Chapter 6 Notes: Ancient Greece

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Chapter 6 Notes: Ancient Greece
1.
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Geography and Trojan War: Beginnings of Greece
Greece is a peninsula, mts. make up most of the islands
Not good for growing crops (only 1/5 of land)
Became good traders and sailors by using the Med. Sea
Mts. cut off small communities from each other, so ancient Greek communites
thought of themselves as different countries or city-states (a lot of fighting
among themselves)
- Trojan War-Greeks trace beginnings back to stories and myths, famous stories
or epics about the Trojan War (Iliad and the Odyssey) - see handout
Dark Ages:
- Greek civilization collapsed, poverty was everywhere, writing disappeared and
so did the civilization
Greek Government:
- early gov’t was ruled by aristocracy (rich and powerful families)
- next came tyrants- ruler seizes power by force, support of working class
- lastly democracy- citizens govern themselves (Athens)
2.
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3.
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Arts, Philosophy and Literature
Golden Age- amazing achievements in arts, literature, philosophy
architecture (built Parthenon- temple to Goddess Athena)
philosophers (explained things through reason, not nature) Socrates, Plato,
Aristotle
Greeks were first people to write dramas or plays known as tragedies, and
performed comedies as well
City-states may have fought, but all part of Greek culture, one example is they
began Olympic Games (wrestling, javelin, discus, running)
Greek Religion, Mythology
polytheistic religion, honor their gods and try to please their gods
Greek religion explained nature (similar to Egyptian religion)
See mythology in our world today (literature, art, advertising)
see handout, chart on Gods, Goddesses, description, and symbols
4. Daily Life of Ancient Greeks (Athens)
- Acropolis (center of Athens' religious life), Agora (center of public life), the
public market, shops with food, wool, tools, books, cloth, etc.
- Life at home- homes centered around a courtyard, had bathrooms, food
consisted of cheese, olives, breads, fruit, fish, cakes
- Women spent days in the home (could not take part in politics, or own
property), in charge of weaving, children, cooking
- Slaves-almost no rights, did all the work men should do, allowed men to be in
gov’t and arts
5. Athens and Sparta
- Athens- citizens free and open
- Sparta- life was harsh and cruel, life was in the hands of the gov't, focused on
military, Always put needs of city before your own
- Boys training began at age 7, official soldier by age 20
- Girls allowed to train and fight (to have healthy children), women much
greater role (own land, business)
- Spartans no interest in arts, wealth or trade, not allowed to travel
- Persians invade Greece, (landed at Marathon 25 miles north of Athens) Athens
defeated Persians by rushing at them over the 25 miles
- Athens became powerful, acted unfairly towards other city-states,
- Sparta went to war with Athens (lasted 27 years- Peloponnesian War), Athens
struck by a plague, lost to Sparta
6. Spread of Greek Culture
- King Philip conquers and unites all city-states of Greece, Alexander the Great
takes over at 20
- Expanded the empire, genius conqueror
- Wanted new lands to mix with Greek culture (Hellenistic)
- Alexandria new capital of Egypt, math and science flourished
- Learned about pulleys and levers (mathmetician named Archimedes)
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