1. Roughly, how large was the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill? How many gallons of oil leaked?
2. Where and when did the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill occur?
3. Briefly describe three different impacts this oil spill has had on humans.
4. List three different fisheries that might be affected by the oil spill.
5. Biologically, how can the oil plumes be degraded or broken down?
6. List six different biological effects of the oil spill on the affected environment and animal life.
7. List two different specific effects of the oil spill on birds.
8. List two different specific effects of the oil spill on marine mammals.
9. What is the Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico? What causes it?
10. Briefly describe or draw a diagram to show the levels of organization of life (the hierarchy of life
from atoms to biosphere).
11. Define the following: biosphere, ecosystem, habitat
12. Define the following terms: homeostasis, tissue, organ.
13. Define the following terms: ecology, food web, trophic level.
14. How does a population differ from a community?
15. Draw simple flowcharts of examples of both a terrestrial and an aquatic food chain and label the
various trophic levels.
16. Why is decomposition so important to the survival of animals? What types of organisms perform
most decomposition?
17. What is a top predator in an ecosystem? Give an example of a top predator.
18. What is mimicry?
19. What one molecule is an absolute requirement for life as we know it?
20. List the four most important atoms that form biologically important molecules?
21. Why is carbon so important to life on earth? What does carbon form?
22. Briefly describe the scientific method.
23. Why is the observation portion of the scientific method so critical?
24. What is an hypothesis? How does a theory differ from an hypothesis?
25. How does a control group differ from an experimental group?
26. Why is it important for scientists to replicate their experiments?
27. Briefly describe the basic characteristics of each of Whitaker’s 5 Kingdoms of Life.
28. Briefly describe the basic characteristics of each of Woese’s 3 Domains of Life.
29. Define the following terms: continental drift, plate tectonics.
30. What does continental drift have to do with biogeography?
31. What was Pangaea? How long ago did Pangaea start to break apart?
32. What is chronobiology? Has the length of a day always been the same on planet Earth?
33. What is a circadian rhythm? Give an example that occurs in animals.
34. How does an infradian rhythm differ from an ultradian rhythm? Give an example of each that
occurs in animals.
35. What are their seasons on Earth? Specifically, why do we have seasons?
36. Why do most temperate animals reproduce seasonally and not all year long?
37. What is a biome? Give four examples of different biomes.
38. What is the Red Shift and how does it relate to the theory of the Big Bang?
39. Roughly, how old is the universe based on the Big Bang theory?
40. Roughly, when did Earth first begin to form?
41. What is the Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis?
42. What experiment did Stanley Miller and Harold Urey do that helped provide evidence for the
Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis?
43. What is a ribozyme?
44. Which probably evolved first RNA or DNA?
45. Basically, how was the atmosphere of early earth different from the atmosphere we experience
46. Draw a simple timeline to show when each of the following events occurred in the history of life on
 end of the major bombardment to form the planet
 first prokaryotic cells/bacteria
 first evolution of photosynthesis
 increased oxygen level in the atmosphere
 development of an ozone layer in the atmosphere
 first eukaryotic cells
 first multicellular life
 Cambrian Explosion
 age of the fishes
 age of the dinosaurs
 the Cretaceous Extinction
 evolution of modern man (Homo sapiens)
47. Define these terms: organic compound, macromolecule, monomer, polymer.
48. How does a monosaccharide differ from a disaccharide or a polysaccharide? Provide specific
examples of each.
49. Is fat a lipid? What is a lipid?
50. What is a phospholipid?
51. List two different reasons why cholesterol is important to the body? What type of macromolecule is
52. What is a peptide? What is a protein?
53. What is the primary structure of a protein?
54. What is the secondary structure of a protein?
55. How does the tertiary structure of a protein differ from the quaternary structure of a protein?
56. What are two different types of nucleic acids?
57. What is a nucleotide? What are the three basic parts of a nucleotide?
58. List 3 structural differences between RNA and DNA.
59. Where is RNA found inside cells? Where is DNA found inside cells?
60. What is an enzyme?
61. How do enzymes act as catalysts? Are enzymes specific and selective? If so, why?
62. What is a polar molecule? Is water polar?
63. What is a nonpolar molecule?
64. How does diffusion differ from osmosis?
65. How do hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic solutions differ from one another?
66. List 3 different reasons why water is important to life on Earth.
67. Is water a liquid, a solid or a gas at its greatest density?
68. What is hydrogen bonding ?
69. How does hydrogen bonding affect the density of water at different temperatures?
70. Draw a diagram to show the hydrogen bonding pattern changes as water transitions from ice to
liquid to steam.
71. Why does water have a high heat of vaporization (it takes a lot of heat to turn liquid water into
steam)? What does this have to do with regulating body temperature in humans and environmental
temperatures near large bodies of water?
72. Why does water have a high heat capacity?
73. Briefly describe or draw a diagram to show the basic structure of a phospholipid.
74. What types of molecules comprise cell membranes in addition to phospholipids?
75. Describe and draw a diagram to show the basic structure of a cell membrane (show the Fluid
Mosaic Model).
76. List 3 basic tenets of the cell theory?
77. Who first coined the term “cell”?
78. Name 2 other scientists involved in developing the cell theory?
79. Which scientist discovered the cell nucleus?
80. What is an organelle?
81. List all of the organelles that can typically be found in eukaryotic cells.
82. Briefly describe the basic functions of all of the following organelles: cell membrane, mitochondria,
flagella, cilia, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,
lysosome, nucleus, ribosomes, cytoplasm, fibers of the cytoskeleton.
83. How is the function of a mitochondrion dependent on the function of a chloroplast?
84. What are the three major types of fibers that make up the cell cytoskeleton?
85. In addition to maintaining cell shape, what is another function of the cell cytoskeleton?
86. At the most basic level, what is a ribosome and what does it do?
87. Which organelles are found in animal cells? Which are found in plant cells?
88. Do bacterial cells possess organelles?
89. How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell?
90. What type of cell are bacteria? What type of cell are plant cells? Animal cells? (are they eukaryotic
or prokaryotic)?
91. Why is the surface to volume relationship important with regard to cell size (why is there an upper
limit to how large a cell can be)?
92. What is the advantage of compartmentalization of chemical reactions within the organelles of a
cell? (what does this allow for and what does is prevent?)
93. List three ways in which mitosis differs from meiosis.
94. Which type of cell division occurs in the gonads? Why?
95. What is crossing over and why is it important to the process of evolution in animals?
96. Define the following terms: autotrophy, heterotroph, phagocytosis, pinocytosis.
97. Know the basic parts of a microscope.
98. How is total magnification determined for a light microscope.
99. When using a microscope, what are some important techniques to keep in mind in order to
effectively utilize the microsope?
100. When using a pair of binoculars, what are some important techniques to keep in mind in order
to effectively utilize the binoculars?
101. Briefly describe the theory of endosymbiosis. What basic steps/processes are involved? When
in Earth's history might this first have occurred?
102. What is a metazoan?
103. Metazoans are a member of what eukaryotic clade of protists (from what lineage of protists did
animals evolve)?
104. Briefly describe one theory regarding the evolution of metazoans from unicellular protists. (eg.
colonial flagellate hypothesis)
105. What are some of the basic characteristics of a member of the Kingdom Protoctista?
106. How does a protist differ from a protozoan?
107. Describe the basic cytoskeletal structure of a eukaryotic flagellum (draw a cross sectional
diagram of a eukaryotic flagellum). What energy molecule is required to cause a flagellum to move
back and forth?
108. Basically, how does a cilium differs in structure from a flagellum.
109. Briefly describe the hypothesized mechanism for the movement of a pseudopodia which we
described in the text and in lecture.
110. What cellular structure varies in shape in the three major groups of ameba?
111. Given an example of a member of the Phylum Euglenozoa. What are some basic characteristics
of members of this phylum?
112. To what phylum do members of the genus Plasmodium belong? What are some basic
characteristics of members of this phylum?
113. To what phylum do members of the genus Paramecium belong? What are some basic
characteristics of members of this phylum?
114. Define: symbiosis, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism.
115. Briefly describe the symbiotic relationship between a hypermastid and its insect host.
116. What is the function of the contractile vacuoles in ciliates such as Paramecium?
117. What is osmoregulation? Why is osmoregulation so important to all animal cells?
118. In Paramecia, what changes occur in the micronucleus and the macronucleus during
conjugation? Which nucleus undergoes meiosis?
119. Relative to protozoa, what is encystment and why is it important to the life cycle of some
120. What organisms cause sleeping sickness? To what phylum do these organisms belong?
121. What are some symptoms of sleeping sickness?
122. Briefly describe the life cycle of Plasmodium? Which species of Plasmodium is responsible for
most cases of malaria? What are some symptoms of malaria?
123. What animal other than humans is a host for Plasmodium?
124. Briefly define the theory of natural selection?
125. Who was Alfred Russell Wallace and what role did he play in the development of the theory of
126. Define the terms: evolution, mass extinction, macroevolution, microevolution.
127. How did Lamarck’s theory of evolution differ from Darwin’s.
128. In taxonomy or the classification of living things, what are the 3 domains of life? What type of
organism is classified into each group?
129. What was the Cambrian Explosion?
130. How many Eons are recognized with regards to the geologic timeline of Earth? What are they
called? And roughly how many years ago did each begin?
131. What was Karl von Linne's (Carolus Linnaeus') major contribution to biological science?
132. What is meant by binomial nomenclature?
133. What taxa names are always italicized in an organism's scientific name?
134. In standard formatting of scientific names, is a genus capitalized? Is a species name
135. How does radial symmetry differ from bilateral symmetry with regard to animal form?
136. How does a vertebrate differ from an invertebrate? To which animal phylum do vertebrates
137. How do acoelomate, psuedocoelomate, and eucoelomate animals differ? To which group do
humans belong? Draw simple diagrams of cross sections to show the differences.
138. With regard to the formation of the digestive system, how does a protostome differ from a
139. Define the following terms: phylogeny, systematics, taxonomy
140. What are 4 different scientific techniques used for phylogenetic analysis to determine the
evolutionary relationship between different species’?
141. Define the following terms: homology, analogy, parallelism, convergence.
142. What is the ICZN? What does this stand for and why is it important to zoology?
143. What is ITIS (see the website)? What does it stand for and why is it useful to biology?
144. What are the four basic/primary tissue types seen in animals and what are the basic
characteristics of each type?
145. What is metamerism? (if an animal is metameric, what does this mean?)
146. What is cephalization? Why is cephalization important to the evolution of bilaterally
symmetrical animals?
147. What are some advantages of being multicellular (as opposed to being unicellular)?
148. Are their disadvantages to being multicellular as compared to being unicellular? If so, what?
149. What are the basic characteristics of each of the three classes of sponges?
150. How do asconoid, synconoid and leuconoid sponges differ in their body plans? What does
surface area have to do with these body plans?
151. Be able to describe the basic structure of a typical sponge using the following terms: osculum,
ostia, spongocoel, prosopyle, apopyle, flagellated or radial canal, spicules, incurrent canal, excurrent
canal. Be sure you can label a diagram showing these structures on a syconoid sponge.
152. What roles do each of the following cell types play in the physiology of poriferans: choanocytes,
archaeocytes/ameobocytes, pinacocytes.
153. Which type of sponge spicules dissolve in the presence of acid such as HCl?
154. How does a monoecious animal differ from a dioecious animal?
155. Define the following terms regarding protists and animals: binary fission, budding,
gemmulation, fragmentation.
156. How does aerobic cell respiration differ from anaerobic cell respiration (answer involves
157. How does alcoholic fermentation differ from lactic acid fermentation? What are the starting
products and ending molecules made during these processes? Are these processes more or less
efficient with regard to the amount of ATP made as compared to aerobic cell respiration?
158. Given the choice, why do yeast, muscle cells and other cells always choose aerobic cell
respiration if enough oxygen is available?
159. Which types of cell respiration produce carbon dioxide? From what molecule is carbon dioxide
derived from during cell respiration?
160. What does the abbreviation ATP stand for? Why is ATP useful to cells?
161. What are the three basic steps of aerobic cell respiration? In what specific part of the cell does
each step occur?
162. In which specific part of a mitochondrion does electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation
163. Basically, what molecules enter into and are produced from each of the following: glycolysis,
Kreb’s cycle, electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation, lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic
fermentation. (you do not need to learn or memorize any of the intermediate molecules or enzymes).