley &amp; Sons, New York, 2000.
REFERENCES
1. Hougen O A, Watson K M and Ragatz R A, “Chemical process principles” Part I, CBS
publishers (1973).
CH 9206 FLUID MECHANICS
3 0 0 3
AIM
To understand the principles and applications fluid mechanics.
OBJECTIVES
To impart to the student knowledge on fluid properties, fluid statics, dynamic characteristics
for through pipes and porous medium, flow measurement and fluid machineries
9
UNIT I
6
Methods of analysis and description - fluid as a continuum – Velocity and stress field Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids – Classification of fluid motion
UNIT II
9
Fluid statics – basic equation - equilibrium of fluid element – pressure variation in a static fluid
- application to manometry – Differential analysis of fluid motion – continuity, Euler’s and
Bernoulli equation
UNIT III
9
The principle of dimensional homogeneity – dimensional analysis, the Pi-theorem - nondimensional action of the basic equations - similitude - relationship between dimensional
analysis and similitude - use of dimensional analysis for scale up studies
UNIT IV
12
Reynolds number regimes, internal flow - flow through pipes – pressure drop under laminar
and turbulent flow conditions – major and minor losses; Line sizing; External flows - boundary
layer concepts, boundary layer thickness under laminar and turbulent flow conditions- Flow
over a sphere – friction and pressure drag - flow through fixed and fluidized beds.
UNIT V
9
Flow measurement - Constant and variable head meters; Velocity measurement techniques;
Types, characteristics and sizing of valves; Classification, performance characteristics and
sizing of pumps, compressors and fans
L = 45; Total number of periods = 45
Text Books
1. Noel de Nevers, &quot;Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers &quot;, Second Edition,
McGraw-Hill, (1991).
2. Munson, B. R., Young, D.F., Okiishi, T.H. “Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics”, 5th
Edition“, John Wiley, 2006
References
1. White, F.M., &quot;Fluid Mechanics &quot;, IV Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1999.
2. James O Wilkes and Stacy G Bike, “Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers’
Prentice Hall PTR (International series in Chemical Engineering) (1999)
3. McCabe W.L, Smith, J C and Harriot. P “Unit operations in Chemical Engineering”,
McGraw Hill, V Edition, 2001
III SEMESTER
CY 9212 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LAB
(Common to Chemical and Petroleum Refining &amp; Petrochemicals )
L
0
T
0
P C
4 2
OBJECTIVE
To learn basic principles involved in analysis and synthesis of different organic derivatives.
1. Analysis of nature of organic compounds – To identify aliphatic/aromatic,
saturated/unsaturated compounds.
10
2. Identification and characterization of various functional groups by their characteristic
reactions: a) alcohol, b) aldehyde, c) ketone, d) carboxylic acid, e) phenol, f) ester,
g) primary, secondary and tertiary amines h) amide i) nitro compounds.
3. Analysis of an unknown organic compound and preparation of suitable solid
derivatives.
4. Analysis of carbohydrates.
5. Analysis of proteins.
6. Methodology of filtration and recrystallization.
7. Introduction to organic synthetic procedures:
i.
Acetylation – Preparation of acetanilide from aniline.
ii.
Hydrolysis – Preparation of salycilic acid from methyl salyciliate.
iii.
Substitution – Conversion of acetone to iodoform.
iv.
Nitration – Preparation of m-dinitrobenzene from nitrobenzene.
v.
Oxidation – Preparation of benzoic acid from benzaldehyde/ benzyl
alcohol
Total Number of Periods = 60
Reference Manual
1. Organic
Chemistry Lab
Manual, Chemistry Division, Chemical Engineering
Department, A.C.Tech, Anna University (2007).
CH9208 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
L T P C
0 0 4 2
AIM
To provide the practical knowledge and control methods of electrical machines
OBJECTIVE
To impart practical knowledge on
I. Characteristic of different machines
II. Method of speed control of machines
III. Measurement of various electrical parameters
1.
Study of DC &amp; AC Starters
2.
Study of Transducers
3.
Wheatstone Bridge and Schering Bridge
4.
11
5.
Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor
6.
Load Test on DC Shunt Motor
7.
OCC &amp; Load Characteristics of DC Shunt Generator
8.
9.
Load Test on Three-Phase Induction Motor
10.
Load Test on Single-Phase Induction Motor.
MA 9262 NUMERICAL METHODS
L
3
T
1
Aim:
This course gives a complete procedure for solving numerically different kinds of
problems occurring in engineering and technology.
Objectives:
The students would be acquainted with the basic concepts of
numerical methods and their applications.
1. SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS
9 +3
Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations – Fixed point iteration method –
Newton-Raphson method – Solution of linear system of equations – Gauss Elimination
method – Pivoting – Gauss-Jordan methods – Matrix Inversion by Gauss-Jordan method
– Iterative methods of Gauss-Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel – Eigenvalues of a matrix by
Power method and by Jacobi’s method.
2. INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION
9+3
Interpolation with unequal intervals – Lagrange interpolation – Newton’s divided difference
interpolation – Cubic Splines – Interpolation with equal intervals – Newton’s forward and
backward difference formulae.
3. NUMERICAL DIFFERENTATION AND INTEGRATION
9+3
Approximation of derivatives using interpolation polynomials – Numerical integration using
Trapezoidal, Simpson’s 1/3 and Simpson’s 3/8 rules – Romberg’s method – Two point
and three point Gaussian quadrature formulae – Evaluation of double integrals by
Trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.
4. INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
9+3
Single step-methods – Taylor’s series method – Euler’s method – Fourth order RungeKutta method for solving first and second order equations – Multi-step methods – Milne’s
and Adams-Bashforth predictor-corrector methods for solving first order equations.
5. BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
9+3
Finite difference methods for solving two-point linear boundary value problems. Finite
difference techniques for the solution of two dimensional Laplace’s and Poisson’s
equations on rectangular domain – One dimensional heat-flow equation by explicit and
implicit (Crank Nicholson) methods - One dimensional wave equation by explicit method.
L: 45, T: 15, Total : 60
12
P
0
C
4
TEXT BOOKS
1. Grewal, B.S. and Grewal,J.S., “ Numerical methods in Engineering and Science”, 6 th
Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, (2004).
2. Sankara Rao, K. “Numerical methods for Scientists and Engineers’, 3rd Edition Prentice
Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, (2007).
REFERENCES
1. Chapra, S. C and Canale, R. P. “Numerical Methods for Engineers”, 5 th Edition, Tata
McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, (2007).
2. Gerald, C. F. and Wheatley, P. O., “Applied Numerical Analysis”, 6th Edition, Pearson
Education Asia, New Delhi, (2006).
3. Brian Bradie, “A friendly introduction to Numerical analysis”, Pearson Education Asia,
New Delhi, (2007).
CY 9261 PHYSICAL CHEMSITRY
(Common to Chemical, Textile, Leather and Petroleum Refining &amp; Petrochemicals )
L T
3 0
P
0
C
3
AIM
To know the basic concepts of physical chemistry and its applications.
OBJECTIVES
To acquire knowledge in the field of electrochemistry, solubility behaviour, chemical reaction
kinetics, photochemical reactions and colloidal chemistry towards different applications.
UNIT I ELECTROCHEMISTRY
9
Electrical conductance – Specific conductance – Equivalent conductance – variation with
dilution – Kohlrausch’s law – Transport number – Galvanic cells – EMF and its measurement
– Reference electrode – Standard Hydrogen electrode – Nernst equation - Electrochemical
series – Applications of EMF measurements: Fuel cells – Hydrogen -Oxygen fuel cell –
Chemical and electrochemical corrosion – Corrosion control – Different methods.
UNIT II IONIC EQUILIBRIA
9
Acids and bases – Arrhenius concept – Lewis concept – Dissociation of weak acid, weak
base – Ionic product of water – Buffer solutions – calculation of pH – Henderson’s equation –
Hydrolysis of salts – Degree of hydrolysis – Determination – acid-base indicators – their
applications – solubility product principle – Ionic equilibria involving complex ions.
UNIT III CHEMICAL KINETICS
9
Order of a reaction – Zero order, First order, Second order and Third order reactions –
Molecualrity of a reaction – Unimolecular and Bimolecular reactions – Experimental methods
of determining order of a reaction – Kinetics of parallel and opposing reactions – Concept of
13
activation energy – Arrhenius equation – Collision theory of reaction rates – Theory of
absolute reaction rates – Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions.
UNIT IV PHOTOCHEMISTRY
9
Laws of Photochemistry, Quantum efficiency, Photochemical reactions, Actinometry, Kinetics
and mechanism of Hydrogen – Bromine reaction, Hydrogen – Chlorine reaction –
Photosensitization, Chemiluminscence.
UNIT V COLLOIDS
9
Introduction to colloids – properties of colloids – coagulation of solutions – Origin of charge on
colloidal particles – Determination of size of colloidal particles – Donnan Membrane
equilibrium – Emulsions – Gels – Applications of colloids – Nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pt) –
Preparation – Characterization – Properties – Application in catalysis and drug delivery
systems.
Total Number of Periods = 45
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Kund and Jain, Physical Chemistry, S.Chand and Company, New Delhi (1996).
2. Puri B.H. Sharma L.R. and M.S.Prathama, “Principles of Physical Chemisry”,
S.Chand and Company, New Delhi (2001).
3. B.S.Bahl, Arun Bahl and G.D.Tuli, “Essentials of Physical Chemistry”, S.Chand and
Company, New Delhi (2005).
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Gordon M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry, Sixth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill (1998).
2. Peter Atkins &amp; Julio de Paula, Atkins’ Physical Chemistry, 7th Edition, Offord
university press. (2002).
14
PH 9166 MATERIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
3003
3
AIM
To impart knowledge in material properties and manufacturing methods
OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to understand various material and its properties and manufacturing
methods
UNIT 1
Selection criteria and processes: General criteria of selection of materials in process
industries.
Properties:
Mechanical,
Thermal,
Chemical,
Electrical,
Magnetic
and
Technological properties. Processing of Metals and Alloys- Casting, Hot and cold rolling,
Forging, Extrusion, Deep drawing.
UNIT 2
M
Elastic, Anelastic and Viscoelastic Behaviour – Plastic Deformation by Slip: Critical resolved
shear stress, Mechanism of Creep, Creep Resistant Materials – Fracture: Ductile and Brittle ,
Fatigue fracture, Griffith’s theory, S-N curves , Fracture toughness
UNIT 3
P
Gibb’s Phase rule : Uniary and Binary phase diagrams , Al2O3 - Cr2O3 , Pb-Sn, Ag-Pt and
Iron- Iron Carbide Phase Diagram – Lever rule – Invariant reactions- TTT diagrams – Micro
structural changes – Nucleation and growth – Martensitic transformations – Solidification and
Crystallization – Glass transition – Recrystallization and Grain growth
UNIT 4
F
Pig iron, Cast iron, Mild Steel-properties, Applications and Manufacturing methods; Stainless
steels, Special Alloy steels-properties and uses; Heat treatment of plain-carbon steels.
Manufacturing methods of Lead, Tin and Magnesium. Properties and applications in process
industries
FRP-Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP), Different types of manufacturing methods; Asphalt and
Asphalt mixtures; Wood
UNIT 5
N
Introduction to Nanotechnology- Zero Dimensional Nano Structures – Nano particles – One
Dimensional Nano Structures- Nano wires and Nano rods – Two Dimensional Nano
Structures, Films – Special Nano Materials - Nano Structures fabricated by Physical
Techniques – Characterisation and Properties of Nano Materials – Applications of Nano
Structures.
15
Text Books
1. Khanna O P, “Material Science and metallurgy” Dhnapat Rai Publications (1995)
2. Raghavan V, “Materials and Engineering” Prentice Hall of India, Newdelhi (2006)
3. Brenner D, “Hand book of Nanoscience and technology” (2002)
References Books
1. Henry R Clauster, “Industrial and Engineering materials” McGraw Hill Book Co.
(1975)
2. Kingery W D and Bowen H K and Unimann D R, “Introduction to Ceramics” Jhon
Wiley and sons, Second edition (1991)
3. Fahrner W R, “Nanotechnology and Nanoeletronics” Springer International edition
(2005)
4. Budinsky K G and Budinsky K M “ Engineering materials- Properties and Selection”
Prentice Hall of India (2002)
5. Arumugam M, “ Material Science” Anuradha technical book publishers (1997)
CH 9253
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS- I
3 0 0 3
AIM
To introduce fundamental thermodynamic principles and their application
OBJECTIVES
Students will learn PVT behaviour of fluids, laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic property
relations and their application to fluid flow, power generation and refrigeration processes.
UNIT I
6
Scope of thermodynamics; Definition of system, control volume, state and path function,
equilibrium, reversibility, energy, work and heat. zeroth law; temperature scales
UNIT II
7
PVT behaviour of fluids; Mathematical representation of PVT behaviour; Generalized
compressibility factor correlation; Generalized equations of state
UNIT III
12
Joule’s experiment, internal energy, first law, energy balance for closed systems, mass and
energy balance for open systems Statements of the second law of thermodynamics, heat
engine and refrigerator, Carnot cycle and Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature
scale, entropy and its calculation, second law of thermodynamics for a control volume, Third
law of thermodynamics, entropy from a microscopic point of view.
16
UNIT IV
12
Thermodynamic potentials – internal energy, enthalpy, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free
energy; thermodynamic property relations – Maxwell relations – partial derivatives and
Jacobian method; residual properties; thermodynamic property tables and diagrams
UNIT V
8
Duct flow of compressible fluids, Compression and expansion processes, steam power plant,
internal combustion engines, jet and rocket engines, refrigeration – vapour compression and
absorption refrigeration cycles; liquefaction processes.
L = 45; Total number of periods = 45
Text Book
1. Smith, J.M., Van Ness, H.C and Abbot M.M &quot;Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics &quot;, McGraw Hill Publishers, VI edition, 2003
2. Narayanan, K.V. A Textbook of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Prentice
Hall India, 2004
References
1. Kyle, B.G., &quot;Chemical and Process Thermodynamics III Edition&quot;, Prentice Hall of
India Pvt. Ltd., 1999.
2. Elliott J.R., Lira, C.T., “Introductory chemical engineering thermodynamics”, Prentice
Hall, 1998
3. Rao, Y.V.C., “Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics” Universities Press, 2005
CH 9254 MECHANICAL OPERATIONS
3 0 0 3
AIM
To impart knowledge on solid handling and solid liquid separation
OBJECTIVES
The students will learn characterization of solids, size reduction, techniques of solid –
fluid separation and mixing
UNIT I
9
General characteristics of solids, different techniques of size analysis, shape factor, surface
area determination, estimation of particle size. Screening methods and equipment, screen
efficiency, ideal and actual screens.
UNIT II
9
Laws of size reduction, energy relationships in size reduction, methods of size reduction,
classification of equipments, crushers, grinders, disintegrators for coarse, intermediate and
fine grinding, power requirement, work index; size enlargement - principle of granulation,
briquetting, pelletisation, and flocculation.
UNIT III
9
Gravity settling, sedimentation, thickening, elutriation, double cone classifier, rake classifier,
bowl classifier. Centrifugal separation - continuous centrifuges, super centrifuges, design of
basket centrifuges; industrial dust removing equipment, cyclones and hydro cyclones,
electrostatic and magnetic separators, heavy media separations, floatation, jigging
UNIT IV
9
Theory of filtration, Batch and continuous filters, Flow through filter cake and filter media,
compressible and incompressible filter cakes, filtration equipments - selection, operation and
design of filters and optimum cycle of operation, filter aids.
17
UNIT V
9
Mixing and agitation - Mixing of liquids (with or without solids), mixing of powders, selection of
suitable mixers, power requirement for mixing. Storage and Conveying of solids - Bunkers,
silos, bins and hoppers, transportation of solids in bulk, conveyer selection, different types of
conveyers and their performance characteristics.
L = 45; Total number of periods = 45
Text Book
1. McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C., and Harriot, P., &quot;Unit Operations in Chemical
Engineering&quot;, 6th Edn., McGraw-Hill, 2001.
2. Badger W.L. and Banchero J.T., &quot;Introduction to Chemical Engineering&quot;, Tata
McGraw Hill, 1997.
3. Foust, A. S., Wenzel, L.A., Clump, C.W., Naus, L., and Anderson, L.B., &quot;Principles of
Unit Operations&quot;, 2nd Edn., John Wiley &amp; Sons, 1994.
References
1. Coulson, J.M. and Richardson, J.F., &quot;Chemical Engineering&quot; Vol. I, 4 th Edn., Asian
Books Pvt. Ltd., India, 1998.
CH 9255 HEAT TRANSFER
3 0 0 3
AIM
To understand the principles and applications heat transfer
OBJECTIVES
To learn heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation and heat transfer equipments
like evaporator and heat exchanger
UNIT I
9
Importance of heat transfer in Chemical Engineering operations - Modes of heat transfer Fourier's law of heat conduction - one dimensional steady state heat conduction equation for
flat plate, hollow cylinder, - Heat conduction through a series of resistances - Thermal
conductivity measurement; effect of temperature on thermal conductivity; Heat transfer in
extended surfaces.
UNIT II
9
Concepts of heat transfer by convection - Natural and forced convection, analogies between
transfer of momentum and heat - Reynold’s analogy, Prandtl and Coulburn analogy.
Dimensional analysis in heat transfer, Correlations for the calculation of heat transfer
coefficients, heat transfer coefficient for flow through a pipe, flow through a non circular
conduit, flow past flat plate, flow through packed beds. Heat transfer by natural convection.
UNIT III
9
Heat transfer to fluids with phase change - heat transfer from condensing vapours, drop wise
and film wise condensation, Nusselt equation for vertical and horizontal tubes, condensation
of superheated vapours, effect of non-condensable gasses on rate of condensation. Heat
transfer to boiling liquids - mechanism of boiling, nucleate boiling and film boiling.
UNIT IV
9
Theory of evaporation - single effect and multiple effect evaporation - Design calculation for
single and multiple effect evaporation. Radiation heat transfer - Emissive power, Black body
18
UNIT V
9
Parallel and counter flow heat exchangers - Log mean temperature difference - Single pass
and multipass heat exchangers; plate heat exchangers; use of correction factor charts; heat
exchangers effectiveness; number of transfer unit - Chart for different configurations - Fouling
factors
L = 45; Total number of periods = 45
Text Books
1. Holman, J. P., ‘Heat Transfer ’, 8th Edn., McGraw Hill, 1997.
2. Ozisik, M. N., Heat Transfer: A Basic Approach, McGraw-Hill, 1984
3. Kern, D.Q., &quot;Process Heat Transfer &quot;, McGraw-Hill, 1999.
Reference
1. McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C., and Harriot, P., &quot;Unit Operations in Chemical
Engineering&quot;, 6th Edn., McGraw-Hill, 2001.
2. Coulson, J.M. and Richardson, J.F., &quot;Chemical Engineering &quot; Vol. I, 4th Edn., Asian
Books Pvt. Ltd., India, 1998.
CY 9262 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS LAB
(Common to Chemical and Petroleum Refining &amp; Petrochemicals)
L
0
T
0
P
4
C
2
OBJECTIVE
To learn basic principles involved in estimation and characterization of industrially important
materials.
I. Soap Analysis
a. Estimation of total fatty acid
b. Estimation of percentage alkali content
II. Oil Analysis
a. Estimation of free acid
b. Determination of Saponification value
c. Determination of iodine value
III. Cement Analysis
a. Estimation of Silica content
b. Estimation of mixed oxide content
c. Estimation of calcium oxide content
d. Estimation of calcium oxide by rapid method
IV. Coal Analysis
a. Estimation of Sulphur present in coal
b. Ultimate analysis of coal
c. Proximate analysis of coal
V. Analysis of Bleaching Powder
a. Estimation of available chlorine
VI. Analysis of Glycerol
a. Estimation of purity of glycerol
VII. Analysis of fuels
a. Flash point
b. Fire point c. Cloud point d. Pour point e. Aniline point.
19
Total Number of Periods = 60
REFERENCE MANUAL
Technical Analysis Manual, Chemistry Division, Chemical Engineering Department, A.C.Tech,
Anna University (2007).
CH 9257 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LAB
0
0
4
2
AIM
To impart practical knowledge in operating IC engines and conduct experiments. To
understand test procedures in testing material for engineering applications
OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to understand Power-generating units such as engines and operate
IC engines and conduct tests. They will be able to appreciate the theory behind the
functioning of engines. Material properties, their behavior under different kinds of loading
and testing can be visualized.
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS *
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Port timing diagram
Valve timing diagram
Study of 2,4 stroke I C Engines
Load test on 4-stroke petrol engine
Performance test on 4-stroke single cylinder diesel engine
Performance test on 4-stroke twin cylinder diesel engine
Heat balance test on diesel engines
Tension test
Compression test
Deflection test
Hardness test (Rockwell and Brinell)
Spring test
Torsion test
Impact test
Total Number of Periods = 60
* Minimum 10 experiments shall be offered
20
CH 9258 FLUID MECHANICS LAB
0 0 4 2
AIM
To understand the concepts of fluid mechanics through experiments
OBJECTIVES
To learn experimentally to calibrate flowmeters, find pressure loss for fluid flows and
determine pump characteristics.
List of Experiments
1. Viscosity measurement of non Newtonian fluids
2. Calibration of constant and variable head meters
3. Calibration of weirs and notches
4. Open drum orifice and draining time
5. Flow through straight pipe
6. Flow through annular pipe
7. Flow through helical coil and spiral coil
8. Losses in pipe fittings and valves
9. Characteristic curves of pumps
10. Pressure drop studies in packed column
11. Hydrodynamics of fluidized bed
12. Drag coefficient of solid particle
Equipments required
1. Viscometer
2. Venturi meter
3. Orifice meter
4. Rotameter
5. Weir
6. Open drum with orifice
7. Pipes and fittings
8. Helical and spiral coils
9. Centrifugal pump
10. Packed column
11. Fluidized bed
P = 60; Total number of periods = 60
21
```